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whilft it enlightened them; fo that, if Truth herself had assumed a iere to buman voice and form, she could have used no other language. ats. 'l; Demosthenes and Isæus, without having any thing forced or unna
tural in their productions, took more pains than Lyfias in preparing the minds of the judges ; in relating the facts which gave birth to
the litigation ; in dividing the parts of their address to the court; in ?'5, 100
marshalling their evidence; in disposing and enforcing their obser
vations ; in digrefling without deviation ; in returning to the subGp wie ject without abruptness; in amplifying; in aggravating ; in exteHe paie nuating; and, as Dionysius says particularly of Isæus, in attacking cca di their adversaries, laying close fiege to the understandings, and storm
ing the passions, of the jury; not omitting any thing that might
tend to secure the fruit of all forensic labours, a verdict or judgment y peroxid
for their clients : for this purpose, if the cause was weak, no insie
nuation, no address, no contrivance, was neglected by Ifæus in oro megelas iben a
der to support it; but, when he happened to have justice on his
fide, his method seems to have been admirable. His manner of prefien,
opening was various, according to the great variety of causes in which he was employed; sometimes he told his atory in a natural cr.
der, with conciseness and fimplicity, without preparation, without e grace:
ornament, without any mixture of argumentation ; sometimes he divided a long narration into several heads, proving each of them, as he went along; a method, of which he seems to have been fond, and which could not but conduce to the perspicuity of his speeches : in all cases he made frequent use of that oratorial fyllogism, which lo. gicians call epichirema, where the premises are respectively proved by
argument or evidence before the speaker draws his conclufion; while were the entbymema, in which one proposition is fuppreffed, appears to have perus been more agreeable to the manner of Lyfias; and Dionysius, in- .
deed, mentions this as a strong mark of discrimination besween the
two advocates. His other modes of arguing, his anticipations, reen to capitulations, digressions, inversions, variations, transitions, were
all happily and seasonably applied in conformity to the disposicion of icover his judges, and the nature of each particular case.' hor,
We cannot take leave of the present work without laying im before our Readers Mr. Jones's examination of an opinion ad
vanced by Cicero, which he combats with great fpirit and ingenuity.' It will probably be thought not less interesting for being interspersed with some strictures on the nature and kinds of modern oratory. This opinion of Cicero is intimated in all his rhetorical pieces, and expressed very fully in that little frag
ment which seems to have been part of a preface to his transla. Lition of Demofthenes and Æschines for and against Ctefipho,
but the authenticity of which is doubted by Manutius. It begins with an assertion, that there are no diftinét species of oratory as there are of poetry ; that although a tragic, an epic, and a lyric poet may be all equally perfect in their several ways, yet that no man can justly be called a speaker unless he unite in the highest degree the powers of instructing, delighting, and moving every audience on every subject.'. Mr. Jones obferves,
Rev. June, 1779.
⚫ that a character fo various, and a genius fo comprehenfive, muft neceffarily be the object, if ever it fhould exift, of general admiration; but why it is not fufficient to call fuch a man the greateff, without infifting that he is the only, orator, or why an advocate, who never applied his talents to the fenatorial species of eloquence, may not attain perfection in the forenfic, and fo converfely, I am at a lofs to comprehend. Menander, you fay, would not have defired to be like Homer; certainly not in his comedies; but every Speaker wishes to refemble Demofthenes; as certainly not, when he is addreffing the jury on the obstruction of ancient lights or the diverfion of a watercourfe. The kinds of fpeaking are different; and, though one of them be more exalted than another, yet orators, as well as poets, may in those different kinds feverally reach the fummit; and this analogy may be extended to all the fine arts: Myro was not a lefs perfect fculptor in marble, because he was unable probably to finish gems with the delicacy of Trypho; nor, to fpeak of modern artifts, will Rafaelle ever be degraded from his high rank among painters, because he might not have been able to draw Cupids and Nymphs with the minute elegance of Albani; in the fame manner as Demofthenes will always be allowed to have hurled the thunder of Grecian eloquence, although he could not perhaps (whatever Tully may fuggeft to the contrary) have fpoken with the simple graces of Lyfias. Philofophers may refine, and logicians may diftinguith, as learnedly and fubtilely as they pleafe; it will, after all, be true, that the eloquence of a fenator is of a fpecies wholly different from the eloquence of an advocate; that the two kinds ought never to be confounded; and that a complete fpeaker before a jury or a fingle judge may ftrain his throat without effect in a popular affembly. If Cicero, indeed, meaned no more than that the title of orator should be given only to one, who, like himself, excels all men in every way, the argument is reduced to a mere difpute about words, which every writer may apply as he thinks proper, provided he apprize his reader of the new fenfe in which he means to use them; but, furely, he might have afferted, with equal propriety, that he alone, who furpaffes the rest of mankind in