number two is number one, proceeds to illustrate the hypoftatic union, by confidering the manner in which our foul and body are one, viz. not by converfion of fpirit into body, but by taking body into a participation of functions with fpirit: not by confufion of fubftance, but by unity of perfon.'


Let us now,' fays he, apply this to the hypoftatic union, wherein though we muft understand perfonality in another sense, as importing character instead of numerical identity, yet the manner of union will remain the fame: for the character of moral wisdom, innocence, and force to refift all pain, terror, and other temptations, belonged folely to the Deity; no human foul could act up to it; until the manhood being taken into God, that is, God being pleafed perpetually to fupply what was wanting in human nature, Jefus was united to the Son, which together became one Chrift; whofe whole conduct was of a piece throughout, running in one conftant tenour and character, and his actions were thofe of the united agency. For all the acts of Jefus were acts of the Son, and the Son performed nothing but by the inftrumentality of Jefus as the fpirit of a man performs nothing but by the inftrumentality of his bodily powers.'


The defign and effect of this union between God and man were, according to Mr. Tucker, the redemption of mankind. Upon this fubject he has advanced fome new and very fingular ideas. The trial to which Adam was put in the garden, was an affay made upon him, in order to manifeft what human nature is, and proved a condemnation of the whole race, by fhewing that a man placed in the most favourable fituation of circumftances poffible, would yet be overcome by the first temptation affailing him. Thus we bring into the world with us an original fin, by which I do not understand an actual guilt, but a certain propenfity to contract it upon occafion offered and fo are born children of perdition, not as involved in it already, but because fallen into a road that will lead inevitably thereinto.'

The redemption of mankind is their deliverance from this ftate of moral imbecillity and frailty, and is effected by the perfect example of moral rectitude amidst the most trying circumftances, which Jefus, by virtue of his union with the Deity, was enabled to exhibit. The office performed by God in his fecond perfona or character of the Son, was to invigorate the human foul of Jefus, that his understanding might never be overpowered by appetite, or paffion, or any impulfe of imagination whatever, but conftantly have the determination of his will in every fingle inftance; being fupplied perpetually by the Divine Agency with what was wanting to the natural strength of man.' And the manner in which the fufferings of the Re



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deemer operated to our benefit-I apprehend to have been, not by taking off any fervice we were deftined to perform for the universe, for this would be facrificing the general interest to the advantage of a few; nor by working a change in the conftitution of human nature, for this would look like something of a charm and magic; nor yet by turning the purposes of God from refentment into mercy, for this would be to represent him liable to paffion and mutability: but by fetting an example which might lead us into the method of performing the hardest of our services with the fame tranquillity and fatisfaction of mind that he did.-The imitation then of our grand Exemplar is the one thing needful for our deliverance, which must be worked out by ftamping upon our minds that character of móral wisdom which fecured him continually against the approach of evil and mifery: and until we can compass that, our redemption remains incomplete.

6 From hence we may fee the imputation of righteousness, the mediation and interceffion for finners ftill continuing fuch, are only figurative expreffions, to denote that we derive our righteousness from Chrift, and are enabled by the medium of his example and aids, to fulfil the laws of nature, which were impracticable to us before.'

The influence and effect of the example of Chrift, that is, the redemption of mankind, according to our Author, probably took place in part among the inhabitants of the vehicular regions, during the time that our Lord was in Hades; is gradually taking place in this world among his difciples; and will be completed in the future ftate, with refpect to all men, without exception.

This is the fcheme of redemption which Mr. Tucker has given as the genuine fenfe of fcripture, and doctrine of the Church. We believe that few of his readers will think it to be either the one, or the other. From the whole of what he has advanced on the three fubjects, it appears to have been his opinion, that the only way to reconcile the Articles of the Church of England to common-fense and reafon, was to explain away their meaning, or to put an unnatural and arbitrary conftruction upon them; and that the literal fense of the Articles, and the fentiments which the compilers intended to convey and establish, are the fentiments of the vulgar, the language of the nursery, &c. The philofopher, the rationalift, ftrikes out a scheme, according to his views of Nature and Providence, and then takes it for granted that this is the scheme, which the established religion of his country, whatever it be, virtually includes and authenticates. To whom can fuch reprefentations and reafonings with refpect to the established fyftem of this country be acceptable or useful? They who fondly receive

receive and zealously maintain the natural and obvious meaning of the Thirty-nine Articles will reject them with abhorrence. The rational Diffenter will be of opinion, that those unfcriptural terms and phrafes, under which fuch tenets have been conveyed, as have obfcured and debased the Chriftian religion, ought to be exploded along with the tenets themselves. The only perfons to whom we can fuppofe them to be agreeable, are thofe among the established clergy, who have too much good fenfe to believe the Articles in their literal and obvious meaning, and too little virtuous refolution to give up the emoluments annexed to conformity.

