"The Directors of 1774, with every particular of the complete conquest of Tanjore before them, exprefs not the flightest disappro


Where then is the actual proof, which alone could justify the Directors of 1775, in fuch heavy charges against fuch men and meafures?" That the faith of the Company was forfeited, and the honour of the British nation deeply affected (by our fervants), contrary to our repeated orders and inftructions;" and all with impunity, nay with reward! Mark how a plain state of facts has reversed the fcene. Mark how the pages of the Company's records prove the actual contrary of thofe unguarded afperfions. The faith of the Company remained inviolate. The honour of the British nation was maintained, and her interefts in the Eaft critically fecured againft. impending danger. The fervants of the Company acted under the exprefs fanction of reiterated orders and inftructions from their conftituents; who fully authorised coercive meafures against the Rajah as just and neceffary; who repeatedly enjoined their profecution; and finally faw the completion of them in 1773, by the reduction of Tanjore, without the flighteft difapprobation.

Not till the 12th of April 1775 did this new light dawn on the Court of Directors. The tranfgreffions of the fervants in India, the infringement of the Company's faith, the violation of the British honour; these enormities, fo big with mischief and disgrace, had all flept from the year 1769 to the year 1775. What must add to our admiration of this enlightened period is, that no public examination had been inftituted, no difcovery promulgated; fact, record, reafon and juftice had remained the fame as in the fix preceding years. But more illuftrious lights now illuminated eaftern politics. Lord Pigot was to go to India. The fplendour of his miffion feemed to beam new intelligence on the Directors. But though it might be deemed the rifing of his glory, it was the setting of theirs; for their nota. ble inftructions to his Lordship was the last act of the last day of their adminiftration.'

The Writer next maintains, that the Company's orders to Lord Pigot proceeded on a falfe idea of the existence of the treaty of 1762 in favour of the Rajah, which he fhews was broken through by the repeated perfidious conduct of the Rajah, and afterwards annulled by the treaties of 1769 and 1771. But, even fuppofing this treaty to exift, and the Company to have been, as they style themselves, guarantees of it, he afferts their conduct to be equally inconfiftent with their own folemn profeffions, and with the duties of their affumed character,


They declare their determination (as guarantees) to do juftice. to a much injured Prince, and by re-inftating him in his dominions restore to the Company their public faith, which had been forfeited, and the honour of the British nation which had been deeply affected. These are fine founding words; but had this, or any thing fimilar to it, been really their object; had these plaufible fentiments been truly founded; the business was plain and open before them: the task would have been short and eafy, to reftore the Rajah to his domi

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nions, to fecure to the Nabob his tribute, and to guard against the commiffion of injury in future by either party. Instead of fuch a line of conduct, which only could accord with their profeffions, what measures did they purfue? They will beft appear from the following fhort extracts from their Orders refpecting the Rajah's restoration: Paragraph 5th.

"And having refolved to contribute as far as in us lies towards the restoration of the King of Tanjore, which by every tie of honour we conceive ourselves bound to do, we hereby direct that you take the most effectual measures, without lofs of time, for fecuring the perfon of the King of Tanjore, and that you forthwith appoint him a proper guard for his protection, and alfo for the protection of his family, and inform him that we have determined to replace him on the throne of his ancestors."

Paragraph 6th.

"We shall infift upon his admitting a garrison of our troops into the fort of Tanjore. You are likewife to infift upon having an affignment of revenues made to the Company, fufficient for the maintenance of the faid troops, and for providing military ftores necessary for the defence of the garrifon."

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Paragraph 11th.

"That no treaty with foreign powers fhall be concluded by the King of Tanjore without our concurrence." Paragraph 13th.

"No troops whatever, except thofe of the Company, shall be permitted to refide within the city of Tanjore, and except alfo fuch native guards as may be neceffary for fupporting the dignity of his Majefty's government; and the number of fuch native guards fhall be fixed by our Governor and Council, and not exceeded or augmented by the King of Tanjore on any account or pretence whatever.”

