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century, has given to these whilome holy waters, an extenfive degree of utility. On its banks are erected battering mills for copper, a wire-mill, a coarse paper-mill, a fnuff-mill, 'a foundery for brass; and at this time a cotton' manufactory is establishing, the success of which will be an extensive blessing to the neighbourhood.
Many relics or memorials, of ancient mining and smelting, appear in the county of Flint. A tradition prevails, that in very old times, there stood a large town at Atis-cross, a place about a mile distant from the town of Flint. Here great quantities of fcoria of lead, bits of lead-ore, and fragments of melted lead, have been discovered in several spots ; as well as in the adjoining parish of Northop. Thefe have; of late, been observed to contain such quantities of lead, as to encourage the washers of ore to farm the spots. In this tract, many tons have been got within a small time; especially at Pentre FRWRN-DAN, or the Place of the Fiery Furnace, a name by which it has always been known, and which evince's the antiquity of smelting in these parts; though this etymology was never confirmed, till these recent discoveries were made,
The wedge, or pick-ax, as we learn from Pliny, was used by the ancients, for the purpose of procuring the stone or ore, by insinuating them into cracks formed by first heating the rock, and then suddenly pouring cold water upon it. The Author was presented with a wedge, that had probably been applied to this use, and which was found in working the deep figures of Dalar Goch rock, in the parish of Dysert, in this county: • This little inftrument,' fays the Author, “affords a proof of its antiquity, by being almoft entirely incrusted with lead ore. It had probably lain in the courfe of some fubterraneous stream, which had brought along with it the leaden particies, and deposited them on the iron-Pick-axes too-probably the Fracta. ria of the Romans * have been discovered in the bottom of the mineral trenches.
Roman pigs of lead have been found in different parts of Britain. The Author describes three which he has seen; one of which was found in the county of Stafford, in the year 1771. It was buried four feet underground. Its length is twenty-two inches and a half; the weight 152 pounds, that is, only about two pounds heavier than our common pigs of lead.
? On the upper surface is a rim; within that, in raised capitals, ftruck when the metal was hot, is this inscription ; IMP. X VESP. X VII. * T. X IMP. X V. x Cos. or Imperatore Vespasiano Septimum Tito Imperatore Quintum Confule : which answers to the year 75 or 76.
• Pliny, lib. 33. 6. 4.
The Author also de seribes, and gives a drawing of a large mass of copper, that had been cast likewise by the Romans, which was found at Caer hen, the ancient Conarium; and which probably was smelted froin the ore of the Snowdon-hills, where lately much has been got.. It is shaped like a cake of bees-wax, and weighs 42 pounds. In the middle of it, there is a deep concave impression, with the words Socio ROMÆ: across these is impresied obliquely, in smaller letters, Natsol. Mr. Pennant conje&rures, that possibly Nat. may stand for Natio, or the people who paid this species of tribute; and Sol for Solvit, that being the ftamp-malter's mark; and that the cakes thus stamped, might have been bought up by a merchant resident in Britain, and consigned Socio, Romæ, or to his Partner, at Rome,
The Author's description of the fingular structure of the principal streets in the city of Chester, and his conjecture on the subject, may perhaps be acceptable to our readers a
• The form of the city evinces the origin to have been Roman, being in the figure of their camps; with four gates; four principal streets; and variety of lesser crolling the others at right angles, dividing the whole into lesser squares. Thę walls, the precincts of the present city, mark the limits of the ancient. No part of the old walls exist; but they stood, like the modern, on the soft free. ftone rock, high above the circumjacent country, and escarpée on
• The structure of the four principal Atreets is without parallel, They run direct from east to west, and north to fouth; and were excavated out of the earth, and sunk many feet beneath the surface. The carriages are driven far below the level of the kitchens, on a line with ranges of shops; over which, on each side of the streets, passengers walk from end to end, secure from wet or heat, in galJeries (or rows, as they are called) purloined from she first floor of each house, open in front and balustraded. The back-courts of all these houses are level with the rows; but to go into any of these four streers, it is necessary to descend a flight of several steps.
