faw that it was too ftrong work for them. He brought home his plow, with the ox in the condition mentioned the roth of NoVE MBER: but whether he obeyed me in the other inftance or not, I am doubtful; I rather think the ox was purpofely over-drove; for oxen were then quite a new kick."-But this is prefumptive evidence only.


'What is to be learnt from this?

A young, flender ox, not in exercise, may be worked too hard, in a close field, on a hot day.

A fulky cruel fervant is dangerous.


Perhaps, an ox in collar can exert his ftrength more than in yoke.

The lame ox. This was caufed by a piece of flint getting between his claws, and infinuating itself into his foot.


Perhaps, in future,-pick their feet every night.

The inflated ox. (See the Minute of the 17th of AUGUST.) This was evidently the carelessness of the carter.

• Memorandum. A THINKING SERVANT is very valuable; but rarely to be met with.


The furfeited bull. This probably was caused by over-heating him the first day he was harnessed.

In future-Ufe them gently, and break them in by degrees. The bull in the red water. He was taken in time, and eafily cured,

• The ox which fcours. I am totally at a lofs for the caufe.-His food of late has been very good clover-and-rye-grafs hay. He has not worked harder than the reft of the team (which, look, and are very well), for he was always a flug. I am apprehenfive that he was fold as an ailing ox: his skin and coat were never kind;-and I recollect his frequently moaning, while he was in the house last fpring; yet he never refused his meat, and worked tolerably.

Out of the four Gloucester fhire oxen, two of them are remarkably plain; and this is the third.

In future,-Never truft to a dealer to buy in oxen.

• The two borfes tined. The caufe was the carelessness of the carter, and the vicioufnefs of one of the horses.

Memorandum. Careleffness is not easily guarded againft; bat a vicious horfe may be fold.

The lame borse. This was a wrench in the hip, by drawing mud out of a pond, and the cause, ten to one-carelessness.

• The horse which went blind. The cause feemed to be in Nature. Every means was taken to prevent the bad effect.

• The horse which died of age. Upwards of thirty years old.

• The cow which died of the red water. Being totally unacquainted with the nature of the disease or the remedy, I left the management entirely to the cow leech; through whofe carelessness, rather than mifmanagement, I believe fhe fuffered.

I have never fince left the care of a fick or lame brute wholly to the Leech or Farrier; for though I have not administered, I have attended the administrations ;—and have seen that the patient was not neglected,


• The cow which scours. I conjecture, that the diforder was caused by the quickness of transition from the low feed of the Common, to the rich fucculent after grass.

• In future,—Raife them from the Common to richer feed by degrees. Perhaps, turn them into the after-grafs, as foon as the -hay is out of the field, before the bite is got too long.


Perhaps, in future,-Never refuse two guineas for a scouring barener again.

• The hogs which were hung. I blame myself more in this inftance, than in all the reft.-Not for coupling hogs, generally; but for fuffering hogs, of their value, to remain in couples in acorn-time. But I have the pleasure of reflecting, that my motive was good neighbourhood; for Neighbour — gave me to understand, that they were unwelcome guests in a field of his turnips. I therefore kept them in couples, though in the yard, to guard against that careleness of fervants, which was the immediate cause of their death.

In future,-Be the confequence what it may, clip, mark, and uncouple fuch as remain unfold, when the acorns begin to fail.

The barley. Had the feed been got into the ground three weeks or a month fooner, the dry weather would not have hurt it so much, and it might have been carried before the wet fet-in: but would it not have been truly ridiculous to have missed so favourable an opportunity of getting the land clean, in expe&ation of fuch a dry fummer and wet harvest as may never happen again? The foil received a tilth equal to a fummer-fallow; its face now fhews the good effect : and were the same circumstances to happen again I fhould most certainly act in the fame manner, and expect a tolerable fummer, and tolerable harvest, and, of course, get-in my barley in tolerable time.

• This article must therefore go to the fide of bad luck, not to that of bad management.


• Thus, of fixteen cafualties, feven originated in Nature, (without any apparent factitious cause) and nine in pofitive or prefumptive careleffness.-Does not this prove,




· JULY 1777. The Reader may be well affured, that it cannot be pleafing to expose the above disagreeable facts. The Writer, however, fhould have blamed himself exceedingly, had he concealed them. The inferences drawn, he flatters himself, may ferve as hints to the inexperienced Agriculturist, and the facts themselves be useful to the industrious Farmer ;-by convincing the rack-rent Gentlemen of landed property, that there is baxard of farming as well as of play, and that ill-luck is not always at White's or Newmarket.'

