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Art. 13.
Terra: A Philofophical Difcourfe of Earth. Relating
to the Culture and Improvement of it for Vegetation, and the
Propagation of Plants, as it was prefented to the Royal Society.
By J. Evelyn, Efq; F. R. S. A New Edition. With Notes by
A. Hunter, M. D. F. R. S. 8vo. Boards 3 s.
York printed.
London, fold by Dodfley, &c. 1778.

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HE Editor's motives and intention in republ fhing this very, valuable work, will beft appear from his own Preface. • The Terra was written by Mr. Evelyn, at the requeft of the Royal Society, about twelve years after the publication of the Silva': And as every thing that came from his pen received diftinguished marks of public approbation, he had the fatisfaction to fee it undergo several impreffions during his life-time, to each of which he added fomething. From the extreme veneration that I entertain for the memory of fo worthy and good a citizen, I have here attempted a republication of that much-celebrated work; and I would fain flatter myfelf that it will be found free from the inaccuracies with which the other Editions abound. The occafional Notes are introduced with a defign to give the Reader a more extenfive view of the fubject, which has received much improvement fince the days of our excellent Author. It was once my intention to have added this Difcourfe to my late. Edition of the Silva; but, when that was ready for the prefs, I had made but little progrefs in the examination of this; and indeed it was then uncertain whether I fhould ever complete it, as fuch works are with me an amufement and not a study.'

The notes with which Dr. Hunter has enriched his edition, though not very numerous, are judicious and felect. Of these we shall prefent our Readers with one on the ufe of an excellent manure, not generally known.

Bones fhould by no means be calcined, as their virtue will be diffipated by the fire, and nothing but a caput mortuum left behind. My worthy friend, A. St. Leger, Efq; has favoured me with the following account of bones used as mañure. The fubject is curious as well as important:

Eight years ago I laid down to grafs a large piece of very indifferent lime-tone land with a crop of corn; and, in order that the grais feeds might have a strong vegetation, I took care to fee it well dreffed. From this piece I felected three roods of equal quality with the reft, and dreffed them with bones broken very small, at the rate of fixty bushels per acre. Upon the lands thus managed, the crop of corn was infinitely fuperior to the reft. The next year the grafs was alfo fuperior, and has continued to preferve the fame fuperiority ever fince, infomuch that in fpring it is green three weeks before the rest.

of the field.

"This year, I propofe to plow up the field, as the Festuca Sylvatica (Prye Grafs) has overpowered the grafs-feeds originally fown. And here it will be proper to remark that, notwithstanding this fpecies


of grafs is the natural produce of the foil, the three roods on which the bones were laid have hardly any of it, but on the contrary have all along produced the fineft graffes.

"Laft year, I dreffed two acres with bones in two different fields prepared for turnips, fixty bufhels to the acre, and had the pleasure to find the turnips greatly fuperior to the others managed in the common way. I have no doubt but these two acres will preferve their fuperiority for many years to come, if I may be allowed to prognofticate from former experiments most attentively conducted.

"I alfo dreffed an acre of grafs ground with bones in October (1774) and rolled them in. The fucceeding crop of hay was an exceeding good one. However, I have found from repeated experience that, upon grafs ground, this kind of manure exerts itself more powerfully the fecond year than the first.

"It must be obvious to every perfon, that the bones fhould be well broken before they can be equally spread upon the land. No pieces fhould exceed the fize of marbles. To perform this neceffary operation, I would recommend the bones to be fufficiently bruifed by putting them under a circular stone, which being moved round upon its edge by means of a horfe, in the manner that tanners grind their bark, will very expeditiously effect the purpose. At Sheffield it is now become a trade to grind bones for the ufe of the farmer. Some people break them fmall with hammers upon a piece of iron, but that method is inferior to grinding. To afcertain the comparative merit of ground and unground bones, I laft year dreffed two acres of turnips with large bones, in the fame field where the ground ones were used; the refult of this experiment was, that the unground materials did not perform the least service; while thofe parts of the field on which the ground bones were laid were greatly benefited.

