ate chargeable with intemperance, profanation, and with going the most licentious and indecent lengths in the gratification of their paffions, they would certainly despise our holy religion, as well as its ministers: it would lose, in their eyes, a great part of its divine majesty, and excite ideas very different from those which the episcopal envoys would preach and inculcate.--Instead therefore of fending bishops into New-Spain, which, how. ever, had been the first opinion of Cortes, he advised the emperor to desire the pope to chufe legates from among the Franciscans and Dominicans, and to give them the moft extensive powers for the exercise of their ministry in those countries.

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Grammatica Indoftana a mais Vulgar que se Practica no Imperio do Grand

Mogol, offerecida aos Muitos Reverendos Padres Missionarios, &c.-
A Grammar of the Language of Indoltan, as it is spoken in the
Empire of the Grand Mogul, presented to the Reverend Fathers
the Millionaries in that Empire. 8vo. Rome. 1778.
OW far. this Grammar will contribute to promote the

cause of Christianity in the empire of the Mogul, we pretend not to determine; but its authors have undoubtedly done an important service to the cause of oriental literature, by faci. litating the study of a language, which, before M, Bailly, placed the cradle of science in the East, and was supposed to be the language of the first instructors of mankind. : This Grammar is the fruit of the long and united labours of several learned miffionaries, and is looked upon as more perfect in many respects than that which was published fome years ago by the Englith East India Company. It is more especially preten led, that the declinations and conjugations are niore 'amply and distinctly pointed out in this new Grammar, and that the method of pronouncing the language of Indoftan is more clearly explained. It is also enriched with a catalogue of nouns, verbs, and particles, which may, in fome degree, fupply the place of a dictionary, and a list of seventeen emperors, including Mohamudra, the prefent monarch,

! ART. XV. F Vincents, Folini O. P. in Pisano Athenao Sacrarum Literarum P. P.

Divinæ Libri Apocalypseos Autoritatis Vindicia ex. Monumentis Greciso adverfus Nuperas Exceptiones Firmini sbauzitii, Gene.. venas. 8vo. Pifa. 7278.

R. Alauzit, the worthy and learned librarian of Geneva,

whom this more learned than candid Writer calls an infidel, because he was a friend to religious liberty, carried, rather too boldly, his pruning-knife into the vineyard of Reve


dation, when he endeavoured to cut off the apocalypse of St. John from the canon of the Scriptures. Father FASSINI of the Oratory undertakes, in the work before us, to restore this mystical branch, which some think ought not to be lightly rejected; for though hitherto, say they, it has produced but very little fruit, it may yield an harvest of knowledge in fome future season. M. ABAUZIT alleged that the book in question was louked upon as the production not of St. John the Evangelift, but of some other writer, for more than eight centuries, both by Grecian and oriental authors *. F. FASSINI collecs all his erudition and critical prowess to invalidate this affertion; and in order to come forth in due order of battle against his adversary, he divides his work into thirteen chapters. In the first, he endeavours to prove, that Papias, the disciple of St. John, was acquainted with the apocalypse, being mentioned by Andrew archbishop of Cæsarea (an early writer, and also an expofitor of this mysterious book) as an undoubied witness of its au henticity. This testimony is farther strengthened by that of Justin Martyr, who lived near the time of Papias, and who, in his famous controversy with the Jew Triphon, acknowledges St. John as the author of the Revelation that bears his name. M. Abauzit, it is true, has prepossessed the inquirers into this funject pretty strongly against the testimony of Justin, on account of his credulity, and his attachment to the Millenarian fyftem : but we really think that our Author has the advantage of him in appreciating the evidence of this celebrated Writer ; for, on the principles of M. Abauzit, there will not be many cases of any consequence in which the report of testimony may be entirely depended upon. It is hard to fufpect a man of telling lies, when they are adapted to maintain his theological system, if there be no other previous reason to question his veracity. In the second, third, and fourth chapters, our Author comes down upon the heretic of Geneva with a cloud of witnesses, of the second century, such as Polycarp, Irenæus, Meliton bishop of Sardes, Theophilus of Antioch, Apollonius, Clement of Alexandria, &c. 'who all consider the Apocalypse, or Revelation, as a work composed by divine inspiration, and as coining from the pen of St. John the Evange. list. The testimonies of the third century, among which Hippolytus, Origen, Dionyfius of Alexandria, and other inen of eminence appear, are produced in the four following chapters; and the eighth contains a multitude of proofs in favour of the {acred book under confideration, from the records of the fourth century, and the ecclefiaftical writers, that (warmed like bees

* See an account of ABAUZIT?s. work in our Review for May *774, Vol. 50. p. 375.

during 3

during that period.--He also refutes in this chapter the objections of Abauzit against Eufebius of Cæsarea, Athanafius, Ephrem, Bafilius, Macarius the Elder, and Didymus of Alexa andria. In the ninth chapter our Author explains the real sentiments of Epiphanius, and proves, or attempts to prove, in the tenth, that Cyril of Jerusalem, and the two Gregories of Nyffa and Nazianze, acknowledged the authenticity of the Revelation, though M. Abauzit represents them as having rejected it. The three following chapters contain the testimonies of later times.

A R T. XVI. Origine e Antichita Fermane, &c.-Concerning the Origin and Anti

quities of Fermo. Folio. Printed at Fermo. 1778. HE Abbé CATALANI, to whom the lovers of antiqui.

ties are indebted for a learned Differtation on the Origin of the Picentes, is the author of this piece, which is in the fame taste, and abounds with ancient erudition,

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A R T. XVII. Specimen Hierarchia Hungaricæ, &c An Essay concerning Eccle

fiaftical Power in Hungary, containing a chronological Series of the Archbishops and Bishops of that Kingdom, and a Description of it's Dioceses. Part 1. By Mr. George Pray. Piesburg and Caschaw. 1778.

