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pumber two is number one, proceeds to illustrate the hypoftatic union, by considering the manner in which our soul and body are one, viz.' not by conversion of spirit into body, but by taking body into a participation of functions with spirit: not by confusion of substance, but by unity of person.'
? Let us now,' says he, apply this to the hypoftatic union, wherein though we must understand personality in another sense, as importing character instead of numerical identity, yet the manner of union will remain the same : for the character of moral wisdom, innocence, and force to refift all pain, terror, and other temptations, belonged solely to the Deity; no human foul could act up to it; until the manhood being taken into God, that is, God being pleafed perpetually to supply what was wanting in human nature, Jesus was united to the Son, which together became one Christ; whose whole conduct was of a piece throughout, running in one constant tenour and character, and his actions were those of the united agency. For all the acts of Jesus were acts of the Son, and the Son performed nothing but by the instrumentality of Jesus : as the spirit of a man performs nothing but by the instrumentality of his bodily powers.
The design and effect of this union between God and man were, according to Mr. Tucker, the redemption of mankind. Upon this subject he has advanced some new and very singular ideas. The trial to which Adam was put in the garden, was an assay made upon him, in order to manifest what human nature is, ' and proved a condemnation of the whole race, by shewing that a man placed in the most favourable situation of circumstances poflible, would yet be overcome by the first temptation assailing him. Thus we bring into the world with us an original fin, by which I do not understand an actual guilt, but a certain propensity to contract it upon occasion offered : and so are born children of perdition, not as involved in it already, but because fallen into a road that will lead inevitably thereinto.
The redemption of mankind is their deliverance from this ftate of moral imbecillity and frailty, and is effected by the perfect example of moral rectitude amidst the most trying circumstances, whịch Jesus, by virtue of his union with the Deity, was enabled to exhibit. The office performed by God in his second persona or character of the Son, was to invigorate the human soul of Jesus, that his understanding might never be overpowered by appetite, or passion, or any impulse of imagination whatever, but constantly have the determination of his will in every fingle instance; being supplied perpetually by the Divine Agency with what was wanting to the natural strength of man.'- And the manner in which the sufferings of the Re
deemer operated to our benefit-I apprehend to have been, not by taking off any service we were destined to perform for the universe, for this would be sacrificing the general interest to the advantage of a few; nor by working a change in the constitution of human nature, for this would look like something of a charm and magic; nor yet by turning the purposes of God from resentment into mercy, for this would be to represent him liable to passion and mutability : but by setting an example which might lead us into the method of performing the hardest of our services with the same tranquillity and satisfaction of mind that he did. - The imitation then of our grand Exemplar is the one thing needful for our deliverance, which must be worked out by stamping upon our minds that character of moral wisdom which secured him continually against the approach of evil and misery: and until we can compass that, our redemption remains incomplete.
. From hence we may see the imputation of righteousness, the mediation and intercession for finners still continuing such, are only figurative expressions, to denote that we derive our righteousness from Christ, and are enabled by the medium of his example and aids, to fulfil the laws of nature, which were impracticable to us before.'
The influence and effect of the example of Christ, that is, the redemption of mankind, according to our Author, probably took place in part among the inhabitants of the vehicular regions, during the time that our Lord was in Hades; is gradually taking place in this world among his disciples; and will be completed in the future ftate, with respect to all men, without exception.
This is the scheme of redemption which Mr. Tucker has given as the genuine sense of scripture, and doctrine of the Church. We believe that few of his readers will think it to be either the one, or the other. From the whole of what he has advanced on the three subjects, it appears to have been his opinion, that the only way to reconcile the Articles of the Church of England to common-sense and reason, was to explain away their meaning, or to put an unnatural and arbitrary construction upon them, and that the literal sense of the Articles, and the sentiments which the compilers intended to convey and establish, are the sentiments of the vulgar, the language of the nursery, &c. The philosopher, the rationalist, strikes out a scheme, according to his views of Nature and Providence, and then takes it for granted that this is the scheme, which the established religion of his country, whatever it be, virtually includes and authenticates. To whom can such representations and reasonings with respect to the established fyftem of this country be acceptable or useful? They who fondly
receive and zealously maintain the natural and obvious meaning of the Tnirty-nine Articles will reject them with abhor. rence. The rational Disfenter will be of opinion, that those unfcriptural terms and phrases, under which such tenets have heen conveyed, as have obscured and debased the Christian religion, ought to be exploded along with the tenets themselves. The only persons to whom we can suppose them to be agreeable, are those among the established clergy, who have too much good sense to believe the Articles in their literal and obvious meaning, and too little virtuous resolution to give up the emoluments annexed to conformity.
