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Where could I seek for comfort, or for aid ?

To whom the ruins of my state commend ?
Left to myself, abandon'd, and betray'd,

Too late I found the wretched have no friend!
E’en he amid the rest, the favour'd youth,

Whose vows had met the tenderest warm return,
Forgot his oaths of constancy and truth,

And left my child in folitude to mourn.
Pity in vain stretch'd forth her feeble hand

To guard the sacred wreaths by Hymen wove;
While pale-eyed avarice, from his sordid fand,

Scowled o'er the ruins of neglected love.
Though deeply hurt, yet swayed by decent pride,

She hush'd her sorrows with becoming art,
And faintly Atrove, with fickly smiles, to hide

Thę canker worm that prey'd upon her heart.
Nor blam'd his cruelty-nor with'd to hate

Whom once she lov'd--but pitied, and forgave :
Then unrepining yielded to her fate,

And funk in llent anguilh to the grave.
Children of affluence, hear a poor man's prayer,

O hafte, and free me from this dungeon's gloom !
Let not the hand of comfortless defpair

Sink my grey hairs with forrow to che tomb! The whole is closed with an humorous Palinode to the Re. viewers. We must ingenuously confess, to make use of Mr. Gray's expression, speaking of some odes in which he and his friend Mr. Mason had been burlesqued, he makes very good fun of us.

He begins,
I who of late, in many a sanderous ditty,

Burlesqued your profe, and parodied your verses,
With tears and trembling fupplicate your pity;

Accept my penitence, forgive my curses.
Good, piteous Gentlemen, repress your rigour,

Untwiit your bowels of commiseration,
Think on my tender years, and till I'm bigger,

Suspend the terrors of your dire damnation.
Long time with harmless Elegy content,

Pleas'd in that pretty path, I pac'd no further *,
Happy to catch some itraggling sentiment,

Atid fing in simple sile of love, and murther.
Till lur'd by wicked wirs, indeed 'tis truth,

In luckless hour listed beneath their banners,
To fa:ire's thorny ways they led my youth,

Evil communication spoils good manners.

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. Doricè for farther.

Dear

Dear Doctor Larghorne, you were ever good,

Mild as young Nithisdale, or Lady Ellen te
Can you excuse my frantic, furious mood,

'Gainst wisdom, and your fage decrees rebelling!
O soften then your angry colleagues' fury #,

My works, I fear, will quickly fall before 'em,
Alas! they'll hang me without judge or jury,

Or tomahawk, and scalp me in terrorem! We apprehend the Gentleman, whom he mentions in the last stanza but one that we have quoted, died since this poem was printed, as we think too well of the generofity of our entertaining Bard to fuppose he would attack where there was no power to retaliate,

+ Vide Owen of Carron, a poem by the Doctor.
| Mr. Griffiths, &c. &c. &c.

2 Vols.

M40

Art. X A View of Society and Manners in France, Switzerland, and

Germany : With Anecdotes relating to some eminent Characters. By a Gentleman who resided several years in these Countries. 8vo.

10's. Boards. Cadell. 1779. ANY valuable and uncommon qualities are requisite to

form the character of an accomplished traveller : a comprehensive knowledge of men and manners, an accurate discrimination of characters, a total exemption from prejudices, the curiosity of youth directed by the experience of age,

and the rare talent of patient obfervation, combined with a happy pliancy of temper, that can adapt itself to all the various forms of polished life. The present work is distinguished and adorned by several of these qualities, in a very eminent degree ; and we will venture to pronounce, that the more accurate information any man has attained concerning the continent of Europe, and the more he has seen and examined the state of society and manners in France, Switzerland, and Germany, the more fincerely and warmly will he approve the industry, candour, discernment, and ability of this ingenious Author. His observations are chiefly confined to the subjects announced in the title : but the Reader will be agreeably entertained and instructed by many interesting details concerning the arts, commerce, government, revenue, military strength, &c. of the countries here described. These objects are closely connected with each other, as well as with the general manners of society; and it is no small merit in the present performance, that the Author has successfully distinguished, and analysed, the various causes and circumstances, which conspire to form the durable impressions of national character.

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In delineating this character, he enters into no abstract dir. quisitions concerning the different systems of policy; he defcribes not with prolix exaggeration the capricious singularities of a few individuals; but he paints mankind in groupes, 25 they appear in camps and courts, assemblies and theatres, and by presenting a continual scene of action to the eye, enables the mind of his reader to anticipate his just and natural, though by no means obvious reflections. A work, executed according to this judicious plan, is well adapted to convey a general, and, as far as it extends, a correct knowledge of the manners of foreign countries; and, by presenting a faithful and exact historical picture, it helps to destroy the effect of those wretched caricatures which amuse the giddy and malicious, by flattering the illiberal prejudices of national vanity. Few writers, indeed, will be found more untainted by prejudices of any kind than this agreeable Traveller; and, on this account, his testimony is the more valuable in favour of the customs and insti. tutions of his native country. We shall select a passage on this subject, as a specimen of the natural unaffected elegance with which these letters are written.

