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up for the chance of a rifing market. For he incurs a certain lofs of measure; and a certain risk, if it can poffibly be come at by Carters.
To quarrel with them about it is idle; for, in this respect they are thieves to a man, and glory in their thievery; and the only way to keep them honeft is, to treat them in character. One lock is fcarcely a fufficient fecurity: to leave fcattered parcels here-andthere is throwing before them temptations too powerful to be withftood.
Notwithstanding I keep a regular account of every bushel of every fpecies of grain made up, and of every bushel fairly vended ; and although I take a great deal of pains to prevent pilfering, and pretend to make a very serious affair of it whenever it is found out; yet I never can make the two accounts tally. What, then, must be the fate of those who do not keep a minute account, neither of the yield nor of the vent, and whofe fervants are aware of this neglect? who know, that if they are not caught in the fact, they are clear even from fufpicion ?'
April 25, 1777. My vow to CERES is performed! It is three years to-day fince I first flept in this house, and three years and a-day fince I flept laft in London: nor have I dined in town thrice, nor feen it ten times during the last two years; though within an hour's ride of it.
My fole employment, and almoft my fole AMUSEMENT, has been FARMING. Day-for-day, I have been a FARMER upwards of a thousand days; on which my fole attendance and attention have been duly paid to FARMING: therefore, if I know nothing of FARMING,I am a blockhead *.'
We entirely agree with our Author in thinking that no man can be a farmer without felf-application. It is perhaps more doubtful whether attendance and attention will make any man a (good) farmer; at least, in a fhort time. A thousand days attendance and attention have, no doubt, taught our enterprifing farmer fome knowledge; but much, very much, is ftill wanting to complete that knowledge. We are even doubtful if he is yet advanced fo far as to have had a glimpse of the innumerable objects which he does not know, and thus obtaining a feeling impreffion of the little that he actually does know. If he perfeveres, like Socrates, he will at length attain to that point; but like him too, he will perceive, that he is then only at the threshold of the houfe of wifdom. In agriculture, as in every other purfuit of knowledge, the poet's advice is truly applicable:
A little learning is a dangerous thing:
Is an explanation wanted? ATTENDANCE and ATTENTION Will make any Man a Farmer: No Man can be a Farmer without SELF
Unfortunately, men are feldom fo defirous of difplaying their wisdom to the world, as when they are in the state of intoxication. Nor are any perfons fo wafpifh at being warned when they are running their heads against a poft, as thefe intoxicated gentry areas we poor Reviewers often experience,-to our great mortification, no doubt.
Few employments are subjected to a greater variety of disappointments than farming; and thefe often cut fo very deep in point of expence, that it conftitutes a principal part of the character of one who hopes fuccefsfully to practife agriculture, to foresee evils at a distance, to guard against them by every poffible precaution, and to improve thefe difafters to the beft advantage when they cannot be avoided. This is perhaps the most painful department of the practice of agriculture; a department which never can be properly filled, but by one whose bread in fome measure depends on his fuccefs. To fuch a one, how painful muft it be to fee the labours of a whole feafon ruined by the inclemency of the weather.-How many active days, and perhaps fleepless nights, muft he experience, in trying to guard against it! Yet neither activity nor attention, though often fuccessful, can at all times prove effectual: and he muft with patience submit to the will of Heaven. Juftly then, does our Author complain of those, who with a view to induce the unexperienced to enter upon this profeffion, industriously keep this object out of fight. Not fo with our Author. Like an honeft man he brings it full into view, and fairly states the hazard of farming, as an object demanding the most serious attention of every man concerned in that employment. We felect a few of the numerous obfervations on this head, which occur in Mr. Marshall's performance :
HAZARD OF FARMING.
Aug. 17, 1775. The tares being all eaten, turned the oxen into the clover after grafs, of Ley-lands, laft Thursday-a week ago; but, to prevent their blowing, let them first fill themselves on the meadow after-grafs of River-Mead ;-and for the first day or two, I attended them myfelf; keeping them ftirring.
