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apprehensive of the same policy now? It is-Surely a very strained compliment that has been made from a free Protestant state to che intolerant superstition of the fee of Rome.

Are they all dead,' exclaims the honest Archdeacon in another, place,' whole remembrance might carry them back to the dangers, which themselves or their ancestors have formerly escaped, of Popih tyranny ?' He takes particular notice of what certainly is very notorious, that a petition from the Disfenters, constitutional friends, as he terms them, of this free ftate, fhould þe rejected, while the Papiits obtain unaked for favour and indulgence. He candidly of fers some reasons why he imagines the Difienters have avoided taking any great notice of this, adding, Surely they have a right to claim at lealt the same indulgence which the Papifts have.' He recommends it to his brethren to withfand the progress of Popery; at the fame tine that he expresies an earneit with that it could be safe ' to tolerate them, who will not tolerate us.' Art. 47. The Revelation of St. John historically explained; not -compiled from Commentators and other Authors, but an Oir GINAL, written by John James Bachmair, M. A. Svo. bound. Dodfiey, &c. 1778.

Many have exposed their weakness, in attempting to explain the revelation of St. John, but good Mr. John James Bachmair, M. A. has done it to all intents and purposes. After ten years close application, he has been lucky enough to find out what is meant by the seven seals, the seven trumpers, the seven thunders, and the seven vials. The beast, with seven heads and ten horns, has very much been tortured by Protestant and Roman Catholic commentators, who, hitherto, have never agreed what to make of it, or where to place it'; bue our Author is so sure of his explanation that' to use his own expressions, • if the pope himself reads these words, he cannot but confess, that the great city is Rome, and that we know now where the beast is, and where the whore is carried to by the beast.".

As well-wishers to rational religion and divine revelation, we are sorry to think that the true intereit of Christianity may suffer by such commentators, though they themselves mean no harm; but our comfort is, that books of this kind will soon be forgotten.

We should have something to do, if we were to point out all the marks of originality which distinguish this commentary. We shall only acquaint our readers, that, according to the prophecies of Mr. B. great revolutions will soon take place': the Turkish empire will be at an end in the year 1803; the great whore of Babylon will have a fhameful exit, as she deserves; the millenium in which we actually now live, and which began in the year 1120, will be at an end in 2120: and then farewel all the glory of this world, which will dissolve and be no more; the leases of all empires and all commòn. wealths will expire within three hundred and forty-one years. Before this short period is elapled, however, all the Jews will be assembled as a nation, in the holy land, and not a Jew-broker shall be left upon the Royal-exchange to negociate bills, nor an Ifraelite be heard in the streets of London to cry old clothes, or to buy stol goods. Alas! poor posterity.


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Art. 48. A New Defence of the Holy Roman Church, againf He-
retics and Schifmatics. 8vo. I 8. Fielding and Walker. 1779.

This is not a wolf in sheep's cloathing, but a fox in the wolf's
cloathing; a wicked heretic, who, inftead of vindicating the Holy
Roman Church, exposes the Old Lady to scoffs and ridicule.
Art. 49. Serious Reflections on the late Faft; with a brief Efti-

mate of the Manners of the Times. 8vo. 6 d. Fielding and

A seasonable and well-meant attempt to awaken the inhabitants of this country to a serious examination of the probable causes of the declension of our national prosperity.-The Author is at pains to establish the doctrine of a particular Providence; he takes a short review of the state of religion and virtue amongst us, and he writes like a man of sense and observation. Art. 50. A Letter to Dr. Fordyce, in Answer to his Sermon on the delusive and persecuting Spirit of Popery. 8vo.

I s. 6d. Robinson.

A feeble attempt to wash the Blackamoor white. Our Readers
may form an idea of this fly Roman Catholic by the concluding sen.
tence of his letter, wherein he tells the Doctor that, from the first to
the last page of his fermon, there is not, in all his charges against
the Roman Catholics, A SINGLE WORD OF TRUTH. Naughty Di.
Fordyce !
SERMONS preached on the late GenerALFAST, Feb. 10, continued:

See our last Month's Review.
VII. Preached at the Parish Church of Woodford in Essex. By the

Rev. T. Maurice, A. B. of University College, Oxford. 8vo. 1 s.

A very candid and moderate discourse, from Jeremiah xviii. 8.
VIII. The Spoilers Spoiled; or, Retaliation denounced against the Ene-

mies of this Church and Nation. By the Rev. Peter Perit, A. M. Vicar of Wymondham, and Commiliary of Norfolk. 460. 6d. Baldwin.

Mr. Petit is zealously affected in what, we doubt not, he thinks a good caufe ; but, it were to be wished that his zeal were tempered with more candour and moderation. He discourses from Isaiah xxxiii. .

We are obliged to M. B. for his Verses in praise of our periodical

lucubrations ; but we hope the Gentleman has a better opinion of our modesty, than to imagine that we could, in any way, be concerned in handing to the Public the compliment which he has, with too much partiality, lavished upon


Cantabrigienfis will see, in our next Number, the use made of his obliging communication.

+++ • One of the Unlearned,' wishes' to cut us out more work.. We have already enough on our hands.

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13 S. Boards.


ART. I. A Treatise on Government. Translated from the Greek

of Aristotle, by William Ellis, A. M, 460. Payne, &c. 1778.

HE claflical remains of the ancient Greeks and Romans

are chiefly valuable in three respects; as patterns of fine writing; as records of important facts; and as treasuries of science and wisdom.