every fort of poetry, deferves the appellation of a poet; for nothing can be more exact than the analogy between the two arts, and their near alliance is often acknowledged by the great man himself, with whofe opinions I am taking so much liberty had he faid that by the word orator he meaned a speaker, who had cultivated every branch of his art, the Romans might have thought this an innovation in their language, but they would, perhaps, have adopted the definition on his authority. We are not however contending about the proper application of terms, or the abstract idea of univerfal genius: the fingle question is, Whether there are not diftinct species of oratory as there are of poetry, and whether a man may not be perfect in any one or more of them, without having directed his talents to the cultivation of the reft; for the decifios of which point, I appeal to fuch of my readers as have heard ten fpeeches at our English bar, and as many in either houfe of parlia ment. They will forgive me for having applied, and for ftill apply. ing, the word orator to ISUS, although his eloquence was wholly forenfic; and I confer this title on him with more confidence, because
there is reafon to believe, that he fometimes delivered his own Speeches, without confining himself entirely to the difficult, but lefs noble, task of compofing for others; for I must confefs, that I can form no idea of an orator without elocution and action, nor can the praise of eloquence be jaftly, or even without a folecifm, beftowed on mere invention and compofition, which conftitute indeed the body of oratory, but fpeech and gefture alone can give it a foul. Whether the remaining works of my author will justify the criticism of Dionyfius and Hermogenes, or whether my interpretation of them may not have weakened their original force, must be left to the impartial judgment of the reader; but this advantage will naturally refult from my prefent publication: if the following speeches should be thought manly, nervous, acute, pertinent, and better in most respects than the generality of addreffes to an English jury on fimilar fubjects, we' fhall have a kind of model, by which the ftudent may form himfelf, allowing for the difference of Athenian laws and manners; and, if they fhould appear inferior in all thofe qualities to the fpeeches ufually delivered by our leading advocates, we fhall have reafon to congratulate our age and country, and to triumph in the fuperiority of our talents; for our leaders often make the ablest and moft fpirited replies without a poffibility of premeditation; and wonderful, indeed, must be the parts and eloquence of those, whofe unprepared effufions equal or furpass the studied compofitions of the an
ART. IX. Poetical Trifles.
I s. 6d. Bath printed; fold by Dodfley, &c. in London. 1778. To O trifle agreeably is not fo eafy as may commonly be imagined. It requires a degree of parts and accomplishments that falls not to the fhare of every one. The vivacity and elegance which are difplayed in the little volume before us, prove its Author to have an indifputable claim to both. In the ease and pleasantry of his verfification he bears no fmall refemblance to Prior, whom, in more inftances than one, he feems to have taken for his model, and it is but juftice to fay, they are fuch as would no way difgrace that exquifite original. Among other fprightly fallies of his Mufe, take the following ballad:
But first prepare yourself for raptures;
And paint her well, would ask whole chapters.
Fine creatures I've view'd many a one,
With lovely shapes, and angel faces,
Nay more, makes fox-hunters look wife.
Two flender ankles peeping out,
Stood like Love's heralds, to declare
That all within the petticoat
Was firm, and full," and round, and fair."
And then the dances-better far
Than heart can think, or tongue can tell,
E'er mov'd fo graceful, and fo well.
So eafy glide her beauteous limbs,
One glance alone might well infpire
Or bid the frozen heart catch fire.
And Zephyr on her lovely lips
Has fpread his choiceft, fweetest roses,
And there in breathing fweets repofes.
You may believe me, when I tell ye,
Or far-fam'd fqualls of Gabrielli.
In that fair form with beauty vie,
And the foft blush of modesty.
All the fun views, or the feas borrow,
I'd lay them at her feet to-morrow.
But as we Bards reap only Bays,
Nor much of that, though nought grows on it,
I'll beat my brains to found her praise,
* Grammaticè gracefully.
And if the deign one charming fmile,
But pity the dull 'Squires, my neighbours.
This piece is followed by one of inferior merit. Gray's celebrated Elegy has given birth to more parodies than perhaps. any other poem in the English language. Of these, the Elegy written in a College Library, which makes a part of the prefent collection, is not the most happy. The following little piece of eight lines is worth the whole of it:
The grief that on my quiet preys
That rends my heart-that checks my tongue
I fear will last me all my days,
But feel it will not last me long.
All the pieces of this collection are not of the fame caft with thofe already taken notice of: there are others in various ftyles, and of different merit. The fober elegiac Muse has been cultivated, and not unsuccessfully, particularly in
Children of affluence, hear a poor man's pray'r!
Sink my grey hairs with forrow to the tomb!
With clamorous din wake Charity's dull ear,
Weave the feign'd tale, or drop the ready tear.
To views of blifs, to fcenes of affluence born;
But ah, how quick the change! the morning gleam,
And forrow clos'd the evening of my day.
Fond hope a-while the trembling flow'ret rears;
And withers in an hour the pride of years.
I trusted :-(who from faults is always free ?)
Was all the space 'twixt wealth and poverty.