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From the whole of the examples produced by our learned Writer, may be obferved the different degrees, of the Synony mous Parallelifm. The parallel lines fometimes confift of three or more fynonymous terms; fometimes of two; which is ge nerally the cafe, when the verb, or the nominative cafe of the first fentence is to be carried on to the fecond, or understood there; fometimes of one only; as in the two laft examples. There are, alfo, a few inftances, in which the lines confift each of double members, or two propofitions. Among others, the following example is very perfect in its kind:


"Bow thy heavens, O Jehovah, and descend "Touch the mountains, and they fhall fmoke: "Dart forth lightning, and scatter them; "Shoot out thine arrows, and destroy them." Pf. cxliv. 5, 6, Parallels are alfo fometimes formed by a repetition of part of the first fentence:

"My voice is unto God, and I cry aloud;


My voice unto God, and he will hearken unto me.
"I will remember the works of Jehovah ;
"Yea, I will remember thy wonders of old."

"The waters faw thee, O God;

"The waters faw thee; they were feized with anguish." Pf.lxxvii. 1. 11. 16. Sometimes in the latter line a part is to be fupplied from the former to complete the fentence:

"The mighty dead tremble from beneath;

"The waters, and they that dwell therein." Job xxvi. 5. Farther, there are parallel triplets; when three lines correfpond together, and form a kind of ftanza; of which, however, only two commonly are Synonymous:

"The wicked fhall fee it, and it shall grieve him, "He fhall gnafh his teeth, and pine away; "The defire of the wicked fhall perish." Pf. cxii. 10. "And he fhall fnatch on the right, and yet be hungry; "And he fhall devour on the left, and not be fatisfied; "Every man fhall devour the flesh of his neighbour," Ifaiah ix. 20. There are likewife parallels confifting of four lines: two. diftichs being fo connected together, by the sense and conftruction, as to make one ftanza. Such is the form of the thirtyfeventh Pfalm; which is evidently laid out by the initial letters in ftanzas of four lines; though in regard to that difpofition fome irregularities are found in the prefent copies. From this Pfalm, which gives fufficient warrant for confidering the union of two diftichs as making a stanza of four lines, our Author takes the firft of his examples:


"Be not moved with indignation against the evil doers;
" Nor with zeal against the workers of iniquity:
"For like the grafs they fhall foon be cut off;
"And like the green herb they fhall wither."
Pf. xxxvii. 1, 2.

Some periods, in like manner, may be confidered as making ftanzas of five lines; in which the odd line, or member, either comes in between two diftichs, or after two diftichs makes a full close :

"They bear him on the fhoulder; they carry him about;
They fet him down in his place, and he ftandeth ;
"From his place he fhall not remove:
"To him, that crieth unto him, he will not answer;
"Neither will he deliver him from his diftrefs."

Ifaiah xlvi. 7.

"Who eftablifheth the word of his fervant;
"And accomplisheth the counfel of his meffengers:
"Who fayeth to Jerufalem, Thou shalt be inhabited;
"And to the cities of Judah, Ye fhall be built;
"And her defolate places I will reftore."

Ifaiah xliv. 26. In ftanzas of four lines fometimes the parallel lines anfwer to one another alternately; the first to the third, and the second to the fourth:


ye be put to flight:

"And ye faid: Nay, but on horfes will we flee;
"Therefore fhall
"And on fwift courfers will we ride;
"Therefore fhall they be fwift, that purfue you."
Ifaiah xxx. 16.

A stanza of five lines admits of the fame elegance :
"Who is there among you that feareth Jehovah ?
"Let him hearken unto the voice of his fervant:
"That walketh in darkness, and hath no light?
"Let him trust in the name of Jehovah ;

"And reft himfelf in the fupport of his God."

Ifaiah 1. 10.

