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III. The Doctrine of Toleration, applied to the present Times-Preached
in the Wynd Church of Glaigow, roth Dec. 1778. Being a public Falt, appointed by the Provincial Synod of Glasgow and Ayr. By William Porteous, one of the Ministers of Glasgow. 8vo. Printed at Glasgow.
In this fermon, from Luke ix. 55, 56, Mr. Porteous inquires into the extent of toleration, according to the religion of Jefus, and observes, that every religion which now
exists, from the rising to the setting fon, is tolerated by the Christian religion, provided it teaches no opinions which are destructive to the state, or dangerous to the particular members of it.--He proceeds to inquire, whether Popery ought to be tolerated in a Proteftant state :--Popery, he says, may be confidered in three views, -as a false religion as a faction in the ftate-and as a system of immorality. He confines himself entirely to the third view of Popery, and endeavours to shew that, congdered as a system of immorality, it ought not to be tolerated. IV. Popery a spiritual Tyranny - Preached Nov. 5, 1712, by the
late Rev. Mr. Matthew Henry. A new Edition. 12mo.. 6 d. Buckland. 1779.
The editor of this sermon apprehends that there are Papists in this kingdom, who, ' sensible of the want of argument to support their fystem of civil and religious tyranny, would fain persuade us, that the principles of their religion are altered, and that the spirit of Popery, which heretofore made fuch dreadful havock, is now totally evaporated :—It is easy, fays he, to see what has caused their preo tended change of sentiments, namely, a real change of circumstances ; they have no power to propagate their religion in the manner their ancestors had ; they muft therefore try other methods : but let us never forget that, “ Nature' chained, is not Nature changed.” The most refined fophiftry in the world cannot persuade us, that the real principles of Popery are in the least altered.'. On these and other confiderations, this discourse, preached to many years ago, is republished. The name of its author, 'even at this distance of time, will recommend it to numbers. The sermon is well worthy of regard. It breathes that good spirit for which its author was eminent: and while it gives, in a small compass, a view of the errors of the church of Rome, the preacher, in a very sensible manner, urges it on Protestants to be constantly on their guard left they indulge any thing of a bigotted, uncharitable disposition toward those who may differ from themselves in matters of faith and opinion. V. An old Disciple-Occafioned by the Death of the late Mr. John
Mudge; who departed this Life, Jan. 6, 1779, in the 70th Year of his Age. By N. Hill. 8vo. 5d, Buckland.
This is a plain, sensible exhortation to a pious life ; but the title does not express where this fermon was delivered, whether in Eng. land, Scotland, or Ireland; nor does this publication either in the sermon or notes give us any personal account of the deceased party, who he was, or where he lived: we only learn that his name was John Mudge.--We were the rather led to remark these deficiencies, as we imagined that this old Disciple might have been brother to the ingenious Mr. Mudge the watchmaker, and a furgeon at Ply
inouch. Posibly this may be a mistake ; but it is usual, in a fune-
nefit of the Humane Society, instituted for the Recovery of Per-
The benevolent and laudable endeavours of che Humane Society are here recommended to the public attention and assistance in an elegant, pathetic, and sensible discourse. The Preacher has been happy in the choice of his text, which is from 1 Sam. xx. 3. There is but a step between me and death. This sentiment, truly applicable to human life in general, is peculiarly so to our Author's immediate fubject, which he prosecutes with a pious and charitable zeal tha: does honour to himself, while it demands the best attention of his Readers. VII. At the Anniversary Meeting of the Sons of the Clergy, in the
Cathedral Church of St. Paul, May 14, 1778. By John Warren, D. D. Prebendary of Ely, and Chaplain in Ordinary to his Ma. jelly. 4to. Bathurst, &c.
To this sermon, as usual, are annexed, the lists of stewards for the fease of the sons of the clergy, and of the preachers; together with the annual fums collected since the institution of the charity in 1721. VIH. At the Visitation held in the Cathedral Church of Lincoln,
Aug. 24, 1778. By Roger Watkins, M. A. late Fellow of Bao
liol College, Oxon. 6d. Crowder, &c.
See our last Month's Review.
8vo. 6 d. Buckland.
Calamities are manifested, and a Remedy prescribed. 8vo. 6 d.
Our national calamities are here derived, as in other Fast Sermons, from our national sins; and the remedy prescribed is the established remedy, as it stands in the Church Dispensacory, repentance and amendment.– Though this discourse is nothing out of the common road, in point of doctrine, the arguments are juitly enforced, and the language is animated.-Neither the name of the preacher, nor of the place where the sermon was delivered, are mentioned.
* A BRITON's Favour is received ; and the hints so obligingly offered by the Writer will be duly attended co.
Τ Η Ε
For j U NĒ, 1779.
ART. I. PHILOSOPHICAL TRANSACTIONS of the Royal Society of
London. Vol. LXVIII. For the Year 1778. Part 1. 400. 10 s. 6 d. fewed. Davis. 1779.
PAPER Ś relating to AIR.
of Effluvia upon it; made at York. By W. White, M. D.
particulars, highly interesting both to the philosopher and the physician, were undertaken with a view to ascertain how far the air which we breathe is affected, with respect to its salubrity, by the vapours or effluvia that arise from various substances to which it is exposed. In ascertaining the purity or falubrity of the different specimens of air which he examined, the Author appears to have depended solely on the indications furnished by nitrous air, or the quantity of diminution attending its admixture with the common air under examination.
