thofe only who feek to propagate a fpirit of party under the cloak of patriotifm, and who, in reality, have no other defign, than to break off the connection between the republic and its most ancient ally, the court of Pruffia.

The ftates declared in answer, that if their paft determination of establishing a separate commiffion for the war department had met the approbation of his Pruffian majefty, they hoped their fubfequent conduct on that and other fubjects would insure it in future-That it was by fuch conduct the republic wished to affure the king how much they efteemed his wisdom and approbation, as well as thereby to fecure the fafety of the republic, which he has kindly declared he holds fuperior to other important confiderations That, having declared himself ready to fulfil his engagements of alliance and guaranty with the ftates, the nation accepted it with a reciprocal defire, and with gratitude And, that his majefty, in offering fuch generous and friendly terms, eftablishes for ever that high opinion which the Polish nation entertains of his magnanimity and character.

The vigorous measures purfued, and the independent fpirit fhewn by the diet, had already begun to operate, in raifing Poland to a degree of confideration with its neighbours, which it had long fince forgotten. Sweden applied warmly to enter into an alliance of the clofeft nature with the republic, which was intended to include a mutual guarantee of their refpective dominions, befides adopting certain meafures for fecuring the future tranquillity and independence of the north. The court of Berlin was to be a principal member of this alli

ance. If we do not mistake, Den mark likewife proposed an alliance, which, however friendly, was of a lefs intimate,, and lefs political nature.

Nor did the grand fignior omit this opportunity of endeavouring to renew his former, and to enter into ftill clofer connections with Poland. As an introduction to this defign, he iffued a declaration to all the powers friendly to Poland, as well as to herfelf, dated on the23d of November, 1788, ftrongly expreffive of his friendship and of his good wishes for her independence and profperity; regretting with fenfibility the long courfe of injury and oppreffion which he had experienced from Ruffia, and reprobating particularly the guarantee of 1775, which fhe forced the Poles to accept, and by which the converted the whole nation into flaves and vaffals. He reprobates, in ftill feverer terms, the exorbitant affumption of Ruffia, totally fubverfive of the fovereignty of the republic, in preventing her from fettling or reforming her own government as fhe liked, or as the neceffity of public affairs required.

On all these accounts, as an injury and oppreffion unheard of among nations, the Sublime Porte will, for the honour of the empire, as the fupport of the weak, and the fcourge of the unjust and powerful, punctually fulfil all her treaties and engagements with the republic, and will, at the first requifition, fend a powerful army to her affiftance; and gives this notice to the friendly powers, that they might be apprized of the motives for his troops entering into the fervice of Poland.

Nor did the republic feem lefs fenfible to its growing importance than its neighbours; as an inftance


of which, the diet nominated ambaffadors to the following courts: Conftantinople, Petersburgh, Vienna, Berlin, Verfailles, and London. This nomination, however, required the king's confirmation, which was obtained without difficulty. Though thefe minifters were of the first rank and quality, they were ftill more eminent for their patriotism, and the opinion held of their ability.

In the course of the various eager debates which took place in the diet upon those subjects of difcuffion which we have ftated, as well as others, a violent philippic was pronounced against the emperor by one of the members. He obferved, that great and numerous as the injuries were which the republic had received from Ruffia, they were only fuch as in unfortunate circumftances they could not but expect from that power, with whom, for a courfe of ages, they had been in a ftate of frequent, if not general enmity. But that the rapacity difplayed by the emperor, who, in the midft of a long-eftablished and uninterrupted league of the clofeft friendfhip and amity, befides all thofe formal written ftipulations which can bind ftates to mutual fuccour and kindness, a league cemented on the fide of the republic by the moft eminent fervices, and conftantly obferved with the moft invariable good faith, stained the opening of his reign by taking advantage of their unhappy civil diffentions, feized a part of their country, not only without a colour of right, but even without the pretence of a claim, and thereby opened the way to other powers for that fatal partition, by which more than a third of Poland was fevered from, and totally loft VOL. XXXI.

to the reft. This he represented as an act of fuch duplicity, treachery, and of fuch extreme turpitude in all moral refpects, as to be without example among civilized nations, whether chriftian or infidel. He added to thefe, various other acts of injury, injuftice, and oppreffion, which he charged on the emperor, His fraudulent feizure of the faltmines, by a quibble on the name of a brook; his monopolizing that article, to the great injury and distress of the people at large; the arbitrary injunction, by which the nobility, who poffeffed lands in Gallicia, were compelled to spend half the year in that province, at the peril of forfeiting their eftates, although their feats, and the major part of their poffeffions, were fituated in remote parts of the kingdom; and the late violation of the territorial rights of the republic at the fiege of Choczim. Notwithstanding the extreme feverities with which this fpeech was loaded, it was received with fuch unbounded applaufe by the diet, as had feldom been equalled upon any occafion; a circumstance which fufficiently pointed out the prevalent ftate of temper and opinion in that affembly.

