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that excellent fovereign. Selim, his nephew, foon fhews how unworthy he is of being his fucceffor. The wealth of the Grand Vizir, Jusuf Pacha, dooms him to be the first victim to his avarice and cruelty. His deftruction followed by that of many others on the fame bafe motives. New Sultan changes all the plans for conducting the war which had been formed by bis predeceffor and by the late Grand Vizir. Precipitancy, weakness, and rafhness, along with rapacity and cruelty, the characteristics of the present reign! Turkish commanders and troops lofe all their wonted spirit, hope, and vigour, a misfortune which foon produces the most fatal confequences. Small but fevere war carried on between the Ruffians and Turks through the winter in Moldavia, as well as in the Budziack. Young Tartar prince, fon to the Khan, killed in an action near Bender. Humane and honourable conduct of general Kamenfkoi, with refpect to the body of the prince, and in reftoring it to his father. Grateful acknowledgments of the Khan to the Ruffian general for his generofity and compaffion, and the pious confolations with which he endeavours to footh his own grief. War renewed with great animofity along the frontiers by the Turks and Auftrians upon the expiration of the armistice. Empress of Ruffia exceeds even her ufual magnificence in the rewards and honours which he bestows upon the conquerors of Oczakow. Has not yet given up her defigns on Egypt, where the Baron de Thorus, late Ruffian conful at Alexandria, being fent in disguise, and furnished with powers to make great proposals to the Beys to induce them to enter into a treaty, and excite new commotions in the country, the Baron is feized by Ifmael Bey, and fent bound, with his credentials and papers, to the Turkish Basha, who commits him close prifoner to the castle of Grand Cairo. Defperate and ferocious valour difplayed by the Bofniacs, fighting entirely on their own account, in defence of their eftates, families, and country, against the Auftrians. Turkish Spirit finks totally before the Ruffians. General Dorfelden's victory on the banks of the Sereth; purfues bis fuccefs, attacks the Turkish ftrong camp at Galats; forces the camp; feizes the whole as a spoil; and routs, difperfes, or deftroys the enemy's army. War rages in Tranfylvania and the Bannat. Marshal Laudohn, with the Auftrian army on the fide of Croatia, makes preparations for the fiege of Turkish Gradifca, where he had been foiled the preceding year. That place, the grand outwork to Belgrade, and hitherto famous for its repeated fuccessful refiftance, strangely abandoned upon receiving a bombardment. The Marfbal immediately commences his preparations for the fiege of Belgrade. Prince of Saxe Cobourg has the fortune of retrieving the bonour of the Auftrian arms, by obtaining the first victory of any moment which they gained in the course of the war. Totally defeats and ruins an army of 30,000 Turks, under the command of a Serafquier, in the frong fortified camp of Fockzan, in Wallachia. Prince of Anhalt Bernbourg, with a part of Kamenskoi's army, defeats a body of Turks who were going to the relief of Bender, and takes the whole convoy. New Grand Vizir, with a vast army, totally defeated at Martinesti, by the prince of Saxe Cobourg and general Suwarow, with very inferior forces. Grand Turkish army totally difperfed and ruined. Belgrade befieged and taken by Marshal Laudobn, who grants favourable conditions to the gar

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vilon and inhabitants. Grand admiral, Hafan Pacha, quits the feet in
the Black Sea, and takes the command of the army in Beffarabia, in the hope
of faving Bender; but, forfaken now by his ufual good fortune, is totally
defeated, after an obftinate battle, by the Princes Potemkin and Repnin, at
Tobak. Bender taken after a long fiege. Bialagrod and Kylia Nova,
likewife taken by the Ruffians. Aufirians no less fuccessful, take Bucharest
and other places, until the noble defence made by the garrison of Orfova put
a ftop to their farther progress.
[165

CHA P. VIII.

