the men.

fruit, and pineapple.' The nutmeg hunters learned that the tree was common in the country, but the crew were unwilling to make any inland incursion, or to proceed any farther down the coast.

A neat perspective view is given of the galley lying in Dory harbour, of the appearance of the native Papuas, and of the peculiar structure of their habitations. The following account of the place is given by the Author :

:: Off the mouth of the bay, before the harbour, but out of the (well, a boat, with two Papua men, came on board, after having conversed a good deal with our linguists at a distance: fatisfied we were friends, they haftened athore, to tell, I suppose, the news, Soon after, many Papua Coffrées came on board, and were quite tasy and familiar: all of them wore their hair bushed out so much round their heads, that its circumference measured about three foot, and where least, (wo and a half. In this they stuck their comb, consisting of four or five long diverging teeth, with which they now and then combed their frizzling locks, in a direction perpendicular from the head, as with a design to make it more bulky.' They fome. times adorned their hair with feathers. The women had only their left ear pierced, in which they wore small brass rings. The hair of the women was bushed out allo; but not quite so much as that of

We anchored about four in the afternoon, close to one of their great hoofes, which is built on pofts, fixed several yards below low water mark; so that the tenement is always above the water : a long ftage, supported by posts, going from it to the land, just at high water mark.. The tenement.contains many families, who live in cabins on each side of a wide common hall, that goes through the middle of it, and has two doors, one opening to the Bage, towards the land; the other on a large fage towards the sea, supported likewise by poits, in rather deeper water than those that support the tenement. On this stage the canoes are hauled up; and from this the boats are seady for á launch, at any time of tide, if the Haraforas * attack from the land'; if they attack by sea, the Papuas take to the woods. The married people, unmarried women, and children, live in these large tenements, which, as I have said, have two doors; the one to the long narrow fage, that leads to the land ; the other to the broad Atage, which is over the sea, and on which they keep their boats, having outriggers on each side. A few yards from this sea stage, if I may so call

it, are built, in ftill deeper water, and on stronger posts, houses where only batchelors live. This is like the custom of the Batta people on Sumatra, and the Idaan or Moroots on Borneo, where, I am told, the batchelors are separated from the young women and -the married people.

* At Dory were swo large tenements of this kind, about four hun. <dred yards from each other, and each had a house for the batchelors, close by it: in one of the tenements were fourteen cabins, seven on a side; in the other, twelve, or fix on a side. In the common hall,

* Haraforas, people who inhabit the in-land parts, and cultivate the soil.

I saw the women sometimes making ma:s, at other times forming pieces of clay into earthen pors; with a pebble in one hand, to puc into it, whilst they held in the other hand also a pebble, with which they knocked, to enlarge and smooth it. The pots so formed, they burnt with dry grafs, or light brushwood. The men, in general, wore a thin ftuff, that comes f:om the cocoa-nut tree, and resem. bles a coarse kind of cloth, tied forward round the middle, and up behind, between the thighs. The women wore, in general, coarse blue Surat baf as, round their middle, not as a petticoat, but tucked up behind, like the men; so that the body and thigh were almost naked : as boys and girls go entirely. I have often observed the women with an axe or chopping knife, fixing posts for the stages, whilst the men were fauntering about idle. Early in a morning I have seen the men setting out in their boats, with two or three fox looking dogs, for certain places to hunt the wild hog, which they call Ben: a dog they call Naf. I have frequently bought of them pieces of wild 'hog; which, however, I avoided carrying on board ihe galley, but dressed and eat it ashore, unwilling to give offence to the crew

When navigators intrude themselves into strange lands, where the artless natives are not able to exercise the just power of repulsion if they dislike their visitors; there is something pleasing to find the intercourse cultivated in the manner practised by Capt. Forrest, who fome days afterwards gives us the following relation :