I find that bones of all kinds will answer the purposes of a rich dreffing, but those of fat cattle, I apprehend, are the best. The London bones, as I am informed, undergo the action of boiling water, for which reason they must be much inferior to fuch as retain their oily parts; and this is another of the many proofs given in these effays that oil is the food of plants. The farmers in this neighbourhood are become fo fond of this kind of manure, that the price is now advanced to one fhilling and fourpence per bushel, and even at that price they fend fixteen miles for it.

"I have found it a judicious practice to mix ashes with the bones; and this winter I have fix acres of meadow land dreffed with that compoft. A cart load of afhes may be put to thirty or forty bushels of bones, and when they have heated for twenty-four hours (which may be known by the fmoaking of the heap), let the whole be turned. After laying ten days longer, this moft excellent dreffing will be fit for use."

My very excellent friend, Edward M. Mundy, Efq; of Shipley, in the county of Derby, this moment informs me, that a gentleman in the neighbourhood of Matlock has lately erected a mill for grinding bones, which he profitably applies both to pafture and arable lands.'

The only thing we shall remark is, that Mr. St. Leger's method of breaking the bones by means of a circular stone drawn by a horse, is not


the most common, and, we believe, not the most approved method. The operation is ufually performed with a hammer, worked in the fame manner as the hammer of a forge. But a ftill better method is to grind the bones between two caft-metal cylinders. Mills are very rarely erected purpofely for this bufinefs, as, at a very trifling expence, the apparatus may be added to any common water-mill.


Art. 14. Oppofition Mornings: With Betty's Remarks.
I s. 6 d. Wilkie. 1779.


Fun for the Majority, at the expence of the Minority. It is written in fomewhat of Mr. Tickell's manner of party-ridicule; nor is it unworthy of that Gentleman's pen :-his pinchbeck, fteel pen, we mean; which having been touched by the political magnet, always veers toward the North.

Art. 15. The Green Box of Monfieur De Sartine, found at Mademoifelle Du The's Lodgings. From the French of the Hague Edition; revised and corrected by those of Leipfic and Amfterdam. 8vo. I s. 6d. Becket, &c. 1779.

It now appears that this pretended English tranflation is the original work, as it came from the ludicrous pen of Mr. Tickell, author of ANTICIPATION; and that the French edition, from which we extracted the character of this Performance, as given in our laft Month's Review, was only a circumftance in the joke :-but this ingenious party politician, and wag, fhould have taken ca e not to spoil his joke by the faults of a French verfion, which only ferved to let the cat out of the bag.

Art. 16. Examination of Lieutenant General the Earl of Cornwallis, before the Committee of the Houfe of Commons, upon Sir William Howe's Papers. 8vo. I S. Robfon. 1779.

From the extreme referve and caution of this noble examinant, and his inflexible refolution to speak to no question that involved any matter of opinion, the Committee could extract but little information from his Lordship's evidence. General Gray was more open, and hath, accordingly, been applauded as more manly. If the knowledge of his opinion concerning the conduct and circumstances of the American war could be of any fervice to his country, he thought the House had a right to it, and he frankly, it is faid, added they were welcome to the fruits of his experience and observation. This, fay the Patriots, certainly fpoke an independence of mind which did him honour.-Sorry are we to add, that his opinion and experience were by no means favorable to the minifterial idea of coercive meafures for the reduction of revolted America *.-Both his Lordship's evidence, however, and that of the General, were greatly in favour of the conduct of Lord Howe, and his brother Sir William, the Commanders in Chief; who appear to have accomplished all that, in their fituation, could have been accomplished, for the good of the fervice in which they were engaged.

* We derive fome confolation, however, from the different opinion of General Robertfon. According to that Gentleman's evidence, the British intereft in North-America is not altogether in fo hopeless a way as it seemed to be, on General Gray's examination. REV. June, 1779.

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Art. 17. Hiftorical Anecdotes, civil and military: In a Series of Letters, written from America, in the Years 1777 and 1778, to different Perfons in England; containing Obfervations on the general Management of the War, and on the Conduct of our prin. cipal Commanders, in the revolted Colonies. 8vo. I s. 6d.