Mr. Tucker next proceeds to consider the theological virtues, – Faith-Hope-and Charity: upon each of which his acquaintance with human nature, and just and liberal views of the connexion of interests throughout the universe, enable him to advance many judicious and striking reflections, while his attachment to other parts of his system, and the warmth of his imagination, tead him to advance fome things which are not so weil groinded, and which discover a lively fancy, rather than a folid judgment. He rightly observes that Faith, considered as a virtue, or principle of right action, is not a mere assent of the mind to fome propofition, but an habitual uninterTupted perfuafion of truths that have been manifested such to our understanding.--For when an important article is become a judgment of the mind, appearing there as a self-evident truth, rising fpontaneously with a strong unreserved affent, without waiting for reflection to evince it; then and not till then it will operate as a practical principle of action, and have its weight in determining our minuteit motions; but nothing that is not practical can be useful or a virtue, nor placed to the credit lide of our account.' But we think that he misrepresents the nature of the argumentum ad hominem, and carries it to a pernicious extreme, when he says, ' Schoolmen allow, and divines sometimes employ what they call arguments to the man, when they use such as they think will weigh with the hearer, although having no credit with themselves; but then the conclusion they would prove to him thereby, ought to be a real truth in their own judgment, or they act dishonestly. In like manner, if you will bring a man into a perfuafion you judge in your own mind to be just and beneficial to him, you may lawfully put in use other persuasions leading thereinto which you do not hold yourself, provided you cannot effect your honeft purpose upon him by rational conviction : for in this case the end fanclifies the means.'
What unlimited scope would this principle give to diffimulation! To point out to persons the confequences of their own views of things, and to urge them to act agreeably to them, is
one thing: to give them reason to think that we have the same views when we have not, is widely different. The one is confistent with sincerity and benevolence: the other is a mischievous and criminal diffimulation; it has a tendency to beget an indifference to truth in ourselves, and to destroy the foundation of that confidence in each other which is the cement and grace of society. For some other reprehensible principles, and many judicious observations on this subject, and on that of Hope, we must refer our Readers to the work itfeli.
Charity he justly considers as equivalent to universal benevolence, extending in with and disposition, like the bounty of heaven, to all created beings, without respect of persons, but confined in its exercises by the scantiness of our powers to the degrees of neighbourhood wherein they respectively are situated.' But we think that he injures and degrades this noble dispofition, when he represents it as founded in self-interest. In our opinion, the social and benevolent affections are equally a part of the human constitution with the selfith. In wishing well and doing good to others, we do indeed follow and gratify a natural inclination, but without any regard to the advantage that may result to us from our desire or endeavour to communicate pleasure, or to increase the quantity of happiness in the world. The connexion of interests throughout the universe, or that there is one general fund of bounty and happiness, wherein we all are partners,'- and that by adding to the common stock we increase our
own share in it, are considerations which may strengthen and enlarge the principle of benevolence in some philosophic minds, but cannot be supposed to have any in Auence in disposing and exciting the bulk of mankind to amiable and generous actions. Indeed it is a question whether Mr. Tucker could have found fix persons among all his acquaintance, who entertained the same or similar ideas of this matter with himself. In the course of the chapter he has advanced several peculiar notions on this subject, taken from the hypothesis of the mundane soul, and from his mistaken opinions respecting the confequences of the Divine equity, which we noticed in our review of the former parts of the work *.
The fifth volume closes with a supplemental chapter entitled, Our Neighbour, containing remarks on the parable of the good Samaritan, and on the unjust cavil that has been raised against the gospel-because it has omitted to give any precepts upon Friendship.'
The first chapter of the sixth volume is that to which we before referred t, entitled, Divine Oeconomy, in which our Author
* See Review, vol. xlii. p. 11,
+ See p. 429.
endeavours to account for the origin and progress of religion in the world, including the Patriarchal, Jewish, and Christian, without having recourse to any divine or supernatural interpofition. As far as this account respects the earlier ages, and is unconnected with the sacred history, it must, from the nature of the subject, and the want of information, be very uncertain, and will be thought more or less plausible, according to the reader's prior views of the matter. And with respect to the Old and New Testament, it appears to us that miracles and prophecies are so interwoven with the history as to render all attempts to separate them preposterous and vain. The latter part of the chapter contains a number of observations on the joint influence of reason, philosophy, and religion, in enlightening and improving the human mind, the effect which the example of one or a few righteous persons may have in reforming mankind, and raising human nature to its full perfection, according to the doctrine advanced in the chapter on Redemption, and the analogy which may be traced between the progress of the human species towards perfection, and that of fingle persons, through the stages of infancy and youth, to complete manhood.
The next chapter, entitled, Imitation of God, contains some additional remarks on the admission of evil into the system of nature; tending to prove that this will not justify us in doing evil that good may come.
To this succeeds a long chapter, entitled, Christian Scheme, which is little more than a repetition of nat is contained in the three chapters, entitled, Grace, Trinity, and Redemption. Indeed the repetitions in different parts of the present publication are numerous, and often needless. We cannot but think that if the Author had lived, he would have greatly abridged it. In our opinion, the whole of what is useful and valuable in it, even on his own plan, might have been comprised in half the present compass.
The remaining chapters of the sixth volume are entitled, Divine Services, --Sacraments, -Difcipline, - Articles. Divine Services are justly considered as deriving their value and obligation from the influence they have upon the human mind, in fixing good impressions, nourishing in us an habitual trust and de. pendance upon the Almighty, and strengthening all our virtuous affections and resolutions. The chapter on Discipline is chiefly taken up in a very lax interpretation of the call which the candidate for holy orders must profess to have before he can obtain ordination, as intending nothing more than a persuasion, after due deliberation, that the Christian ministry is the station or employment in which he is likely to serve God and mankind to best purpose. Of Mr. Tucker's manner of interpreting