Difficult and embarrassed state of the king of Sweden's affairs at the cloje of the
year 1788, notwithstanding the armiftice with the Danes, and the retreat of
their army out of the kingdom. Situations in which the most daring and ha-
zardous meafures become prudent and necessary acts. Guftavus heroically de-
termines to overcome his difficulties, and thereby retrieve his affairs, or to
perijh in the encounter. Fortunately, not withstanding fome intervening jealou-
fies, the three lower claffes of the people still continued much attached to him.
Incurable animofity of the equeftrian order. Diet fummoned to meet at Stock-
*bolm. King calls a meeting of the magiftrates, accompanied by fifty of the
most ancient and refpectable citizens of that capital, to whom, as to a grand
council of fate, he communicates, in a most eloquent speech, the whole ftate of
his affairs; fhews how his inveterate foreign enemy had, by infidiously prac-
tifing upon his own difaffected subjects, rendered them the inftruments of fruf-
trating all the well-laid defigns, and blafting all the fair hopes of the pre-
ceding campaign. Affembly encourage the king to the profecution of the war,
and engage to fupport him with their lives and fortunes against all his ene-
mies. Diet meets. Equestrian order foon fhew their indifpofition to ftand upon
good terms with the king. They first cavilled about the body of free Dalecar-
lians, which had joined the king with fo much zeal in the preceding feafon
of danger, being garrisoned in Stockholm. This the nobles refented with much
ill-bumour, on the double account of its being an infraction of the freedom of
the diet, and of its being a direct affront to their order, from its implying a
fufpicion of their loyalty and honour. But being totally unsupported by the
other orders, their ill-humour on this ground comes to nothing. The king hav-
ing appointed count Lowenhaupt to be marshal of the diet, the nobility, on that
account, infult him fo grossly, that he abfents himself from difcharging the duties
of his ftation under juch public difhonour. The king, finding himself fecure in
the attachment of the three other orders, goes to the diet to demand reparation for
the infult offered to himself through the marshal. High words and very harsh
language between the king and the nobles, until he throws out a charge of dif
affection and treafon, without naming particular perfons, when they all quit
the affembly in a body. King makes a speech to the remaining flates, which is
received with fatisfaction. Three days after, their houfes being fuddenly fur-
rounded by detachments of the guards and of the armed burghers of Stockholm,

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25 of the principal nobility of the kingdom are feized, and fent prisoners to the caftle of Fredericfhoff Mutinous commanders and officers in Finland already arrested, and on their way, as prifoners, to Stockholm, to be tried for their lives. Ordered to prepare for their trials. Names of feveral of thefe unfortunate gentlemen. King's conduct meets fuch general approbation, that the fmallest commotion is not produced by thefe violent measures. Numberless refignations take place; fpirit and strength of the equeftrian order entirely broken. Dangerous precedent established against the nobility, of carrying on the public business in the diet without them. New privileges granted to the peaJants. Senate entirely abolished, and a new court appointed to supply its place. King's Speech to the diet. Act of confederation. King, triumphant at home, prepares for the profecution of the war, by fea and land, with the utmoft vigour. Severe fentences pajed Severe fentences paljed on the Finland officers, confiderably mitigated through the king's lenity. Successful efforts of Mr. Elliot, in bebalf of the allied courts, to induce the court of Copenhagen to agree to a ftrict neutrality, relieves the Swedish fovereign from all apprehenfion on that fide. War in Finland. Rough face, and favage nature of the country, little calculated for rapid fuccefs or brilliant action. A number of small but severe and bloody actions take place. Encounter between the Ruffian fleet, and the Swedifb commanded by the duke of Sudermania, terminates without decifion or effect. Baron Stedink defeats the Ruffian general de Schultz. This fuccefs counterbalanced by the hafty and dangerous retreat which the king was obliged to make out of Ruffian Finland. King expofes his perfon like a common volunteer. Takes Hogfors, where he is joined by his fleet of gallies, and other light veffels, which are fpeedily attacked by the prince of Nassau, with a fimilar armament. Unufually hard-fought, defperate, and bloody action, between the hoftile fleets. Swedes worsted, and obliged to retire under the cannon of Sweaburg. Great fuperiority of the Ruffians in point of number, could not be compenfated by any exertions of valour. This action decifive with respect to the fortune of the campaign. King again retires, with much difficulty and danger, from the Ruffian territories, and his garrifon at Hogfors narrowly efcapes being cut off. Ruffians, while the weather permits, become masters of the fea, and fpread terror every where. Winter puts an end to the campaign, and the king returns to his capital. [182

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New convention of Notables. Great questions relative to the organization of the States General, which agitate the whole kingdom of France. King refigns himself entirely to the advice of M. Neckar. That minifter takes a decided part in favour of the double representation of the commons; but gives no opinion on other questions of great importance, which are left, in the event, to chance. Notables, as well as the parliament of Paris, Strongly recommend, that the conftitution of 1614 fhould be the model for the new convention of the states; with which the scheme of a double

