the Articles we gave an inftance in a former Review *, *, and fhall refer our Readers to the remarks which we there offered upon what he has advanced in favour of Articles and Establishments in general.

The subjects treated in the feventh and last volume are of a practical nature. The titles of the chapters are, Doing all for the Glory of God,-Doing as we would be done by--IndolenceFondness for Pleafures-Self-denial-Habits-Credulity and Incredulity-Employment of Time-Content-Rule, Custom, and Fashion -Education-Death. From the topics of philofophy and religion,' fays Mr. Tucker, in his fummary of the whole work, I have defcended to fome practical fubjects applicable to the conduct of life, which having been treated of more amply by many able hands, I could not expect to add any thing material to what has been done by them, but was willing to show that my fpeculations may be turned to common ufe, by deducing from, or regulating by them fuch rules and obfervations as may prove of general fervice: fubjoining thereto a few thoughts relative to education, and fuch methods for curing the fear of death, as in the purfuit of them may prove profitable to us while living, and yield us a benefit for ages after.'

Such is the modeft account which he gives of this part of his performance; an account far beneath its real merit. Though the fubjects have been frequently difcuffed, the Reader will meet with many uncommon thoughts, judicious reflections, and falutary maxims and cautions, which will amply reward his attention. We could have wished to have made fome extracts from those chapters in particular which treat upon doing all for the Glory of God, and on Education. But the limits we have prefcribed to ourselves will not permit.

Mr. Tucker has made an apology in the laft chapter, entitled, Conclufion, for any impropriety of diction, or want of harmony and elegance of compofition, that may be obferved throughout the work. We give him full credit for the fincerity and benevolence of his intentions, and cannot fufficiently extol the great liberality of fentiment which he every where difcovers. At the fame time we think that he has difgraced his judgment, and in fome measure defeated the usefulness of his work, by his miftaken regard, we are tempted to fay, affected deference to public authority in matters of religion, which has led him to attempt to reconcile contradictions, and to introduce fuch a licentious interpretation of words and phrafes, as, if generally admitted, would render the moft folemn profeffions and engagements uncertain and deceitful, and destroy all confidence between man and man.

* See Review for February, p. 85.


ART. V. Three Differtations on the Infpiration of the Holy Scriptures. By John Kiddell of Tiverton, Devon. 8vo. 2 s. Dilly. 1779.


R. Prieftley, and fome other Socinian writers, have confidered the general notion of infpiration as an incumbrance on the evidence of Chriftianity. Carried to the extreme to which it hath been, by fome men, of more zeal than difcretion, it is certainly liable to very great objections. Infidel writers have taken an advantage of fuch exaggerated accounts; and Lord Shaftesbury particularly hath fixed on them, in one of those merry and good-humoured moments, when, as he informs us, he always found himself in the beft difpofition to fpeculate on religion. Mr. Kiddell hath wifely taken the middle path between fuch writers as Dr. Owen, who will not give up one jot or tittle of the Maforetical reading of the Old Teftament, and Dr. Priestley, who thinks himfelf authorized to make fo free with the New as to difpute the reafoning of St. Paul. It is not our bufinefs to decide on the comparative danger of those two extremes; but we cannot avoid obferving, that by giving fo little to the authority of fcripture, even in matters that may be deemed of a fpeculative kind, we take off a great deal from its general credit in matters of greater confequence: we make it a law and no law: we make it the fport of caprice: a fhifting and unfteady object: in fine, a mock-terror that owes all its influence to the imagination of individuals.