The fecond fort of Parallels, continues our eminent Prelate, are the Antithetic: when two lines correfpond with one another by an oppofition of terms and fentiments; when the fecond is contrafted with the firft, fometimes in expreflions, fometimes in fenfe only. Accordingly the degrees of Antithefis are various; from an exact contrapofition of word to word through the whole fentence, down to a general difparity, with fomething of a contrariety, in the two propofitions.

Thus in the following examples:

"A wife fon rejoiceth his father;

Prov. x. I

"But a foolish fon is the grief of his mother."

Where every word hath its oppofite: for the terms father and mother are, as the Logicians fay, relatively oppofite.

"The memory of the juft is a bleffing; "But the name of the wicked fhall rot." REV. Mar. 1779.


Prov. x. 7.

Here there are only two Antithetic terms: for memory and name are Synonymous.

"There is that fcattereth, and ftill increaseth ;
"And that is unreasonably fparing, yet groweth poor."
Prov. xi. 24.

Here there is a kind of double Antithefis; one between the two lines themselves; and likewise a subordinate oppofition between the two parts of each.

"Many feek the face of the prince;

"But the determination concerning a man is from Jehovah." Prov. xxix. 26. Where the oppofition is chiefly between the fingle terms the Prince, and Jehovah but there is an oppofition likewife in the general fentiment; which expreffes, or intimates, the vanity of depending on the former, without feeking the favour of the latter. In the following there is much the fame oppofition of fentiment, without any contrapofition of terms at all:

"The lot is caft into the lap;

"But the whole determination of it is from Jehovah.”
Prov. xvi. 33.

That is, the event feems to be the work of Chance; but is really the direction of Providence."

The foregoing examples are all taken from the Proverbs of Solomon, where they abound; this form being peculiarly adapted to that kind of writing; to adages, aphorifms, and detached fentences. Indeed, fays our Author, the elegance, acutenefs, and force of a great number of Solomon's wife fayings arife in a great measure from the antithetic form, the oppofition of diction and fentiment. We are not, therefore, to expect frequent inftances of it in the other poems of the Old Teftament; especially those that are elevated in the style, and more connected in the parts. Dr. Lowth, however, produces a few examples of the like kind from the higher poetry; in the laft of which the lines themselves are fynthetically parallel; and the oppofition lies between the two members of each:

"The bricks are fallen, but we will build with hewn flone; "The fycamores are cut down, but we will replace them with Ifaiah ix. 10.


The third fort of Parallels our learned Writer calls Synthetic or Conftructive: where the Parallelifm confifts only in the fimilar form of conftruction; in which word does not anfwer to word, and fentence to fentence, as equivalent or oppofite; but there is a correfpondence and equality between different propofitions in refpect of the fhape and turn of the whole fentence, and of the conftructive parts; fuch as noun answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, negative to negative, intertogative to interrogative.

"Praife ye Jehovah, ye of the earth;
"Ye fea-monfters, and all deeps:


* Fire and hail, fnow and vapour;
"Stormy wind, executing his command:
* Mountains, and all hills;
"Fruit-trees, and all cedars:
"Wild beafts, and all cattle;
"Reptiles, and birds of wing:

Kings of the earth, and all peoples;
"Princes, and all judges of the earth:
"Youths, and alfo virgins;
"Old men, together with the children:
"Let them praise the name of Jehovah ;
"For his name alone is exalted;

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"His Majefty, above earth and heaven."

Pf. cxlviii. 7-13.

Of the conftructive kind is meft commonly the Parallelifm of ftanzas of three lines; though they are fometimes Synonymous throughout, and often have two lines Synonymous. The following inftance is constructively parallel :

"Whatsoever Jehovah pleafeth,

"That doeth he in the heavens, and in the earth;

“In the sea, and in all the deeps :


Caufing the vapours to afcend from the end of the earth;
Making the lightnings with the rain;



Bringing forth the wind out of his treasures."

