Handbook of Local Anesthesia - E-Book
Elsevier Health Sciences, 25 apr. 2014 - 432 pagina's
A practical, "how-to" guide to safe anesthesia practices in dentistry, Handbook of Local Anesthesia, 6th Edition covers all the latest advances in science, instrumentation, and pain control techniques. From basic concepts to specific injection techniques, from dosage charts to the proper care and handling of equipment, this book provides in-depth, full-color coverage of key anesthesia topics, including specific hazards and errors in technique that may result in complications. Written by Dr. Stanley Malamed, dentistry's leading expert on this subject, Handbook of Local Anesthesia is a valuable reference that will help you prevent, recognize, and manage complications of local anesthesia administration.
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The resting nerve membrane has an electrical resistance about 50 times greater
than that of the intracellular and extracellular fluids, thus preventing the passage
of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions down their concentration gradients.
These messages, in the form of electrical action potentials, are called impulses.
Action potentials are transient depolarizations of the membrane that result from a
brief increase in the permeability of the membrane to sodium, and usually also ...
... + + + – – – – TABLE 1-2 Intracellular and Extracellular Ionic Concentrations
Ratio (approximate) Potassium (K+) Intracellular, Extracellular, mEq/L mEq/L 110
-170 3-5 27: 1 Sodium (Na+) 5-10 140 1:14 Chloride (Cl−) 5-10 110 1:11 (see Fig
Sodium migrates inwardly because both the concentration (greater outside) and
the electrostatic gradient (positive ion attracted by negative intracellular potential)
favor such migration. Only the fact that the resting nerve membrane is relatively ...
Sodium channel transition stages. Depolarization reverses resting membrane
potential from interior negative (left) to interior positive (center). The channel
proteins undergo corresponding conformational changes from resting state (
closed) to ...
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II The Armamentarium
III Techniques of Regional Anesthesia in Dentistry
IV Complications Legal Considerations Questions and Future
Inside back cover