The apparatus which he employed for this purpose confifted of a barometer tube, graduated by inches and decimals, and of such a bore that an ounce vial of the air intended to be examired being thrown up into it, through a small glais funnel (after it had been filled with water, and inverted into a vessel of the fame Auid) occupied about 134 decimal parts of an inch, or 131 inches nearly. On adding half an ounce of nitrous air, the mixture is said, at firft, to have generally occupied about 205 of the abovementioned decimal parts. At the end of half an hour, when the whole diminution may be supposed to have taken place, he notes the space, or the number of decimal parts, then occupied by the two airs; and, fubftracting it from 205, considers the remainder as the number indicating the state of purity in the particular air that he has examined. VOL. LX.
Thus, for example, on mixing the air in his garden, with jo nitrous air, in the proportion above indicated; the space occu eg pied by the mixture, at the end of half an hour, was found to be only 145, which being deducted from 205, gives 60, forta the state of the common atmospherical air that day. On the other hand, had he, instead of the air in his garden, uled the fame quantity of perfectly noxious air, as there would have hz been no diminution, or, in other words, as the mixture would a still have stood at 205, o would express the state or condition of that particular air. The extent of his scale is accordingly pro from o, which indicates the most noxious or mortal air, up to 60° or 610 ; which was found to be the mean state of the atmosphere in upwards of 200 experiments: though he has, at lui two different times, found the latter to rise to 64°; and, in three instances only, to 63 (in the Article, erroneously printed dig 68). In the worst state, he observed it as low as 580.-An account of some of the Author's observations will probably be acceptable to our philosophical readers; to whose and the Arthor's consideration we shall submit a few reflections that have occurred to us on this subject.
fa Dr. White found a difference, that was perceptibly enough he indicated by this apparatus, between the air in the city of York, and that of the country, at a small distance from the city walls, PI When the former was 59', the latter was 62°;~ The air too of his bed which, on entering it at night, was 62°, was, in numerous trials, found to be reduced the next morning to 58; though the bed-curtains were always open, except on one side, and the room large and airy. This experiment leads to another which exhibits a more considerable difference, proceeding from the same cause. He breathed the same air as long as he could without manifest inconvenience; and it was thereby reduced from 620 to 40°~Further, the air contained in an 8 ounce vial, in which a small piece of fresh veal was included 48 hours, was reduced from 649 to 10°: and yet the flesh was not putrid, but only smelled somewhat faint and musty.
The results of the next fet of experiments will appear very extraordinary. They were made on the dead Aowers and leaves of vegetables, each put into common air contained in an 8 ounce vial, immediately after they had been gathered out of his garden. Considering 60° or 61° as indicating the state of the wholesome or respirable air originally contained in the vial; it was reduced to 9o, when some leaves of fage had remained in it 16 hours. In the vial in which Aowers of ulmaria had been included, during the same time, it was diminithed to 2°; and in that containing fome ten-weeks stocks, the diminution was only 18.-In other words, the air was indicated to be almost perfectly nox
ious. These vegetables, nevertheless, remained, as to sense, equally sweet as when they were put into the vial.
We concur with the Author (of whose accuracy we entertain not the least doubt) in expressing our surprize at the results of these last trials. In some of the small variations above noticed, errors, perhaps equal to the differences observed, may have been produced by unknown or unheeded causes ; such as, a variation in the quality or strength of the nitrous air, the temperature of the atmosphere, &c. but this observation cannot properly be applied to the facts in question. It is indeed
amazing,' as the Author observes, that vegetables, whilst fresh and free from the least degree of putrescency, should have such a noxious tendency as to spoil the air, and render it not only useless, but fatal to animal life, and that in so short a time.'-On this head, however, we shall propose a few observations.
When Dr. Priestley first discovered the use of nitrous air, as a test of the salubrity of common air, he may be thought to have made a full reparation for the lives of the many mice he had facrificed in his previous trials.—“ Every person of feeling," he observes on his first notification of it, “ will rejoice with me in the discovery of nitrous air --which supersedes many experiments with the respiration of animals; being a much more accurate test of the purity of air *.”—Before he had thus adopted it as a test, he had experienced its truth and accuracy in numerous instances ; particularly in the cases of fixed and inflammable air, and of all those species of air that have been din minished by respiration or other processes, which he had then examined. He had then just reasons to infer, that “ on whatever account air is unfit for respiration, this same test is equally applicable +."
Though there has not hitherto appeared any reason to suspect the truth of the indications presented by this test, we cannot help wishing that, on this extraordinary occasion, the Author had corroborated its testimony by some collateral proofs. He does not even inform us whether a candle was instantly extinguished on being introduced into the air in which his' flowers had been confined : though even that event would not have proved that the air was perfectly, or even to any great degree, noxious I. The application of nitrous air as a teft of the salubrity of air is now become so very extensive, and the results
• Experiments and Obfervations on different kinds of Air, vol. i. pag. 73.
+ Ibid. pag. 115. I Dr. Priestley, long ago, observed, that a candle would not burn in air, in which a fresh cabbage-leaf had remained one night. [Observations, &c. vol. i. pag. 51.] We have found that a candle