Pf. cxxxv. 6, 7. Of the fame fort of Parallelifm are thofe paffages, frequent in the poetic books, where a definite number is twice put for an indefinite: this being followed by an enumeration of particulars naturally throws the fentence into a Parallelism, which cannot be of any other than the Synthetic kind; and feems to have been a favourite ornament. There are many elegant examples of it in the 30th chapter of Proverbs, and fome few in other places :

"These fix things Jehovah hateth;

"And feven are the abomination of his foul.
"Lofty eyes, and a lying tongue;
"And hands fhedding innocent blood :
"A heart fabricating wicked thoughts;
"Feet haftily running to mifchief:
"A false witness breathing out lies;
"And the fower of ftrife between brethren."

Prov. vi. 16-19.

There are a few remarkable examples of the alternate conftruction; where the Parallelifm arifes from the alternation of the members of the sentences:

"I am black, but yet beautiful, O daughters of Jerufalem : "Like the tents of Kedar, like the pavilions of Solomon." Cant. 1. 5. That is, black, as the tents of Kedar; (made of dark-coloured goats hair;) beautiful as the pavilions of Solomon.



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From the examples of the Synthetic or Conftructive kind, the Reader will obferve, fays Dr. Lowth, that though there are perhaps no two lines correfponding with one another as equivalent, or oppofite in terms; yet there is a Parallelifm equally apparent, and almoft as ftriking, which arifes from the fimilar form and equality of the lines, from the correfpondence of the members and the conftruction; the confequence of which is a harmony and rhythm, little inferior in effect to that of the two kinds preceding.


The degrees of the correfpondence of the lines in this laft fort of Parallels muft, from the nature of it, be various. Sometimes the Parallelifm is more, fometimes lefs, exact: fometimes hardly at all. apparent. It requires indeed particular attention, much fudy of the genius of the language, much habitude in the analysis of the conftruction, to be able in all cafes to fee and to diftinguish the nice refts and paufes, which ought to be made, in order to give the period or the fentence its intended turn and cadence, and to each part its due time and proportion. The Jewish Critics, called the Maforetes, were exceedingly attentive to their language in this part; even to a fcrupulous exactnefs and fubtle refinement; as it appears from that extremely complicated Syftem of Grammatical Punctuation, more embarrafling than ufeful, which they have invented. It is therefore not improbable, that they might have had some insight into this matter; and in diftinguifhing the parts of the fentence by Accents might have had regard to the harmony of the Period, and the proportion of the members, as well as to the ftrict Grammatical difpofition of the conftructive parts. Of this, I think, I perceive evident tokens: for they fometimes feem to have more regard, in diftributing the fentence, to the Poetical or Rhetorical harmony of the Period, and the proportion of the members, than to the Grammatical Conftruction.'

To explain what he means, our ingenious Author produces fome examples, in which the Maforetes, in diftinguishing the fentence into its parts, have given marks of paufes perfectly agreeable to poetical rhythm, but fuch as the Grammatical Conftruction does not require, and fcarcely admits: and then

he adds:

Of the three different forts of Parallels, as above explained, every one hath its peculiar character and proper effect; and therefore they are differently employed on different occafions; and the fort of Parallelifm is chiefly made ufe of, which is beft adapted to the nature of the fubject and of the Poem. Synonymons Parallels have the appearance of art and concinnity, and a ftudied elegance; they prevail chiefly in fhorter Poems; in many of the Pfalms; in Balaam's Prophecies; frequently in those of Ifaiah, which are molt of them diftinct Poems of no great length. The Antithetic Parallelifm gives an acuteness and force to Adages and moral Sentences; and therefore, as I obferved before, abounds in Solomon's Proverbs, and elsewhere is not often to be met with. The Poem of Job, being on a large plan, and in a high Tragic ftyle, though very exact in the divifion of the lines, and in the Parallelifm, and affording many fine examples of the Synonymous kind, yet confifts chiefly of the Conftructive.

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