To-day I repaired to the large tenement, near which the vessel lay. I found the women in the common hall, making cocoya mats as usual ; also kneading (if I may so term it) the clay, of which others formed the pots, with two pebble stones, as before described. Two of them were humming a tune, on which I took out a German Alate, and played; they were exceedingly attentive, all work topping instantly when 'I began. I then asked one of the women to fing, which she did. The air The sung was very melodious, and of a spe.. cies much superior to Malay airs in general, which dwell long on a few notes, with little variety of rise or fall. Giving her a fathom, of blue baftas, I asked another to fing: she was bathful, and refused; therefore I gave her nothing: her looks spoke her vexed, as if dil. appointed. Presently, the brought a large bunch of plantains and gave it me with a smile. I then presented her with the remaining fathom of baftas, having had but two pieces with me. There being many boys and girls about us, as we sat in that part of the common hall, that goes upon the outer stage of the tenement, I separated some of the plantains from the bunch, and distributed to the chile. dren. When I had thus given away about one half, they would not permit me to part with any more: so the remainder I carried on board. I could not help taking notice that the children did not snatch, or seem too eager to receive, but waited patiently, and modestly accepted of what I offered, lifting their hands to their heads. The batchelors, if courting, come freely to the common hall, and fit down by their sweethearts. The old ones at a distance, are then faid often to call out, Well, are you agreed? If they agree before T 2


witnesses, they kill a cock, which is procured with difficulty, and then it is a marriage. Their cabins are miserably furnished ; a mat or two, a fire-place, an earthen pot, with perhaps a china plate or bafon, and some fago four.' As they cook in each cabin, and have no chimney, the smoke issues at every part of the roof: at a difance the whole roof seems to smoke. They are fond of glass, or china beads of all colours; both sexes wear them about the wrist, but the women only at the lefç ear,

They are exceeding good archers, and some of their arrows are fix feet long;, the bow is generally of bamboo, and the string of split ratan. They purchase their iron tools, chopping knives, and axes, blue and red baftaes, china beads, plates, basons, &c. from the Chinese. The Chinese carry back Misoy bark, which they get to the eastward of Dory, at a place called Warmasine, or Warapine ; it is worth 30 dollars a pecul (1 33 lb.) on Java. They trade also in laves, ambergrease, swallo, or sea sug, tortoiselhell, small pearls, black Joories, large red loories, birds of Paradise, and many kinds of dead birds, which the Papua men have a particular way of drying.

• The Dutch permit no burgher of Ternate, or Tidore, to send a vessel to the coast of New Guinea. They are not willing to trust those burghers, while they put a just confidence in the Chinese ; that they will not deal' in nutmegs, as formerly mentioned. The Chinese have a pass from the Sultan of Tidore, and wear Dutch colours,

On his voyage back to Balambangan, Capt. Forrest put into the harbour of Magindano, or Mindanao, where he staid some months to refit'; he accordingly here makes use of his leisure to describe several parts of the island, the manners and customs of the inhabitants, their history, and even the present state of politics at the Sultan's court. From the Sultan' he obtained a formal sealed grant of an adjacent small island called Bunwoot, about eighteen miles round, "This acquisition was the more feasonable and important, as the Company could erect a fort, and warehouses upon it, and as, during his absence, the Sooloos had dispossessed the English of the island of Balambangan: for however we may'accuse these rude nations of capriciousness, it is among them as among the polished nations of Europe, where the validity of treaties depends on the balance of power. This young remote factory being thus destroyed, the Tartar galley went to Fort Marlborough on the coast of Sumatra ; and time must de. termine what commercial purpose may be answered by the voyage.

We cannot avoid hinting, in conclufion, two material circumstances often neglected in works of a geographical nature. Navigators writing from their journals, are apt, sometimes, to introduce, abruptly and familiarly, the names of places, perfons, and things, intimately known to them on the spot, and at the time of writing, without explanation ; and without confidering that such terms must be very obscure to readers whose

comprehension depends on the sufficiency of the relation. Gentlemen, indeed, who have traversed the Eastern seas, may perhaps despise such affistance; but when a relation is given to the Public, it ought to be generally intelligible. To illustrate this complaint, leads to another defect, which diminishes the value of all literary performances above the fize of a pamphlet. Meeting frequent mention, in tke latter part of this work, of the Buggesjes, we wished to know who they were; but either because the term was not explained before, or such explanation had been overlooked, none could be found throughout, on turning back; as there is no index to affift the reader in occasional references *.-If this valuable work should come to a second edition, of which there is little doubt, it is hoped the deficiency here noticed will be duly supplied.