We fufpect that thefe Letters, whether genuine or not (we rather fuppofe that they are genuine), have been made public chiefly with design to arraign the conduct of Lord and General Howe; but chiefly that of the latter. The Letters feem to have been all written by a zealous North British Loyalift; who chufes to demonftrate his averfion to the Rebels and their caufe, by bestowing, moft liberally, on both, the choiceft flowers of fcurrility.-He thinks, or profeffes to think, that if our commanders had done their duty, an end would, long fince, have been put to American refiftance; but, for our confolation, he expreffes the warmest hopes, and highest expectations, from the fuperior ability, and more vigorous exertions, of Sir Henry Clinton.-This feems to be all party-work. The best commentary on thefe Letters will be found in Almon's Register † of what lately paffed in the Houfe of Commons, relative to the conduct of the American war.

Art. 18. Sketches from Nature, in high Preservation, by the molt honourable Mafters. 4to. 2 s. Kearfly. 1779

Although neither the wit nor the fatire of thefe allufive but rather too occult paintings, will be obvious to every beholder, yet the performances, taken all together, evidently proclaim the pencil of an artist.

The hint of this publication feems to have been taken from the catalogues diftributed at our annual exhibitions, and from the ftrictures on thofe exhibitions ufually given in the public prints.

The characters here alluded to, are, chiefly, those of the Dukes of Cud, Gr-n, An-r, and Qu y; the A-hb-p of Ca- -y; the Earls of B-te, S- -h, Ch- -y, B-1, Dh, and M-d; the Lords N-h, T——————), W——————h, Ca -le, H-ke; the Bishop of Gl -r; Admiral K—1, General C―――g, Charles F-x, Mr. B-ke, Mr. J―n; and many others.


Art. 19. On the Preference of Virtue to Genius. A Poetical Epile. 4to. I s. 6 d. Cadell. 1779.

That Genius and Virtue fhould ever be fet in oppofition to each other, feems at firt view unnatural; yet, if we quit fpeculation, and confine curfelves to facts, we thall have the mortification to find them too frequently at variance. To reconcile them, as well as to decide which is to have the preference, feems to have been intended by the Author of this ethic epittle. After expatiating on the fupe

*We have formed this conjecture, on fome expreffions which certainly are not English: fuch as "fo foon as," instead of as foon as; "Washington wrote a genteel enough letter," &c. &c. Howe-Parers.

rior excellence of Virtue, he proceeds to confider the influence the will neceffarily have both on the conduct of individuals and the Public, whenever she holds that rank in the eftimation of the world to which her fuperiority entitles her. As a fpecimen of this Writer's manner take the following extract:

In various ways,
To feek the PUBLIC good is Virtue's praise:
And firft, in what advances it alone
More than the power or splendour of a throne,
Prevailing MANNERS claim her earliest care;
And will each Solon's chief attention share.
Here of the public fafety lies the fource;
To ftrength and glory here the certain courfe.
An Indian conqueft, and a captive king,
To guilty hands, ill-fated wealth may bring;
The noble arch, the villa may arise,
The lofty column feem to touch the skies;
Sad monuments! if Virtue leaves the land,
And vice ufurps an uncontrouled command;
No rural worthies left, of middle state,

To ftem the tide, and awe the vicious great.
Trained to the yoke, and bound with fervile cords,
A fallen race fhall bend to tyrant lords,

Or dying freedom, roufed (fuch Sampfon's end),

In one great ruin all this fplendour blend.

This the true statesman knows,-but knows in vain,

Unless the peft of vice he can reftrain,

And thofe once valued qualities can raise,
Which form a people's most exalted praise;
By which the rifing ftate to manhood grows,
The dread of tyrants and infidious foes.

Say in what realm the minister is found,
Who dares to ftand on Virtue's folid ground?
Sworn to a master's arbitrary fway,
Compelled the royal mandate to obey,
Subfervient to the whim of every hour,
A pandar to the luft of boundless power,
To make an empire happy never taught,
How can the good of those he rules be sought?
Headlong he drives and into ruin goes,
Blind to the dreadful train of future woes.
A thousand enfigned slaves await his nod,
And bow before their patron and their God,
Model the laws according to his will,
And all his fatal purposes fulfil.

Where then thall truft have place, or hope arife?
Where but in Virtue's friends, the good and wife?

Ye truly great-whom not a monarch's love,
Nor flattering fmile, to wrong your trust can move;
Whose freeborn fouls difdain the yoke of flaves;
Defpife the frown of power, and arts of knaves;

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