The continuance of the Ruffian troops in the kingdom, at the fame time that it caufed great difcontent and complaint in the nation, served no lefs to preserve the union, and to fupport the fervour of the diet. It was generally expected, and probably hoped and wifhed by the Poles, that the Pruffian military exertions would be immediately directed to drive the former out of the country. For, exclufively of their averfion to the Ruffians, their eagerness to get in any manner entirely out of their hands, and the [ E ] fatisfaction

fatisfaction which the correction and chaftisement of their old oppreffors would afford, ftill enhanced by the hope that the punishment would be inflicted upon the very fcenes of their arbitrary tranfgreffions, they were prompted to wish for a war, both as a demonftration of the Pruffian fincerity, and as likely to afford means for cementing the union fo clofely between the two nations, that nothing in the common courfe of things might be able to diffolve it. From fuch an union they augured the happieft effects. They knew that Sweden and the Porte were eager to become parties to the league; and they expected the acceffion of fome of the Germanic ftates, and even of Denmark, when she saw that it might be done with fecurity. Such a ftate of things feemed to open the most flattering profpects: they fancied they faw the tranquillity and liberty of the northern nations established upon the moft permanent foundation, and a tota! ftop put to the domineering interference of that overreaching power, which had for fo many years fpread confufion, difcord, and mifery through all the neighbouring


The king of Pruffia's conduct had afforded much countenance to the opinion of an immediate war. For, befides his ftrong remonstrances to the court of Petersburgh on the continuance of the Ruffians in Poland, and his declarations at Warfaw, his troops had been long advancing in great bodies towards the frontiers bordering on Livonia, Courland, and the Polish provinces. Magazines had likewife been formed, artillery and ammunition brought forward, and appearances were fo ftrong, that not only war, but an $

immediate winter campaign, was generally expected. The king was, however, very cautious in appealing to that laft refource, and endeavoured evidently to make the apprehenfion of his power, full in vigour and unimpaired as it was, with a full treasury, the firft army in the univerfe, and the greatnefs of his military preparations, produce the good effects and the purposes of fuccefsful war, without its confequent inevitable evils.

It is likewife probable, that the long and alarming illness of the king of Great Britain, ferved greatly at this time to check the designs and to impede the activity of the Pruffian fovereign. For that misfortune operated in a twofold capacity, throwing a cloud of uncertainty, not only over the reliance which might be placed on the future proceedings of that great country, but involving in it, likewife, all that related to the electorate of Hanover.

Thus far the king of Pruffia had fuccefsfully difplayed all the qualities of a great ftatesman, and of an able and accomplished politician. Poland was now entirely in his hands, fo far as the certain friendfhip and alliance of a country which must be devoted to his service could render it fo, under a nominal independence. This was, without bloodshed or war, a greater and more valuable acquifition than had been produced by all the laurels, victories, and long wars of his great predeceffor. Poland, under a vigorous government, which it would have been his intereft to establish and always preferve, would foon become an impenetrable barrier between him and Ruffia, and at the fame time a moft ufeful ally on the fide of Silefia, in all future contefts with.


the house of Auftria. Thus, while he communicated happiness and a neceffary degree of power to his friend and neighbour, he would have derived from it a degree of fecurity to the ftraggling appendages of his own dominions, which they cannot otherwise easily acquire.

Such an arrangement of things would have changed the face of affairs wonderfully for the better, both in the north and center of Europe. The unhappy country of Courland, whofe diftreffed nobility have traverfed all Europe, in the fruitleft hope of finding so much of

the fpirit of knight errantry fomewhere left, as might induce fome power heroically to deliver her from the deplorable bondage under which fhe has fo long laboured, would then find fhelter under the wings either of the king or the republic. Time and wifdom might have communícated fimilar benefits to other provinces and countries. Why a fyftem of policy, fo wifely and happily commenced, and for a time conducted, did not produce all the effects which were hoped and wished, will be a fubject of future difcuffion.

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Declining ftate of the king's health in the month of October, 1788, which terminates foon after in a continued delirium; grief of the people, and · measures taken by public characters in confequence thereof. Parliament meets pursuant to the last prorogation. Notification to both houses of the state of his majesty's health; immediate adjournment for a fortnight, and fummons for the attendance of members ordered; examination of the king's phyficians before the privy council; minutes of the council board laid before both houfes at their fecond meeting; doubts started in the house of commons, whether it would not be necessary to examine the phyficians at the bar; taken into further confideration on the 8th of December, and a committee appointed in each houfe to examine the phyficians; their report brought up on the 10th, and a committee appointed to fearch for precedents; Mr. Fox afferts the right' of the prince of Wales to the regency; his opinion controverted by Mr. Pitt; Mr. Pitt's conduct farcastically remarked upon by Mr. Burke; Mr. Fox's opinion condemned by the prefident of the council, and other lords in the upper house; defended by the lords Loughborough, Stormont, and Portchefter. The report from the committee of precedents brought up on the 12th; Mr. Fox explains, and reafferts his opinion relative to the prince's right, and is warmly oppofed by Mr. Pitt; farther explanation of Mr. Pitt's opinions upon the regency; difcuffion of the question of right deprecated in the house of lords Speeches of the duke of York and of the duke of Glocefter; three refolutions moved by Mr. Pitt, December 16; the fecond refolution, declaratory of the right of the two houfes of parliament to appoint a regent, frongly oppofed by lord North and Mr. Fox, and Jupported by the master of the rolls, the lord advocate of Scotland, the attorney and folicitor general, and Mr. Hardinge; reflections of Mr. Rushworth on the minifter's conduct; the refolution carried by a majority of 268 to 204; opposed on the report of the committee by Sir Grey Cooper and Mr. Wyndham; amendment moved by Mr. Dempster, and withdrawn; amendment to the third refolution moved by Mr. Dempster; debate thereon adjourned to the 22d of December.

S the most important tranfac

Astions of the reftion of parlia

ment, whofe proceedings we are now to relate, arose out of the peculiar circumstances under which it affembled, we must bring back the recollection of the reader, for a moment, to the impaired state of the king's health towards the latter end of October 1788. On the 24th of that month he had a levee at St. James's, for the purpofe of quieting the alarm, which the report of

his indifpofition had fpread amongst

the people; but upon his return to

Windfor his diforder took a new and unfortunate turn; and before the end of the first week in November it was generally known that it had fettled into a conftant delirium. The grief and confternation which this intelligence excited amongst all ranks of his loyal and affectionate fubjects could only be equalled by that exultation and joy which were fo confpicuously manifefted at the

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