On the first of these grounds, it appears to us that they best deserve the admiration which has been so liberally bestowed upon them by the moderns. Perhaps almost all our ideas of correctness, strength, and elegance in writing, are derived from the ancients : at least, it may, without hesitation, be asserted, that the most certain way to become acquainted with the prin. ciples of just criticism, and to form a true taste in compofition, is to converse familiarly with their writings. But to do this with success, it is necessary to study them in the original ; for it is extremely difficult, perhaps impoffible, for the most judicious and able translator of the classics to convey a perfect idea of their beauties in any modern language.

As records of facts, the value of the writings of the ancients, though on the whole very great, must be acknowledged to be materially diminished, by the uncertainty which hangs upon the narrative, especially in the more remote periods, and perhaps not a little by the disguise which the ornaments of diction have cast over historical truth. Whatever be the real value of these records, it may however be preserved, with little or no diminution, in correct and faithful translations.

The third ground on which the ancients claim attention and veneration from the moderns, as teachers of science and wisdom, is of a more dubious nature than the two former, and will, perhaps, be found, upon examination, of less value than has commonly been supposed. In all the branches of natural knowledge, the moderns have left them so far behind, as scarcely Vol. LX.



to find it worth the labour to retrace their infant steps. And in speculative science, all inquiries which are truly valuable, that is, which have for their object the discovery of important truth on topics which lie within the reach of the human intellect, have been pursued much farther, and more successfully, by modern philosophers, than by the fages of Greece and Rome.

The writings of Aristotle, though exceedingly various, belonging in general to this latter class, are, in our judgment, to far from being entitled to that enthusiastic veneration which was universally paid them for many centuries-during which, reading Aristotle was learning, and adopting his opinions with implicit deference was wisdon--that their utility is in a great meafure fuperseded by the more successful labours of the moderns. It will, perhaps, be readily admitted that natural history and philosophy may be studied more successfully in the writings of a Linnæus or Buffon, a Boyle or Newton, than in the pages of Aristotle. And we apprehend there would be little difficulty in proving, that the sciences of Metaphysics, Morals, or Policy, are investigated with more profound penetration, and taught in greater perfection, by our modern Lockes and Huchesons, than by “the mighty Stagyrite.”

We are confirmed in this opinion by the work, of which a translation is here offered to the Public, which appears to'us extremely deficient in that connected train of thinking, and those enlarged and comprehensive views, which distinguish many of the writings of the moderns. We would not, however, be understood to infinuate that the works of this great philosopher áre unworthy of being read or translated. His Treatise on Government, doubtless, contains many just observations, records fome curious facts, and abounds with ingenious distinctions and accurate definitions. The Public is therefore much indebted to his Translator for giving them an opportunity of perusing it in an English version, which, though it does not merit the appellation of elegant, is faithful and perspicuous.

The following rules for preserving a tyrannical government may serve as a specimen of the translation, and at the same time will place, in the strongest point of light, the pernicious nature and destructive tendency of tyranny.

The following things are conducive to preserve tyranny: Ć To keep down those who are of an aspiring disposition, to take off those who will not fubmit, to allow no public meals, no clubs, no education, nothing at all, but to guard against every thing that gives rise to high spirits, or mutual confidence; nor to suffer the learned meetings of those who are at leisure to hold conversation with each other; and to endeavour by every means possible to keep all the people strangers to each other; for knowledge increases mutual confidence; and to oblige all


Strangers to appear in public, and to live near the city-gate, that all their actions may be sufficiently seen; for those who are kept like Slaves feldom entertain any noble thoughts: in short, to imitate every thing which the Pertians, and Barbarians do; for they all contribute to support slavery; and to endeavour to know what every one, who is under their power does, and says ; and for this purpose to employ spies : such were those women whom the Syracufians, called flotaqwgides. Hiero also used to send out listeners, where-ever there was any meeting or conversation ; for the People dare not speak with freedom for fear of such persons; and if any one does, there is the less chance of its being concealed; and to endeavour that the whole Commu. nity should mutually accuse and come to blows with each other; Friend with Friend, the Commons with the Nobles, and the Rich with each other. It is also advantageous for a Tyranny that all those who are under it should be oppressed with poverty, that they may not be able to compose a guard; and that being employed in procuring their daily bread, they may have no leisure to conspire against their Tyrants. The Pyramids of Egypt are a proof of this, and the Votive Edifices of the Cypoclidæ, and the Temple of Jupiter Olympus, built by the Pyfiftratidæ, and the Works of Polycrates at Samos; for all these produced one end, the keeping the People poor. It is necessary also to multiply taxes, as at Syracuse; where Dionysius in the space of five years collected all the private property of his subjects into his own coffers. A Tyrant also should endeavour to engage his subjects in a war, that they may have employment, and continually depend upon their General. A King is preserved by his friends, but a Tyrant is of all persons the man who can place no confidence in friends, as every one has it in his desire, and these chiefly in their power to destroy him. All these things also which are done in an extreme Democracy hould be done in a Tyranny, as permitting great licentiousness to the Women in the house, that they may reveal their husbands secrets ; and thewing great indulgence to Slaves also, for the same reason; for Slaves and Women conspire not against Tyrants : but when they are treated with kindness, both of them are abettors of Tyrants, and extreme Democracies also ; and the People too in such a State defire to be despotic. For which reason flatterers are in repute in both thefe : the Demagogue in the Democracy, for he is the proper flatterer of the People ; among Tyrants, he who will servilely adapt himself to their humours; for this is the business of flatterers. And for this reason Tyrànts always love the worst of wretches, for they rejoice in being flattered, which no man of a liberal spirit will fubmit to; for they love the Virtuous, but fatter none.

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