• Such are the Orders given by the Company in the character of guarantees to the treaty of 1762! Pretending to act under the authority of an office merely mediatorial, they affume high and imperial powers. On the fpecious pretext, but in real perversion of the character of guarantees, which could only entrust to them the care of former ftipulations, they dictate new terms, and impofe new con. ditions. Melted with compaflion for an unfortunate Prince, as they profefs themselves, they determine to redress his injuries by re-initating him in his dominions. Mark how their fympathy works! They feize his kingdom to themfelves, fill his forts with their garrifons, and his country with their forces; keeping his Majesty a ftateprifoner with not a femblance of royalty, excepting indeed a bodyguard about his perfon, that ferves only to remind him of his loft dignity. Thus do they" fupport the dignity of his Majefty's government!" and thus do they replace" an injured Prince "on the throne of his ancestors !"


After fome remarks on the impolicy as well as injuftice of this measure, the Writer concludes by calling upon Government, to whom the Nabob has made his appeal, to fupport the public faith and the honour of the British nation, by restoring to the Nabob of Arcot the country of Tanjore, and perform


ing every condition, according to the ftipulations between him and the Prefidency of Madras.

Without attempting to decide on the merits of the main question, which more properly belongs to the court of justice than to that of criticism, we may be allowed to remark, that every fresh developement of the tranfactions in the East affords a new occafion for lamenting the power of avarice to blind men's eyes and harden their hearts. Whatever benefits mankind may derive from commerce, we find little reason to expect that it will improve their ideas of equity, or strengthen their principles of humanity.

ART. IX. Moral Eclogues. 4to. Is. Payne. 1778.

Ọ thefe Eclogues is prefixed no other introduction than the following brief advertisement:

The moft rational definition of Paftoral Poetry, feems to be that of the learned and ingenious Dr. Johnfon, in the 37th number of his Rambler. "Paftoral, fays he, being the reprefentation of an action or paffion, by its effects on a country life, has nothing peculiar, but its confinement to rural imagery, without which it ceases to be Paftoral." This theory the Author of the following Eclogues has endeavoured to exemplify.'

The peculiarity, here mentioned, refers only to the imagery of Paftoral. Many writers, especially Pope, have thought the numbers of almost equal confequence; and that a polished, eafy, gentle flow of verfe was one of the characteristics principally requifite in Paftoral Poetry. The Writer of the Eclogues before us, has accordingly been equally attentive to the style and imagery. The liquid lapse of his measures is rarely interrupted, though fome few lines do not quite accord with the sweetness of the reft, viz.

Beneath a broad oak on the graffy plainAnd again,


While herds and flocks their annual increase yield

In these, and fome other inftances, the accent is misplaced, and the harmony deftroyed; but a poetical ear will, in most parts of these Pastorals, be sufficiently gratified. There is a novelty in the conduct and fcenery of the third Eclogue, entitled, Armyn; or the Discontented, which induces us to select some lines from thence, as a fpecimen of thefe Eclogues.

There, on the hill's soft slope, delightful view!
Fair fields of corn, the wealth of ARMYN, grew.
His sturdy hinds, a flow laborious band,
Swept their bright fcythes along the level land:
Blithe youths and maidens nimbly near them paft,
And the thick swarth in careless wind-rows cast.

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Full on the landscape fhone the westering fun,
When thus the Swain's foliloquy begun :