Our pious and fenfible Author attempts to give a plain and rational folution of the following inquiries, viz. 1. What fcriptures are divinely inspired? 2. In what fenfe the holy fcriptures are fo? and 3. What proofs have we of it? These inquiries are of the last importance to the cause of religion; and our Author hath acquitted himself in the folution of them with great credit as a Chriftian and a Divine. The curious fpeculatift, indeed, will find but little in thefe difcourfes to gratify his taste for novelty. The Author indulges himself in no fanciful hypothefes; nor is he, on the other hand, the dupe of any eftablished fyftem. He confiders the fcriptures of the Old and New Testament, as containing such a revelation of the being and attributes of God; of our duty to him and one another; and of our expectations of his prefent and future favour, as is fufficient to direct and fupport us in every fcene of this probationary ftate. By infpiration is plainly meant, in general, (fays Mr. Kiddell) that the facred writers all wrote under the direction and influence of the Spirit of God. The only end and intention of God's thus influencing and inftructing those facred writers, in the compofition of their writings, was, that what was written by them, might be kept free from all error and falfehood; contain nothing but pure and unadulterated truth; and


and be received and believed as of infallible certainty: fealed and attefted by the authority of God himfelf. Now, then, whatever influence and affiftance from the fpirit of God is fufficient to answer this end, is fufficient to answer all the purposes of a divine infpiration. And therefore each of those facred writers is truly, and to all important purposes, divinely inspired, if, by the influence and affiftance of the Spirit of God, his writings are preferved free from all mixture of error and falfehood. But to answer this great end of divine infpiration, the fame degrees of influence and affiftance are not neceffary and expedient for all the facred writers alike: and therefore when applied to different writers, divine inspiration must admit of different senses and limitations.'-This idea of infpiration our Author applies to the historical, the moral or devotional, and the prophetical parts of fcripture. He is fupported in his qualified notion of this delicate fubject by fome venerable authorities of the Chriftian Church. The very orthodox Pictet of Geneva, who fat in the chair of his uncle Turretine, freely acknowledges, that the inspiration of the fcriptures is not to be applied to every fact related in them, or to the peculiar mode in which the different authors of the facred books expreffed their fentiments. In many cafes infpiration-plenary, immediate infpiration would have been fuperfluous and therefore out of refpect to the majefty of it, it ought to be limited to thofe fubjects which abfolutely required it. This idea of inspiration is also contended for by the very learned Bp. Warburton; and fo far as it refpected the language of the New Teftament, it was vindicated by Dr. Hurd from the exceptions taken at it by Dr. Thomas Leland of Trinity College, Dublin.

In the narration of historical facts, that fell within the obfervation of the hiftorian, nothing but fidelity was requifite. In relating them on the teftimony of others, infpiration might be neceffary to guard the relation from error and mistake. In the delineation of moral or religious duties the Writer might be left, in all common cafes, to the obvious dictates of his own understanding and confcience; and the fuperintendence of Divine infpiration might alfo, in fuch inftances, be more properly regarded in the light of a fecurity than a direct impulfe. But the prophetical parts of feripture have a claim to a higher degree of infpiration-even to that which is communicated to the mind by the immediate inuence of the Spirit of God. Now there cannot be a ftronger proof of this higher kind of infpi

Non neceffe eft fupponere fpiritum fancium femper dictae prophetis & apoftolis fingula verba quibus ufi funt.- Quædam fcripfere quæ non opus erat ut fpiritus fan&tus faggereret, ut ea quæ ipfi jam nírant, St. . Picteti Theol. Chrift. lib. i. c. 7.



ration than the foretelling future events with a precifion an fwerable to the facts and the circumftances that attend themespecially when those circumstances are not of a common and equivocal nature, but marked with fome ftriking and fingular characteristics, which are vulgarly supposed to owe their exiftence to those innumerable combinations of chance and accident which cannot be reduced to any regular fyftem, and are beyond the limits of general fpeculation :-we fay, general fpeculation, which proceeds on the plain ground of observation and experience, and from what hath been, may guefs, with tolerable certainty, what will be: fo that in common life, and in all affairs which are conducted by established laws, it may with great propriety be faid, that "he is the beft prophet who conjectures well."