While these precautions were taken, all was well; but last night, the Carters in a hurry to get to Croydon, to fee their brother-blackguards, the Felons from New Gaol, carelessly (Carelessness! thou Spawn of Ignorance! thou haggard pandar of III-luck!) turned them hungry from the plow immediately into the clover.-This morning Bran lies dead.
It seems a little ftrange, that a field of only fix acres, after having been eaten down, near a week, with from four to eight oxen, and fome days with four or five horses, should now have this effect. Nothing but turning them in hungry can account for it.
In future, on the slightest fufpicion of blowing, feed them well with hay or verdage, before they go out of the table; and never fuffer clover, whether red or white, to get too high, before they be turned to it.'
Oct. 1, 1775. About three weeks ago, Farmer S― fent in 102 fheep to eat off the turnips for wheat-to run in the stubble, &c. at 2 d. a-head a-week; with a fhepherd to attend them.
Perhaps this, though a low price, is more profitable management than buying-in lean ftock, and felling it out again, when the aftergrafs and stubbles are fed off. There is no attendance-no fending to market-no risk attends it. Laft night, two pointers, belonging to a fporting Inn-keeper, bit feveral of thefe fheep ;-two of them were torn very much, and were obliged to be butchered. These dogs, it is true, were traced home, and fatisfaction demanded; but Farmer M- had three ewes worried the night before, without being able to recover any damages.'
Oct. 10. Although my heart is more at eafe to-night, than it has been fince the late rainy weather fet-in-yet I cannot fupprefs my aftonishment, that not one Writer on Agriculture has touched on the baxard of Farming. They fuppofe the crop in the barn before it is cut-and calculate the quantity of produce, according to the state of the foil; without taking in the idea of the uncertainty of weather.
But how ignorant! Our barley this year, including lofs of fodder and extra labour, is at least 25 per cent. worfe for the weather at harveft, and 20 per cent. more for the drought after feed-time. One neighbouring Farmer turned his hogs to his barley, and another's was scarcely worth carrying home. I had fome fecond cut of clover offered me;-I calculated the hazard of a late crop, and would not give the price demanded. It was fold, cut and cocked; but rotted in the field, and was left as a dreffing for a future crop. Yet a Y-g or a V-o would have laid it, rain, fnow, or fun-fhine, at 30 s. or 40s. an acre.
Infurers have averages-Merchants bad debts-and Farmers bad weather."
• Dec. 4. Terrible luck! The coupled hogs have gone on remarkably well all ftubble-time. They were ufually turned into a field in the morning, and fetched home in the evening, without any other attendance. Since the ftubbles have been done, they have run after the acorns. I was apprehenfive of an accident; and they having broke into Mr. R. -'s fields, I ordered them to be kept in the yard, and fed with cabbages which are spoiling.
But there is no dependance on fervants; they were let out, no further care taken of them, and two of the best found hung in their couples this morning.-At the high rate which lean hogs now fell at, they are worth at least four guineas.
What is to be done? I propofe putting up five or fix to fatten, and felling off the remaining fhoots as fast as I can. But what is to
Hanged is more folemn-and we wish to fee that adopted in all cafes when it denotes ftrangling. Flung, ufed in this fenfe, is a fort of modifh modern phrafe, which occafions a needlefs ambiguityWe would naturally fay, that a man bung by a branch, meaning that he voluntarily laid hold of it, or was accidentally caught by it. Although we fay he was hanged on a tree-meaning he was trangled by being fufpended from it by the neck,
be done next year? Either rear none, or as many as will repay a boy's attendance? Let me calculate-a boy at 5 s. a week is 13 1.Fifty hogs at 5 s. is 121. 10s. So that an otherwife clear profit of 5 s. a head on fifty-two hogs will go to pay the boy. We have not room in the yard for above fifty flore-pigs; and five fhillings a-head will cut deep in the profit.
Perhaps, in future,-keep two or three open fows;-breed all the year-at three months old couple them, and let them run on the common, or in fome other hog pafture till they be worth 20 s. a head-As they reach this value, uncouple them.-As foon as ten are at large, hire a boy to attend them;-give them the ftubbles, acorns, &c.-Sell fuch as are faleable in autumn,-keep the young pigs over the year, and breed on.