• I feel as much indignation as you possibly can, against those who endeavour to hurt the peace of families by malignant publications, and I enter fully into Lord 's on so unmerited an attack. Yet I should be heartily sorry to see these evils remedied by any restriction on the freedom of the press; because I am every day more and more convinced that its unrestrained productions, the licentious news-papers themselves not excepted, have conveyed to every corner of Great Britain, along with much impertinence and scurrility, such a regard for the constitution, such a sense of the rights of the subject, and such a degree of general knowledge, as never were so universally diffused over any other nation.

Such a law as your friend proposes might, no doubt, protect individuals from unjust attacks in print: but it would at the same time remove one great means of clearing their innocence, and making known their wrongs, when injured in a more essential manner. It would limit the right which every Briton has of publicly addressing his countrymen, when he finds himself injured or oppressed by the perverfion of law, or the insolence of office.

< Examples might be given of men of great integrity being attacked in the most cruel and ungenerous manner by people high in office and guarded by power. Such men had no other means of redress than that of appealing to the candour and good sense of the Public, which they used with success. Every man's observation may suggest to him many kinds of injustice and oppreilion which the rich, the insidious, or the powerful, can

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commit in spite of law, or perhaps by the aid of law, against the poor, the unsuspecting, and the friendless.—Many, who can filence conscience and evade law, tremble at the thoughts of their injustice being published ; and nothing is, nothing can be, a greater check to the wantonness of power, than the privilege of unfolding private grievances at the bar of the Public. For thus the cause of individuals is made a public concern, and the general indignation which their wrongs excite, forms at once one of the feverest punishments which can be inflicted on the oppressor, and one of the strongest bulwarks that can be raised in defence of the unprotected.

By this means also the most speedy and effectual alarm is given over all the nation when any great public misconduct happens, or upon any appearance of a design against the conftitution, and many evils are detected and prevented, which otherwise might have been unobserved, till they had become too strong for remedy. And though this liberty produces much filly advice, and malignant censors without number, it likewife opens the door to some of a different character, who give useful hints to ministers, which would have been loft without the freedom of anonymous publication.

The temporary and partial disorders, which are the consequences of public freedom, have been greatly exaggerated by some people, and represented as more than equivalent to all the advantages resulting from a free government. But if such perfons had opportunities of observing the nature of those evils which spring up in absolute governments, they would soon be convinced of their error.

· The greatest evil that can arise from the licentiousness which accompanies civil liberty is, that people may rafhly take a dislike to liberty herself, from the teasing impertinence and absurdity of some of her real or affected well-wishers ;-as a man might become less fond of the company of his best friend, if he found him always attended by a snappish cur, which with out provocation was always growling and barking.

But to prove the weakness of such conduct, we have only to call to mind that the stream of licentiousness perhaps never rose higher than it did some years since in England.–And what were the mighty evils that followed ? --Many respectable characters were grossly misrepresented in printed publications. Certain daring scribblers evaded the punishment they deserved:

-Many windows were broken, and the chariots of a few members of parliament were bespattered with dirt by the mob.What are these frivolous disorders when compared to the gloomy regularity produced by despotism? in which men are obliged to the most painful circumspection in all their actions; are afraid

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to speak their sentiments on the most common occurrences; suspicious of cherishing government spies in their household fervants; distrustful of their own relations and most intimate companions, and at all times exposed to the oppression of men in power,

and to the insolence of their favourites ? No confufion, in my mind, can be more terrible than the stern disciplined regularity and vaunted police of arbitrary governments, where every heart is depressed by fear, where mankind dare net affume their natural characters, where the free spirit muft crouch to the slave in office, where genius must repress her effufions, or, like the Egyptian worshippers, offer them in facrifice to the calves of power; and where the human mind, always in shackles, thrinks from every generous effort.'

We hear that these letters are the production of Dr. Moore, a medical gentleman who accompanied the Duke of Hamilton on his travels. If the Doctor understands the fick part of mankind, as well as those in health, he is, doubtless, a very va. luable member of the faculty.

Art. XI. A Reftitution of the Geometrical Treatise of Apollonius Per

geus an Inclinations. Also the Theory of Gunnery; or, the Doctrine of Projectiles in a non-resifting Medium. By Reuben Bure 4to.

Nourse. 1779.
HE celebrated problem of Apollonius to apply a RIGHT

row.

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so that when produced out it may pass through a given point, has employed the thoughts of several able geometricians, some of whom have given us the solution of one case, some that of another ; but none, that we know of, have published any attempts towards a general reftitution of the problem before our Author, except Alexander Anderson, Ghetaldus, and the Rev. Dr. Horley.

It was never, fo far as we know, esteemed difficult to give a folution, of some kind or other, to this problem : the great point was, to discover the original one, given by Apollonius himfelf, to distinguish the several problems and cafes into which he divided it, to exhibit them in the same order; and, above all, to derive the determinations by means of those lemmata given us by Pappus for that purpose, of which, doubtless, Apollonius made use. In every one of those circumstances Anderson appears to have been very defective. The principle on which Ghetaldus founded his method of solution does not seem to be very materially different from that which Apollonius must have made use of, if we may judge from the account which Pappus has given concerning it, but his subdivision of the pro

blem

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