Jan. 16, 1776. The fcouring ox. The farrier firft employed could not relieve him: I employed another. He told me that he was certain he could ftop it; but that fcouring cattle are fubject to relapfes, which generally carried them off precipitately; and that the only method of treatment is to get them in flesh as faft as poffible, and fell them off.

.. He

He ordered him a drench every morning (a compound of powder and dried leaves, given in a quart of fresh human urine): as an addition, I defired that he might have a decoction of oak-bark given him in his water.


At the fortnight's end the fcouring ftopped;-he recovered his appetite; his hide loofened;-his eyes brightened;-and he recovered his cud :--but he was fo much reduced, that he could not rife without affistance; and though he eat well-dunged well-and looked well, he remained thus for a fortnight or three weeks. It was fix or eight men's business to get him up: he would not help himself in the leaft, until three or four days ago, when he began to get up with little help. But notwithstanding he eat half a trufs of hay day, he did not thrive; and although I wished him dead (he was fo low he would have taken more fatting and attendance than he would have been worth, when fat;-belides the risk of a relapse) yet I was unwilling to give him up.


Early this morning he awoke me with lamentable groans.-I rung up the fervants:-they came, and told me that he was dying, for that he was fwelled ready to burft." I bade them flab him behind the ribs: this eased him for a while; but he foon began to Awell and moan as bad as ever. I got up, and, feeing him in great agony, ordered him to be fluck.





I fent for the Farrier, and we have opened him. His heart, liver, entrails, and nutriment in each flate, bear every mark of perfect fanity; except that his entrails, inftead of rolling out, on his being opened, were tied faft to the coats of the vertebræ, and were obliged to be feparated from them by a knife-a flesh-like fubstance had formed;--and except that his maw was remarkably full of aliment, and was pierced by the knife with which he was ftabbed..


Perhaps, the adhesion of the vifcera accounts for his weaknefs, and for his diforder. Perhaps, the feveral members of the abdomen were rendered unable to perform their respective functions properly, without the aid of medicine. The Batcher obferved, that this is a common case, when an ox has been trained, or has received a wrench in the back. This too brings on a fcouring; it therefore feems very clear, that a ftrain, or wrench, was the firft caufe of his diforder; and, from various circumftances, I am of opinion, it is of long ftanding, and brought to the crifis by time and hard-working.

But how is the fufflation, which was obviously the immediate cause of his death, to be accounted for? His meat was clover-andrye-grafs hay; his drink, water, with a small quantity of the decoction of oak bark, to prevent a relapfe. But it was old hay which had been cut very full of fap, and got well into a large ftack; fo that it was dry, and rich to a high degree; and he eat it very greedily as he lay.'


We are forry we cannot follow our Author in his investiga

tion of the cause of this diforder.

Laft year, N. 4. was fummer-tares, on an old clover-ley dunged. When in bloom, they were a beautiful crop, worth for verdage 41. or 5 1. an acre. They podded well; but the dry weather, perhaps, prevented many of them from filling.-The wet weather


fet in just as they were ready to be cut:-the heavy rains beat them flat to the ground, and the weeds foon became predominant :-they were obliged to be reaped during the rainy weather, and repeatedly turned to keep them from rotting on the ground-The reaping and turning did not coft lefs than 10 s. an acre; befides thedding ninetenths of the few which matured.

Last week they were thrathed, and lo! the three acres produced eleven bufhels!

Is not this another pofitive evidence of the Hazard of Farming? -A crop dunged for, and which, with an ordinary feafon, would have yielded from 4 1. to 6 l. an acre, is but barely able to discharge the expence of reaping and thrashing..