· These rows appear to me to have been the same with the ancient veftibules; and to have been a form of building preserved from the time that, the city was poffeffed by the Romans. They were built before the dcors, midway between the itreets and the houses ; and were che places where dependents waited for the coming out of their patrons , and under which they might walk away the tedious minutes of expectation. Plautus, in the third act of his Miftella, defcribes both their Situation and use:
• Viden’vellibulum ante ædes, et ambulacrum ejusmodi? The shops beneath the rows were the crypte and apothecæ, magazines for the various necessaries of the owners of the houses.
• The streets were once considerably deeper, as is apparent from the shops, whose floors lie far below the present pavement. In digo
* De fignif. vocab. Vitruv."
ging Foundations for housess the Roman pavement is often discovered at the depth of four feet beneath the modern. The lefier streets and alleys, which run into the principal streets, were foped to the bottoms of the latter, as is particularly visible in Bridge Street; buc there are destitute of the galleries or rows.
• It is dificult to allign a reason for thesc hollowed ways. Aa antient historian mentions the existence, in his days, of certain vaults and passages, of which not a trace, nor even chè lealt memory is left, notwithstanding the most diligent search and enquiries have been made. In this cyte, says the author of the Polychronicon, ben ways under erthe, with vowies and stone-werke wonderly wrought ; thre chambred werkes. Grete ftones I grave with olde mennes names therin. There is also Julius Cezar's name wonderly in flones grave, and other noble mennes names also, with the wrylynge about ; meaning the altars and monumental inscriptions: but he probably mistakes the name of Julius Cæfar for that of Julius Agricola; to whom, it is reasonable to supposé, fome grateful memorial was erected. Ualess these hollowed streets were formed by the void left after the de. fraction of these great vaults, I can no more account for their formation, than for the place which those ancient Souterrains occupied. None have cver been discovered, by the frequent finking of cellars for new buildings on the site of the old ; tradition has delivered no such accounts to us; nor, is their exit to be traced beneath the walls in any part of their circumference. The only vaults now known, are of a middle age, and which belonged either to the hotels of the great men, or to the religious houses dispersed through the city.'
Toward the close of his Tour, the Author gives a very full and entertaining account of the ancient and fingular musical establishments in this country. : Caerwys, in particulary a town now mouldering away with age, was the place where the fellions of the bards and minstrels had been held, for many ages. It was, in short, the principal seat of the British Olympics. None but bards of merit were suffered to rehearse their pieces, and minstrels of skill, to perform. These went through a long probation ; judges were appointed to decide on their respective abilities, and different kinds of degrees were conferred, and permiffions granted for exercising their respective faculties. And although Edward I. exercised a political cruelty over the generation of bards of his time ; yet the crown, our Author obferves, thought fit afterwards, to revive an institution so well adapted to foften the manners of a fierce people. Our princes nominated the judges, who decided not only on the merit, but on the subject likewise of the poems; and, like our modern Lord Chamberlains, would take care to licence such only as . were agreeable to the English court.
On this occasion, the Author gives us a copy (the original of which is in the possession of Sir Roger Mostyn) of a commission issued by Queen Elizabeth, empowering and requiring the pera fons therein named, to hold one of these musical fefions; and D 2
ordering all and every person and persons, “ that intend to maynteigne theire lyvings by name or color of Mynstrells, Riihmers, or, Barthes,”-to appear before them on the day and in the place appointed, “ to shew their learnings accordingly." "You are required likewise,' says the commission, to repair to the said place,-and calling to you such expert men in the said facultie of the Welshe musick, as to you shall be thought convenient to pceade to thexecucon of the pmisss, and to admytt such and so many as by your wisdomes and knowledges you shall fyndę worthy into and undi the degrees heretofore in semblable fort, to use exercise and folowe the fcyences and facultes of theire. pfeffyons in fuch decent ord as fhall apptaigne to each of theire degrees, and as yor discrecons and wisdomes shall pscribe unto them, gave straight monycons and comaundm. in of name and on or behalf to the rest not worthy that they returne to some honest labor and due exercise, such as they be moft apte unto for mayntenaunce of their lyvings, upon paine to be taken as fturdy and idle vacaboundes, &c.