"Hafte down, O Sun! and close the tedious day:
"Time, to the unhappy, flowly moves away.
"Not fo, to me, in RODEN's fylvan bowers,
"Pafs'd youth's fhort blissful reign of careless hours;
"When to my view the fancy'd Future lay,
"A region ever tranquil, ever gay.
"O then, what ardors did my breast inflame!
"What thoughts were mine, of friendship, love, and fame!
"How taftelefs life, now all its joys are try'd,
"And warm pursuits in dull repose fubfide!"
He paus'd: his clofing words ALBINO heard,
As down the ftream his little boat he fleer'd;
His hand releas'd the fail, and dropt the oar,
And moor'd the light skiff on the fedgy fhore.
"Ceafe, gentle Swain," he faid; " no more, in vain,
"Thus make past pleasure cause of present pain!
"Ceafe, gentle Swain," he said; "from thee, alone,
"Are youth's blest hours and fancy'd profpects flown?
« Ah, no!—remembrance to my view restores
"Dear native fields, which now my foul deplores ;
"Rich hills and vales, and pleasant village scenes
"Of oaks whose wide arms stretch'd o'er daified greens,
" And wind-mill's fails flow-circling in the breeze,
"And cottage walls envelop'd half with trees-
"Sweet fcenes, where beauty met the ravish'd fight,
"And mufic often gave the ear delight;

"Where DELIA's fmile, and MIRA's tureful fong,
"And DAMON's converfe, charm'd the youthful throng!
"How chang'd, alas, how chang'd!-O'er all our plains,
"Proud NORVAL, now, in lonely grandeur reigns;
"His wide-spread park a waste of verdure lies,
"And his vaft villa's glittering roofs arife.
"For me, hard fate!-But fay, fhall I complain?
"Thefe limbs yet active Life's fupport obtain.
"Let us, or good or evil as we share,

"That thankful prize, and this with patience bear.",
The foft reproach touch'd ARMYN's gentle breast;
His alter'd brow a placid fmile exprest.

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"Calm as clear ev'nings after vernal rains,
"When all the air a rich perfume retains,
"My mind," said he, "its murmurs driv'n away,
"Feels Truth's full force, and bows to Reafon's fway.”

The Reader will not find the reft of the work inferior to this extract. The Author, like other Paftoral Poets, has marked the several seasons of each Eclogue; but he has devoted two to fummer, and none to winter.



CAR ARSTEN NIEBUHRS Reifebefchreibung nach Arabien und andern umliegenden Laendern. Zweyter Band-Niebuhr's Voyage to Arabia, and fome Countries adjacent. 4to. Vol. I. Copenhagen. 1778. When we reviewed the first volume of this Voyage, we could not help obferving that many things were related with great prolixity, and we have, on reading this volume, found still more reafon to complain that the narrative is spun out rather tedioufly, and that our entertainment has not altogether anfwered expectation. The Author promifes, in the Preface, a third volume, though we could with he had inferted all his remaining materials in the prefent publication, which, in all probability, might have been done by leaving out things that are fufficiently known, from former writers, and by relating others more concifely. We are unwilling to throw out reflections upon any nation, particularly the Germans, who, within this century, have gained reputation in all branches of literature; but we are forry to fee that even fome of their best writers have not yet divefted themselves of their national prejudice in favour of huge volumes; as if to write a great deal, and to make large books, was the way to literary immortality. It is true, we have had, efpecially in former times, voluminous fcribblers among our own Authors; but our modern quartowriters cannot properly rank with thofe in Germany; for, fpacious as their productions outwardly appear, their whole manufcript might generally be printed off in a decent octavo, without the lofs of a word: but German quartos, in fmall character, not overbroad margin, and two or three inches thick, are really enough to frighten any reader, efpecially a poor Reviewer, who reads with his pen in his hand, expecting the dofe to be repeated upon him again and again!

We left our Author, at the end of his firft volume, in Arabia, and we now meet him again at Bombay, of which ifland he gives an account that might be improved from many other defcriptions in our own language. One thing, however, we fhall mention, viz. that in the year 1773, our Eaft-India Company, for the first time, fent a fhip up the Arabian gulph to Suez, which was formerly thought a very dangerous voyage; and for that reafon the goods were always landed at Dsjidda in Arabia, to be carried from thence by caravans into Egypt. The government at Dsjidda and Mocka had laid heavy duties on merchandice, and the English captains were treated but indifferently


See Review, vol. liii. p. 577.

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