As to the couples, I am clear that they rather forward than hinder the growth of the fhoots. They feem to contend and drag each other about, on the road; but while they feed, they are quite amicable. This obftinacy, off their feed, prevents their wandering, and preferves them in condition.-No hogs can look better, nor can have been reared at lefs expence than mine this year, and I am by no means fick of couples: I only blame myself for letting hogs of fo much value run through the woods and hedges with fo little lookingafter. And for this I cannot blame myself, but the fervant; and who can guard against the careleffness of fervants?
I am not quite fatisfied with the preceding procefs.-Perhaps, in future, make rearing, not fattening, the object of the hog procefs, at leaft while lean hogs hold their prefent prices. Keep three or four breeding fows;-rear all their pigs, winter and fummer; treat them as an object;-give them all the milk that can poffibly be fpared ;give them the damaged and tail barley, peafe and beans. Buy pol lard, linfeed and graves, damaged fugar and molaffes. On wash, and the Common, keep them till harvet ;--give them the run of the ftubbles, plump them up with potatoes and acorns (if any),—and fend them to market.
Keep them coupled, without conftant attendance, till the acorns begin to fall. Be careful to fee them at home and well-littered every night, and mind as they grow, that the couples be eafed.
Fifteen fhoots, at 15 s. a piece, is not equal to a boy at 5 s. a week. Our lofs by couples, even this year, does not nearly amount to half a boy's conftant attendance; befides, perhaps, there is an advantage to the hogs by coupling.
It is not certain how the two laft were hung; their fellows had dragged them from the place where it happened; but they were found near each other, and I am of opinion that they were both hung in the fame place, between two hurdles. A more ingenious trap could hardly be contrived to hang coupled hogs in. The hurdles over-lapt each other about the length of the couples, and were fastened as ufual at the top, but not at the bottom. This was their mace into an caken wood. Perhaps, the mafter-hog forced his way between the hurdles; the other, instead of following (indeed it was impoffible he could), got his head on the outfide, and being unable to draw back his fellow, was of courfe ftrangled. The furvivor, tired with pulling, retreated, and dragged about the de
ceafed. Or, perhaps, the foremost doubled himself, and got through, and, by ftruggling, got his head on the outfide of the other hurdle; thus it became a matter of life and death, and the weakest of course fell:-This gave the other an opportunity of extricating himself, and dragging about his dead partner. They were both found within ten yards of thefe hurdles. Let this be a leffon, in future, to beware of burdle places. If hurdles are found neceffary, mind that they be fastened at both top and bottom.
Within fifteen months we have loft
A cow, worth
A horfe, worth
An ox, worth
Four hogs, worth
£. 32 10 O
Befides loffes by the weather, and fifty other leffer cafualties. All farmers must have fome ;-yet it feems unfashionable to talk of the hazard of Farming, or make use of the word loss in calculations on agriculture.'.
· Dec. 4, 1775. Laft week folly, one of the team, was taken with a violent fcouring. The Farrier has drenched and bled him, but he does not recover.
In the fame fpace of time we have had
This is the 6th casualty of working-cattle within nine months.
An ox lamed
An ox blowed
A bull furfeited
A bull had the red water
An ox fcours
A horfe tined
A horfe tined
A horfe lamed in the hip
An old horfe
Within fifteen months,
A cow died of the red water.
A cow now fcours-her life doubtful.
laid by a month.
laid by a fortnight.
laid-by a month. ufelefs (came round.) went blind. died of age.
Two large hogs hung, through mere cafualty.
Thirty acres of barley, thirty per cent. worfe for the weather, &c. &c. &c. &c. &c. &c.
"What a collection of haggard evidences of the hazard of farming!
But furely they can never be the ordinary cafualties of agriculture; they muft proceed from extraordinarily bad luck, or from bad management.
Let me endeavour to trace back their caufes; and, if poffible, raife LESSONS ON FUTURE MANAGEMENT.
The ftrained ox.-This was done in Norwood-fields.-The two ox teams were hunting a fallow.-I remember I went up to them in the middle of the day.It was very hot.-This ox lolled the tongue a good deal;-he was in the weaker team. I ordered the plowman to go gently, and to bring home his plow at night; for I