A poetical and musical session was held in consequence of this commission; and the Author gives us the names of all those who received their degrees. The degrees in the poetical faculty were four ; and those in the musical were five. The Reader will, perhaps be amused, by our presenting him with the numbers, at least, and titles of the respective graduates in both faculties.
Four pesons' were created Chief Bards of Vocal Song; feven others, Primary Students of Vocal Song ; three more, Secondary, and three others, Probationary Students of the fame. Of the candidates for degrees in instrumental music, in the first place, on the Harp, were created three Chief Bards and Teachers of Instrumental Song ; five, Chief Bards (but nat Teachers); four, Primary Students; five, Secondary Students; and three, Probationary Students, of Instrumental Song. The degrees respecting the Crwth, the other mufical instrument, are of the same denomination with the five preceding, and were conferred on twenty-one persons. We omit the titles these graduates received in the Welsh tongue; except that of Pencerdd, which designed one of these chiefs of the faculty he was candidate in, and who only could assume the office of an instructor.-" The chief of our days,' says the Author, is that uncommon genius, the blind Mr. John Parry of Rhiwabon, who has had the kingdom for his Cylch Glera, or musical circuit, and remains unrivalled.'
Every Pencerdd was allowed to take in disciples for a certain space of çime, but not above one at a time. A disciple was not
qualified to make another. Each was to be with his teacher during Lent, unless prevented by fickness or imprisonment, under pain of lofing his degree. He was obliged to shew every composition to his téacher before it was publicly long. They were not to follow the practice of cler , dom, i. e, dunghill bards and musicians, or any other fpecies of vagabond minstrels. They were enjoined a month before each festival, to settle their roots with their respective teachers, least too many of them should crowd to the same places; only one being allowed to go to a person who paid ten pounds a year rent ; and two to such who payed twenty pounds, and so on in proportion to those of higher rank: and every teacher was obliged to keep a copy of these rules, to thew and inculcate to his pupils in time of Lent, when they came for their instructions.
• No perfon was co mimic, mock, or scoff at the Awenyddion on account of their mental absence, or when they had on them the AWEN or poeticus furor ; from an opinion that no bard, duly authorized, could ever meditate on improper subjects.'
It were devoutly to be wilhed, that some of the following regulations, respecting the Welsh poetical graduates, could be properly enforced to keep our present poetical Mohawks in a little order. They were prohibited from uttering any scandalous words in speech or whispers ; detra...n, mocking, scoffing, inventing lies, or repeating them after others, under pain of fine and imprisonment.' Nay, they were absolutely forbid to make a song of any person without his consent.'
The readers of tours will perhaps think, that the Author has enlarged too much, and too frequently, on genealogies, descents of property, &c.: but it should be considered, that his Tour comprehends a kind of Provincial History, of the counties through which he passes. It must be remembered likewife, that our traveller is treading upon Welsh ground; and that he is himself a Cambrian, and accordingly may juftly claim some indulgence, if he should be thought to have been somewhat too copious on the subject of pedigrees and successions.
ART. X. An Inquiry into the original State and Formation of the
Eartb; deduced from Faas and i be Laws of Nature! To which is added an Appendix, containing fome general Observations on the Strata in Derby bire, &c. By John Whitehurit. 400. 12 s. Boards, Robinson. 1778.
UR learned Readers are well acquainted with the various
and, fome of them sufficiently whimsical theories, which have been invented by fpeculative philosophers, with a view, principally to account for the fingular appearances that this globe exhibits on and beneath its furface; and to discover the causes of the great changes that an examination of its various Arata prove it to have undergone, in times far antecedent to ali written history and tradition. The mgenious Author of this production