There is, prefixed, a very copious table of contents ; but this will not answer all the purposes of a good alphabetical index.

5 s. boards.

Art. IV. Observations concerning the Public Law, and the Constitu

tional History of Scotland: With occasional Remarks concerning Eng: lish Antiquity. By Gilbert Stuart, LL.D. 8vo. Murray, &c. 1779. TO branch of knowledge is more generally interesting than

that of history, nor is there any in which it is more difficult for a writer to excel. Great knowledge and refined taste are seldom found together; more seldom still is a spirit of perfevering diligence united with the vigorous ardour of genius. From these causes, the greater part of the numerous histories that have been written contain either dry details of uninteresting events, or entertaining narratives of fanciful occurrences ; for it is so much easier for a fertile imagination to form an ideal state of civil fociety, with which all known facts are made to agree, than to trace the gradual revolutions that have happened in human affairs from a change of trivial circumstances now involved in obscurity; that few are willing to undertake the more arduous task who have abilities to write an entertaining romance, which is better adapted to please the vulgar, to raise the reputation of an author during his own time at least, and to enrich his publisher, than a history more conformable to truth and nature, but less pictoresque, less ihowy, and less amusing.

In those ages of superstition and ignorance in which Europe was involved after the destruction of the Roman empire, nothing worthy of notice in the historical line could be expected; and, after the revival of letters, it was long before any adequate idea of the operations of the human mind could be obtained by those who still doubted whether all liberal disquisitions ought not to be discouraged as dangerous to religion. Voltaire had the merit of first directing the attention of Europe, hitherto confined

T 3


to kings and conquests, towards the study of men and mannersa The propriety of this plan was recognised as soon as it was known; and he has been followed, as far as their talents would permit, by many historical writers. From the same source we derive many excellent political treatises, in which the passions and prejudices of mankind have been regarded as of no less weight in human affairs than their judgment and reason.

But while we thus do justice to the memory of Voltaire, we must regret that so many of his imitators have copied his faults without aspiring to imitate his beauties. Hurried forward by the powerful influences of a too lively imagination, he has not been able to investigate historic truth with sufficient pains and accuracy; and others, without the fame plea in their favour, have been as bold in their assertions, and as adventurous in their çonjectures. Endowed with great talents, but defective in the powers of imagination, and destitute of the finer feelings of the heart, Hume has written a most entertaining history, in which the pictures are bold and animated. They seem copied from Nature herself --but unfortunately those who best know the ori. ginal are most sensible of the defects of the copy. Robertson possesses still a finer pencil, and more gaudy colouring : the Titian of history, his pictures appear life itself. They are enchantingly beautiful; but he has not always observed the couAtume with due attention. Great names are sufficient to millead the world; and it requires uncommon resolution to oppose opinions maintained by such distinguished writers. But this resolution has appeared. Whitaker, still mare addicted to his own system, more bold in his affertions, and equally sparing of proofs, has shaken and overturned some of the baseless hypotheses of Hume; and the Author of the present work has been equally successful in pointing out several errors in Dr. Robertson's History of Scotland.

Dr. Stuart profeffes to investigate a subject that has hitherto been involved in great obscurity: the constitutional history of Scotland, Few are the authors who have treated of the antiquities of that country; and among these few, not any one has adopted a plan by which it was possible to remove that thick cloud in which they are so deeply involved. Destitute of records, and acquainted only in part by accidental notices with the existence or the name of certain institutions, it seemed impossible to give any connected detail of the origin and nature of what was to obscurely pointed out in ancient records. Hence every author thought himself at liberty to give such an explanation of these matters, as struck his fancy at the time of writing; nor was it easy for ordinary readers to perceive the least degree of fallacy in his performance. Succeeding authors, however, happened by accident to discover several particulars

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