JUNE 23, 1777

The fpring feed-time was moist, but not remarkably wet; the clouds referved their bounty for May and June.-The middle of May was very viet, and fo is the middle of June.-The last ten days have been (except one) uniformly rainy.-Laft night it poured for eight or nine hours perhaps, never fo much rain fell in fo little time.The wheats which are good are beaten into the ground; the grafs which was cut, fwims in every furrow;-and the fallows are ready to flow out of the fields.-Low-land paftures are overflowed, and the flock obliged to be taken into the houfe to prevent their poaching.Work is now at a ftand; we cannot make hay, nor even weed.The teams cannot plow, nor can they carry out dung, even when it is fair, with any propriety. The ground was never fo wet fince Noah's flood. The fprings and rivers only may rejoice-The poor are ftarving for want of work,

Wheat, which a fortnight ago was worth ten pounds an acre, will not, except the weather at harvest prove favourable indeed, be worth harvesting; and clover, which was nearly made when the rains fet-in, will be reduced in its value more than half, if not totally fpoiled; for there are not as yet any figns of fair weather: the wind changes to every quarter, but the weather is invariably rainy,rainy, rainy!

Many other cafualties occur in thefe Minutes, which, for brevity, we omit. These are fufficient to convince any fenfible man that whoever does not include this clafs of expences in his calculations, commits a moft effential error.

We meet with fo many interefting particulars in this volume relating to the economy of rural affairs, that we are induced to extend this Article to an unusual length.

In farming, fo many fervants are neceffary, that not only the fuccefs but the comfortable enjoyment of life, in a great measure, depends upon them. The man who, in that profeffion, knows not how to manage fervants properly, must be ruined, and ruined in the most comfortless way, without enjoying one ray of pleasure in going through life: this, therefore, is an object of the higheft importance, and ought to be studied with care; but, unfortunately, it requires fuch an intimate knowledge of the human heart, and the fprings that ufually influence the actions of men, as falls to the fhare of very few, early in


life. From this fource fpring many of those diftreffes in which young adventurers in agriculture are often fuddenly involved before they are aware of it, and out of which they are never able to extricate themselves. Several hints relative to this fubject occur in this work, from which we select the following: MANAGEMENT OF SERVANTS.

Mankind are by NATURE undoubtedly equal; but by chance they are, at prefent, widely distinct.-Mafters and Servants are unavoidably neceffary to the prefent ftate of Agriculture.-Subordination is effential to good government, whether public or private.Anarchy and fubordination are allied, as light and darkness; when one increases, the other decreases; when one wholly fuccumbs, the other wholly predominates.

If one man hire himself-fell himself temporarily to another, unconditionally, he is, by the law of right, wholly fubordinate to his equitable commands: if conditionally, the conditions are of courfe reciprocally binding.

The Mafter who is bound to fatisfy the cravings of his Servant with wholesome food, is equally bound to feed his mind with whole. fome morals. He has two motives to it; his own fatisfaction tem porarily, and his Servant's welfare during life.-Youth calls particularly loud for this mental aliment; and a parfimony in its fupply is more heinoufly criminal than are fcanty meals and a bed of clods.

'About two years ago, I took a lad, who was puny and unfit for hard labour, from the plow, and placed him in the house.-The first year he behaved very well; the fecond tolerably; but a fallingoff was obvious. His brother, the preceding year, had fuffered much for want of correction, and I clearly faw that he was ftriding away apace to the fame path.-I therefore, though reluctantly, began to adminifter the neceffary difcipline; and during that year it had the defired effect.

• His vice commenced with idle excufes ;-from these he crept on to falsehood; and, perhaps, this may be held as a general maxim:

The firft ftep to deftruction is evafon;-the fecond, lying;-the third, pilfering-thieving,-murder, and the gallows, follow of courfe cunning or impertinence is generally an accomplice.

This, the third year, he has behaved very ill.-I was aware of evil counsellors, but could not identify them.-At length the horsewhip totally loft its efficacy; and I, tired of correcting, fent to his friends: but he, in the mean time (by the advice of his council) went to a magistrate, under the pretence of recovering his liberty and wages.

The magistrate, whofe head is as good as his heart is honest, prefently faw through the rafcality, and fent him home; and generoufly affitted his friends in difcovering the incendiaries. Aftonishing one of them, a man who has worked for me upwards of two years, and whom I have, lately, been daily endeavouring to serve ; the other (the principal) a fellow whom I have employed near twelve months, and who, in the height of his tutorship, fetched his fon out of a distant county, to enjoy from me the advantages of conftant employment and good ufage! Nor is the boy, though he promises implicit obedience in future, free from guilt; for if the advice had


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