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prefentation

prefentation directly militates. Parliament of Paris endeavour to recover their popularity by iffuing an arret, which, if adopted, might be confidered as the Magna Charta of French liberty. Treated with the utmost contempt by the popular parties, as falling short of their views. Violent jealoufies and diffentions betwen the three orders which were to compose the ftates. Nobles, odious in the extreme. Dukes and peers offer to contri"bute a due proportion to the public expences; and a fimilar difpofition feems general among the nobles; but this difpofition appears too late to afford fatisfaction. Nobility, goaded by numberless attacks, publish a declaration of their rights, which renders them fill more odious. Divifions and jealoufies among themselves at this critical period. Diffentions in the parliaments. Clergy as little united as the nobles. Curates, or parip priests, difpofed to fide with the commons, or third eftate. Commons with that the three orders fhould fit in one chamber, deliberate in common, and vote by beads, inftead of voting by orders, according to former practice. Strongly oppofed by the nobles. In the provincial affembly of the states of Dauphiny, the nobles and clergy coalefce wich the commons, and thereby establish a precedent contrary to the general fenfe of their orders. Differences between the nobles and commons of Britany rife fo high as to carry the appearance of a civil war. Count d'Artois with the princes of Conde, and Conti, (who are called the Triumvirate) prefent a memorial to the king, which increases the popular odium against them to the highest pitch. Measures purfued by the duke of Orleans to acquire popularity in Paris. M. Neckar blamed for not having used any means to reconcile the jarring factions, er to allay the national ferment, previous to the elections. He prefents a memorial to the king, ftrongly urging the measures of double reprefentation, and making himself refponfible for its confequences. King accordingly iffues a decree for that purpose; but leaves, undecided and open, the very impor tant and critical questions, relative to the manner of voting, and to the fitting of the ftates in one, or in three chambers. Unfortunate and ruinous confequences of this omiffion of the minifter's. Some well-intendea fchemes for amending the conftitution, which were fubfequently propofed, but rejected. Ancient practice and nature of the Cahiers, or inftructions given by the electors to their deputies in the ftates. Nobles bound by oath not to fit or vote in one common affembly. Aphoriftic statement of the views of the dif ferent parties. Some farther particulars relative to them. Most of the deputies to the fates arrive at Versailles, but the delays caused by the elections in Paris prevent their opening the assembly. Some explanation of the terms Primary Affemblies, and Primary Elections, with the manner of their application. Violent riot in Paris, and much blood shed. *[200

CHA P. X.

olemn and auguft opening of the Affembly of the fates general at Versailles. Short Speech by the king. Keeper of the feals Speech. Long harangue by M. Neckar difappoints all parties. Inexplicable conduct of the minifters,

in leaving the question of confolidation, and thofe relative to the manner of deliberating and voting, ftill undecided. All the legal authority in the kingdom then poffeffed by the king. Fatal confequences of that omiffion of the minifters. Scheme thence formed by the third eftate, to render the other orders entirely dependent upon them. Explanation of the phrafe, Verification of Powers. Commons invite the clergy and nobles to come to their ball, in order to proceed in common with them, in the verification of their respective writs of return. Invitation refufed, as being contrary to eftablished form, and fubverfive of the rights of the other orders. Commons pafs a refolution, that no writs could be valid that were not verified in their chamber and prefence, and that, without going through that form, the two other chambers would be illegal affemblies. Nobles blamed for their obftinacy in refusing to comply with the demand of the commons. Clergy wavering. Privileged orders weakened by their internal diffentions. Meetings of the commons tumultuous and diforderly. Admiffion of the populace caufes fbameful diforders, and produces in time great evils. Nobles proceed with their feparate verifications, and declare themselves duly conftituted. This proceeding treated with the utmost contempt by the commons. Commiffioners appointed to fettle the differences between the nobles and commons, and the clergy act as mediators; but the difputants can agree in nothing. Minifters alarmed, now perfuade the king to interfere, when it is too late. Nobles pafs an arret, declaring the deliberation by orders to be essential to the monarchical conftitution; and that they would ever perfevere in this principle, as being equally necessary both to monarchy and freedom. Conferences between the orders renewed in compliance with the king's request. M. Neckar brings forward his conciliatory plan. Supported by a meffage from the king to all the orders; accepted, in fact, only by the clergy. While the other orders feem to deliberate on it, they clog it with conditions which they know will be inadmiffible. Commons alarm the nobles by declaring, that they will conftitute themselves into an active affembly, and proceed to bufinefs. Nobles continue obftinate, notwithstanding the endeavours of the temperate few among them. Commons indirectly endeavour to render them more inflexible. Nobles and commons feverally addrefs the king. Party of the Commons continually gaining ground among the clergy. Three curates of Poitou bring their writs of return for verification to the commons, and are received with acclamations of the highest joy and triumph. Third eftate affume the title of national affembly. Signalize their new title by a frong and popular act of fovereignty. Spectators interrupt the debates, hoot and menace the members, and publish lifts of the voters, ftigmatifing thofe as enemies to their country who vote contrary to their liking. King and minifters, greatly alarmed, determine upon holding a royal feffion. Preparations for carrying that measure into execution conducted with fuch imprudence and rafonefs as to excite the greatest public alarm. National Affembly shut out from their ball by guards and workmen, without any previous notice or knowledge of the intention. Commons, apprehenfive of immediate diffolution, hurry through a violent ftorm of rain to an old tennis court, where they bind themselves by a folemn oath, never to part until the conftitution was com

pleted,

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