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difficult to form a proper idea of these from the plates alone. Mr. Sharp adds, that horfes are conftantly ready at the manufactory, to fhew the effects of the feveral rakes, ploughs, fhovels, &c. or to draw the different forts of carts, waggons, or rollers, whereby judgment may be formed of the utility of each machine. The loweft price is fixed upon each article, and payment will be expected on the delivery of the goods.' Why were the prices omitted in the catalogue? This, for many reafóns, would have been a most useful addition.
No. 1. A hand crane.
2. A weighing engine for cattle, hay, ftraw, &c. from
5. A horfehoe for weeding, &c. in drill husbandry.
7. Mr. Arbuthnot's draining plough improved.
8. A turn-wrift, or Kentifh plow.
9. A jointed horfe-rake for couch grafs or ftubble. 10. A winnowing machine.
This laft is a most useful machine, and what no farmer fhould want, and we hope it will quickly become common in every part of the country. One of thefe machines was prefented to the Society of Arts, &c. in the Strand, by Mr. Evers, in January 1761, an engraving of which was given in Mr. Bailey's defcription of useful machines and models, plate No. xx. This was, to the best of our remembrance, the first description of the inftrument that was given in the English language, yet we have been favoured with the hiftory of this machine from a very knowing gentleman, on whofe veraciy we depend, as under:
"The winnowing machine was invented in Flanders or Holland, and was introduced from the last named country into the fouth of Scotland, about fifty years ago, where it has been common ever fince. Yet ftrange as it may feem, the knowledge of this useful invention has not yet spread over more than three or four counties. In thefe indeed, no farmer is without one, but in all other parts of the kingdom they feem to be ftill unknown. Is not this an astonishing fact! I muft add, that the original winnowing machines were infinitely lefs complex in their structure than those now in ufe, and were proportionably more convenient in ufing. This is perhaps the only inftance of a new invention being more fimple than it became afterwards." They are called, in the provinces where they are in common ufe, fanners.
11. A hand mill for fplitting of beans, grinding malt, barley, &c.
12. A fteel corn mill, with bolting mill, &c.
No. 13, is an unneceffary attempt to renew the laborious task of our forefathers, before water or windmills were invented. It is fimply a hand corn mill.
14. A wheel barrow for scattering fand or gravel, &c. 15. A divided garden roller, with balances.
16. A cart roller, with light wheels in three divifions. 17. Rolling carts and waggons.
Thefe, inftead of wheels, go upon rollers, for faving the roads. This feems to be an ufeful improvement, efpecially in deep miry countries. In ftony roads, or rocky places, it is probable they 'would be inconvenient, Legislature encourages thefe carriages, by allowing them to pass at turnpikes, for fome years, without paying any thing, and afterwards for the half of what other carriages pay. Undoubtedly if they fhould become univerfal, inftead of hurting, they would tend to make the roads better.
A lift of many other articles, without plates, follows, which
Mr. Sharp feems to be a fpirited manufacturer, and we wish him fuccefs in his laudable attempts to ferve himself by conferring benefits on the public.
ART. VII. Minutes of Agriculture, made on a Farm of 30 Acres of various Soils, near Croydon, Surry. To which is added, a Digest, wherein the Minutes are fyftemized and amplified; and elucidated by Drawings of new Implements, a Farm-yard, &c. The whole being published as a Sketch of the actual Bufinefs of a Farm; as Hints to the experienced Agriculturist; as a Check to the present Falfe Spirit of Farming, and as an Overture to Scientific Agriculture. By Mr. Marshall. 4to. 12 s. Boards. Dodfley. 1778.
RITAIN, at prefent, claims a fuperiority over all the other nations of Europe, in point of naval affairs and agriculture. Should her claim in these respects be allowed; and fhould it then be asked, to what peculiarities in our fituation do we owe this pre-eminence? we would anfwer, To the invigorating influence of political freedom, which, by affording to every man full protection of his perfon and property, induces him to exert all his powers to the utmoft, in full confidence that these exertions will prove highly beneficial to himself or his family.
In little mechanical arts, the fubjects of defpotic governments may indeed arrive at fome degree of eminence; but in the great employments of agriculture and commerce, those who carry them on with fpirit muft rifk fo much of their property, and for fo long a time, that nothing but the fullest conviction of perfect fecurity can ever induce them to venture far enough.
It was in confequence of this circumftance, that all the nations of old which were diftinguished for their fill in comC 2
merce or agriculture, were free ftates. Tyre and Carthage (in the infancy, at leaft, of the latter) were fuch, and both of them were eminent for their commercial spirit.
In Greece, agriculture was in the highest esteem ; and in Italy, during the virtuous time of the Roman republic, this science flourished exceedingly; but no fooner did Defpotifm overturn the free conftitution of that state, than the rural arts began to decline; and those fertile fields which once sustained millions of inhabitants, are now converted into peftilential marshes.
Commerce revived in Venice; and, fo long as fhe preferved her freedom, it profpered abundantly in that ftate; but no fooner were the baneful effects of her cruel ariftocracy felt, than it gradually dwindled to its present infignificance.
The Netherlands, more favourably fituated for agriculture, next emerged from obfcurity, and, under the influence of a mild government, the cultivation of the foil was carried to a degree of perfection, till then unknown among the western ftates of Europe. From hence we first received a taste for those improvements in agriculture and commerce, which, under the benign aufpices of our free government, have attained that high degree of vigour which feems to give weight to our claim of fuperiority, in these respects, over the nations around us. Long may Britain retain that happy afcendency! for while the does fo, the muft enjoy all other advantages peculiar to civil fociety. But when agriculture begins to decline, woE to the inhabitants of this.land! Let him who is in the fields not return into the house, but flee with the utmoft precipitation to fome happier region; for the inevitable ruin of this kingdom will then be at · hand!