Mr. Tucker next proceeds to confider the theological virtues,- Faith-Hope-and Charity upon each of which his acquaintance with human nature, and just and liberal views of the connexion of interefts throughout the universe, enable him to advance many judicious and ftriking reflections, while his attachment to other parts of his fyftem, and the warmth of his imagination, lead him to advance fome things which are not fo well grounded, and which difcover a lively fancy, rather than a folid judgment. He rightly obferves that Faith, confidered as a virtue, or principle of right action, is not a mere affent of the mind to fome propofition, but an habitual uninterrupted perfuafion of truths that have been manifefted such to our understanding. For when an important article is become a judgment of the mind, appearing there as a felf-evident truth, rifing fpontaneoufly with a ftrong unreferved affent, without waiting for reflection to evince it; then and not till then it will operate as a practical principle of action, and have its weight in determining our minuteft motions; but nothing that is not practical can be useful or a virtue, nor placed to the credit fide of our account.' But we think that he mifreprefents the nature of the argumentum ad hominem, and carries it to a pernicious extreme, when he fays, Schoolmen allow, and divines fometimes employ what they call arguments to the man, when they ufe fuch as they think will weigh with the hearer, although having no credit with themfelves; but then the conclufion they would prove to him thereby, ought to be a real truth in their own judgment, or they act difhoneftly. In like manner, if you will bring a man into a perfuafion you judge in your own mind to be juft and beneficial to him, you may lawfully put in ufe other perfuafions leading thereinto which you do not hold yourfelf, provided you cannot effect your honeft purpofe upon him by rational conviction: for in this case the end fan&ifies the means.'

What unlimited fcope would this principle give to diffimulation! To point out to perfons the confequences of their own views of things, and to urge them to act agreeably to them, is


one thing to give them reafon to think that we have the fame 'views when we have not, is widely different. The one is confiftent with fincerity and benevolence: the other is a mifchievous and criminal diffimulation; it has a tendency to beget an indifference to truth in ourselves, and to destroy the foundation of that confidence in each other which is the cement and grace of fociety. For fome other reprehenfible principles, and many judicious obfervations on this fubject, and on that of Hope, we must refer our Readers to the work itself.


Charity he justly confiders as equivalent to universal benevolence, extending in wifh and difpofition, like the bounty of heaven, to all created beings, without refpect of perfons, but confined in its exercises by the fcantinefs of our powers to the degrees of neighbourhood wherein they refpectively are fituated.' But we think that he injures and degrades this noble difpofition, when he represents it as founded in felf-intereft. In our opinion, the focial and benevolent affections are equally a part of the human conftitution with the felfifh. In wishing well and doing good to others, we do indeed follow and gratify a natural inclination, but without any regard to the advantage that may refult to us from our defire or endeavour to communicate pleafure, or to increase the quantity of happiness in the world. The connexion of interefts throughout the univerfe, or that there is one general fund of bounty and happiness, wherein we all are partners,' and that by adding to the common stock we increase our own fhare in it, are confiderations which may ftrengthen and enlarge the principle of benevolence in some philofophic minds, but cannot be fuppofed to have any influence in difpofing and exciting the bulk of mankind to amiable and generous actions. Indeed it is a question whether Mr. Tucker could have found fix perfons among all his acquaintance, who entertained the fame or fimilar ideas of this matter with himself. In the course of the chapter he has advanced several peculiar notions on this subject, taken from the hypothefis of the mundane foul, and from his miftaken opinions refpecting the confequences of the Divine equity, which we noticed in our review of the former parts of the work *.

The fifth volume clofes with a fupplemental chapter entitled, Our Neighbour, containing remarks on the parable of the good. Samaritan, and on the unjuft cavil that has been raised against the gospel-because it has omitted to give any precepts upon Friendship.'

The first chapter of the fixth volume is that to which we before referred †, entitled, Divine Oeconomy, in which our Author

See Review, vol. xlii. p. 11.

+ See p. 429.


endeavours to account for the origin and progrefs of religion in the world, including the Patriarchal, Jewish, and Christian, without having recourfe to any divine or fupernatural interpofition. As far as this account respects the earlier ages, and is unconnected with the facred history, it must, from the nature of the fubject, and the want of information, be very uncertain, and will be thought more or lefs plaufible, according to the reader's prior views of the matter. And with respect to the Old and New Testament, it appears to us that miracles and prophecies are fo interwoven with the history as to render all attempts to feparate them prepofterous and vain. The latter part of the chapter contains a number of obfervations on the joint influence of reason, philofophy, and religion, in enlightening and improving the human mind, the effect which the example of one or a few righteous perfons may have in reforming mankind, and raising human nature to its full perfection, according to the doctrine advanced in the chapter on Redemption, and the analogy which may be traced between the progress of the human fpecies towards perfection, and that of fingle perfons, through the ftages of infancy and youth, to complete manhood.

The next chapter, entitled, Imitation of God, contains fome additional remarks on the admiffion of evil into the fyftem of nature; tending to prove that this will not justify us in doing evil that good may come.

To this fucceeds a long chapter, entitled, Chriftian Scheme, which is little more than a repetition of what is contained in the three chapters, entitled, Grace, Trinity, and Redemption. Indeed the repetitions in different parts of the present publication are numerous, and often needlefs. We cannot but think that if the Author had lived, he would have greatly abridged it. In our opinion, the whole of what is ufeful and valuable in it, even on his own plan, might have been comprised in half the prefent compass.

The remaining chapters of the fixth volume are entitled, Divine Services,-Sacraments, -Difcipline, - Articles. Divine Services are juftly confidered as deriving their value and obligation from the influence they have upon the human mind, in fixing good impreffions, nourishing in us an habitual truft and dependance upon the Almighty, and ftrengthening all our virtuous affections and refolutions. The chapter on Difcipline is chiefly taken up in a very lax interpretation of the call which the candidate for holy orders muft profefs to have before he can obtain ordination, as intending nothing more than a perfuafion, after due deliberation, that the Chriftian miniftry is the ftation or employment in which he is likely to ferve God and mankind to beft purpose. Of Mr. Tucker's manner of interpreting



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