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But fcripture prophecy hath objects in view which infinitely transcend the reach of human fagacity. It draws the veil from, and traces the rife and progrefs of, events which are folded up in the darkest coverts of futurity; and of which there were no appearances that could lead to certain conclufions relating to any particular facts, that fall within the fphere of what is called chance and accident. Much lefs could human fagacity, however brightened and improved by obfervation, forefee the exact feafon when thofe apparently fortuitous and adventitious events would take place, or determine any nice and critical circumftances that should concur to produce, or be united or blended with them. Thele objects come only within the compass of omniscience; and wherever a knowledge of future events is communicated to mankind, it must be for the wifeft purposes: and the agreement of prophecy with facts (as in the cafes of the deftruction of Babylon and Tyre-the coming of the Meffiah- the defolation of Jerufalem and its Temple-the difperfion of the Jews-the ufurpation and tyranny of an Antichriftian power, &c. &c.) is a demonftration of Divine truth, and is the teftimonial of heaven itfelf to the miffion of the prophet.

Mr. Kiddell makes very pertinent and fenfible remarks on that fpecies of infpiration which, if it did not abfolutely dictate the moral and devotional parts of fcripture, yet fecured all the important purposes of truth and virtue, by overruling 'the facred penmen in fuch a manner as to prevent the intrufion of all human prejudices from which the best and wifeft of mankind are not at all times guarded; and with which the finest maxims of moral philosophy are too frequently blended. Mr. Kiddell very justly confiders natural religion as the foundation of revealed. It is undoubtedly the ultimate criterion by which its precepts are to be tried. But the queftion is, "How far natural religion extends, and where is its authority lodged ?" Our Author perhaps expreffes himself in too unlimited a ftyle when he fays


that," to acquaint ourselves with the moral duties and virtues of life, we have nothing more to do than to look into our own hearts, and diligently examine the feelings and fentiments of our own minds." Now we apprehend that the express and pofitive declarations of the will of God, in matters of moral as well as religious practice, were given in aid of human ignorance, and purposely with a view to prevent our recurrence to apologies fanctified with the names of Nature and Reason, in order to juftify our neglect of duty, or excufe our commiffion of fin. For if the feelings of every man's mind were to be the standard of obligation, what duty that croffes their inclinations will men perform, or what vice that flatters them will they forego, for the fake of what others call Reason, and in deference to an equivocal authority arifing from what philofophy itself, which hath talked moft loudly about this authority, hath not agreed to give any name or definition to? For every man's own feelings, i. e. his inclination, will be his ftandard of duty, without a fettled law to which to appeal, a fixed and decifive criterion of good and evil, in fpite of all the fine things that have been faid on the beauty of Virtue-Fitnefs and Unfitnefs-the moral Senfe-and all

--" which Theocles in raptur'd vifion faw."

To close this Article, we recommend the perufal of the fe plain and rational Difcourfes to our Readers; and particularly to minifters, to whom there is given a leffon of most excellent advice on the duty of ftudying the Scriptures with diligence, and explaining them with integrity.

ART. VI. Experiments and Obfervations relating to various Branches of Natural Philosophy; with a Continuation of the Obfervations on Air. By Jofeph Priestley, LL. D. F. R. S. 8vo. 6 s. Boards. Johnfon. 1779.

OTWITHSTANDING the very fhort interval that has paffed

N fince we reviewed the Author's third volume of Obferva

tions; and his intimation, which we then quoted with regret, of a defign to direct his attention to fpeculations of a very different nature'-and which, it is well known, he has pretty Jargely purfued we now have, nevertheless, the pleasure of again attending this active and fuccessful investigator, in his philofophical capacity, by announcing to the world a large collection of new and fingular experimental obfervations, made by him on a variety of fubjects. Of the value and importance of thefe obfervations we cannot exhibit a jufter idea, than by reprefenting them as in every respect worthy to follow thofe with which he has already fo greatly enriched the science of philosophical chemistry. Gg


REV. June, 1779.


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