These reflections were naturally fuggefted by the perusal of the volume, which is the subject of our present Review. The Author of this work feems to poffefs, in a very confpicuous degree, that animating fervor and originality of thought, which flows from confcious freedom and independence. He thinks for himself, and he utters these thoughts in glowing (fome will think daring) expreffions, infomuch that even we, fhivering in our garrets, felt fome degree of his warmth, and were pleased with his enthufiafm. How happy, exclaimed we, is the man who can allow his mind to be fully occupied by any one object: He goes forward with alacrity, even when furrounded with dangers. Difficulties come in his way, but these he encounters with irresistible firmness, and he overcomes them: He looks back with wonder at his former atchievements; he ftill boldly preffes forward, and performs many noble deeds, which frigid caution would have deemed impoffible.
We have read few books on agriculture with greater fatisfaction than the prefent: not because of any fuperiority that this Author enjoys over other writers, in the knowledge of the art on which he treats, for, in this refpect, he is profeffedly a learner: not on account of the purity of his language, or the elegant flow of his periods, for in these refpects, the tendereft critic will find much to blame; but it is the vivacity, the ori ginality, the candour, and ingenuity of the Author, fo confpicuous in every page, that we admire. In fine, it is impoffible for a georgical Reviewer, not to be pleafed with a work which exhibits a more lively picture of the bufinefs of a farmer, and the objects that ought to claim his attention, than is to be found in any other book,-at leaft, in any that hath fallen into our hands. On thefe accounts, Mr. Marfhall's minutes muft be fingularly ufeful to thofe who are beginning to practife agriculture, as they will thus obtain a more adequate idea of the pleasures and difficulties, the profits and loffes, which they may expect from the practice of farming, than they could from the perufal of any other treatise extant. A book of this kind, we look upon as peculiarly neceffary at this time, because it will help to counteract the pernicious influence of those flattering pictures, of the amazing profits that may be drawn from agriculture, which have been held up to public view by a modern popular author. No perfon, we are bold to fay, can more ardentiy wish to promote the advancement of rural improvements than the Authors of the Monthly Review; but as this can only be done effectually by those who profecute that business with a rational profpect of fuccefs, we cannot help difapproving every thing that has a tendency to induce the unwary, rafhly to engage in a bufinefs attended with many difficulties, and which demands the whole attention of those who practife it, if they ever hope to follow it with fuccefs.
The work before us confifts of two parts. The firft, is a feries of MINUTES of agriculture, exhibiting the various incidents that occurred to the Author, with his reflections upon them at the time, in a continued journal, beginning the 18th of July 1774, and ending the 15th of July 1777. In the fecond part, thefe minutes are arranged under regular heads, fo that the reader may fee at one view, all that occurs under each head, in the different parts of the journal. This our Author calls a DIGEST. It is properly a fyftematic index to the whole, with a few reflections interfperfed, tending to fupply the des ficiencies of the journal.
The Author of the following pages, he tells us, in a fhort preface *, was born a farmer, bred to traffic, and returned to
Inftead of Preface the Author denominates this the Approach, which we confider as an unneceffary, and therefore, a faulty in
the plow a few months before the commencement of the fol lowing MINUTES.' It is not, therefore, to be expected that, this being the cafe, the Author will fo early exhibit great proofs of his knowledge in agriculture; but from the beginning, thefe minutes afford ftrong evidence of good natural parts, acutenefs, and attention. They fhew in what manner a perfon who is poffeffed of thefe qualities, joined to unwearied application, may gradually acquire knowledge, and learn to furmount the difficulties that occur in practice. They ferve to teach an inexperienced perfon how to think, and thus become his own inftructor (instead of making him rely upon the inftructions of others), which is the beft method of attaining found knowledge. We recommend this part of the work, as a model worthy the imitation of every farmer, but particularly useful to beginners, as it will put them into a train of obferving facts-of reflecting upon paft occurrences, and of reafoning confiftently with refpect to future operations.
The following obfervations on the ufes that may be made of minuting occurrences, will ferve to corroborate what we have faid, and, at the fame time, give a specimen of our Author's fyle and manner;
18th, July 1776. (Thursday). On Tuesday evening, the hay of K. 2. which had been cut almost a fortnight, was in tolerable order; and the fap being nearly exhaufted, I was unwilling to expose it any longer in this critical flate: I therefore put it upon the waggons, to keep it out of harm's way; but did not unload it..
Yesterday unloaded one load on to the flack, very gently, and left it untrodden. On to the emptied waggon re-loaded another, which flood in the field. The wind was high, and the fun hot.-Two men re-loaded it as deliberately as poffible; breaking every lump, and loading it lightly with a fork they were three or four hours in doing it. It was unloaded, to-day, in good order. Re loaded another to-day, which will be unloaded to-morrow.
By thus expofing it to the fun and wind, and by leaving it on the flack for tour-and twenty hours, untrodden, it is got from tole rable into very good order.
Becaute hay which has been long cut, and whofe juices are exhaufled, is loaded on the waggons, to prevent its being totally fpoiled; it farely does not follow that it should be hurried into fack, wet or dry. Perhaps, hay not half made might, by repeated reloadings during fair blasts, be well-got; even in fuch very bad hayweather as we have lately had.
vation. The whole of this approach bears evident marks of affectation, in a ftronger degree, even than in other parts of the book. We are forry for this blemish, as it mult tend to prejudice many against the Author. It had that effect upon ourselves; and had not our en gagements to the public induced us to proceed, it is probable, we thould have turned from it with difguft, and never wifhed to have read a line farther.