E should not have mentioned this publication, were it

not adapted to shew us how little the progress of light, and a liberal manner of thinking, have contributed to the abolition or amendment of inftitutions founded upon the tyranny of superstition. This is remarkably exemplified in that Colossus of opulence and power, the archbishop of Gran in Hungary, whofe rights, immunities, privileges, and revenues, form the chief, nay almost the only contents of this volume.--The annual income of this prelate is valued at 360,000 florins : fince the year 1257 he has enjoyed the title and performs the functions of perpetual count, principal secretary and chancellor, and représentative of the royal presence: he crowns the kings of Hungary : his lands and vaffals are exempted from all secular jurisdiction and every species of taxation : he has a right to name the palatine, or the principal judge of the distriot, and to inveft him with powers, which the palatine holds of him and not of the sovereign: he has the tenth part of the produce of the royal domain, of the revenue of the exchequer, of the taxes imposed upon the cattle of the Walachians, and of all the money that is coined in the kingdom, or imported : if one of his vasfáls be condemned to death, for theft, by the civil tribunal, the con-' fiscated goods of the criminal become the property of this pre.


Philosophical Researches into the Causes of the Aurora Borealis. 563 late. The present archbishop of Gran is the count Joseph Bathiana, who was raised to that dignity in 1776. The see had been vacant eleven years before his filling it; and we suppose vacancies of this kind will happen oftener in time to


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AR T. XVIII. Phyficalische Untersuchung der Naturlichen Ursachen des Nordscheins,

&c.-Philosophical Researches concerning the Natural Caufes of the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, together with some new Observations relative to that fingular Meteor. By M. J. W. C. A. Baron de HUPSCH. Cologn. 1779. POWEVER ingenious the new obfervations of this

learned inquirer may be, we do not think his hypothesis more plausible than those that have been already employed in order to account for this fingular phenomenon. There is, nevertheless, a good deal of sagacity and philosophical knowledge discovered in these researches. The Author distinguishes the different kinds of meteors that are comprehended under the general denomination of aurora borealis, or nothern light. Some of the meteors, thus called, are produced by the refraction and reflexion of rays of light, and this kind has most commonly an arched form, when observed in those countries that lie between the 55th and 75th degrees of latitude. The true aurora borealis, according to our Author, is produced by a phosphorical matter, which derives its origin from sulphureous exhalations of a very refined and fubtile nature. This hypothesis is not new; it was one of the suppositions formerly proposed by Dr. Halley, who imagined that the watery vapours, or efluvia, rarified exceedingly by subterraneous fire, and tinged with sulphureous fleams, might be the cause of the phenomenon under consideration. Halley, indeed, offered another supposition to account for this meteor; i. e. a subtile matter, which, entering into the earth near the southern pole, and freely pervading its pores, passed out again with some force into the æther, at the same distance from the northern, and having its density or velocity some way or other increased, might produce a small degree of light, after the manner of effluvia from electric bodies, which by a strong and quick friction (says he) emit light in the dark. This hypothesis was looked upon as vague and unsatisfactory.-It was, however, the effort of genius in a period of darkness; and since experience has thrown some new rays of light on the mysterious operations of nature, this hypothesis has acquired a high degree of plausibility and evidence, and is likely to make its way, in a new form. For since it has been proved with a very high degree of evidence, that the electric matter


and lightning are one and the same substance, philosophers now are disposed to seek the explication of all aerial luminous meteors in the principles of electricity, and the aurora borealis is now almost universally supposed to be an electrical phenomenon. Our learned Author Baron de HUPSCH is not, indeed, of this opinion; he thinks that the duration of the meteor in question is too considerable to admit of its being attributed to an electrical principle as to its cause; but this observation is fallacious in the highest degree.

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AR T. XIX. Vitè dei più Architetti e Scultori Veneziani, &c.—The Lives of the

moft celebrated Venetian Architects and Sculptors, who flourished in the Sixteenth Century. By Thomas TEMANZA, Architect to the Most Serene Republic of Venice. 4to. Venice. 1778. HE Author of this work is already known by the lives of

Sansovino, Palladio, and Scamozzi, which appeared fome time ago, and are republished here, with several interesting additions. In the first part of the prefent publication, M. TEMANZA gives us the lives of those Venetian artists, who contributed to the revival of the fine arts,-Francis Colonna, a Dominican, surnamed Polyphilus; John Jocond, an architect of Verona, a monk also, whom Lewis XII. fent for to France, where he built the Pont de Notre Dame, and distinguished himself by his writings ; Pietro Lombardi, who was the architect of the tomb of Dante at Ravenna ; Barthelemi Buono - Antonio Scarpagnino, Alexander Leopardo, the two sons of Lombardi, and lastly, John Maria Falconetto, a native of Verona. The life of this last artist, who, according to our Author, was one of the first who introduced a true taste and a good style of architecture into the Venetian state, and brought that art very near its perfection, is more complete, and more enriched with facts and anecdotes, than any that has been hitherto given. The articles contained in the second part of this work are less numerous, but more ample and also more interesting. Their subjects, who are more modern and better known than those contained in the first part, are eight in number, the two Sammichelis of Verona, Tatti, Cataneo, who was architect, sculptor, and poet, and whose productions, in the two former arts, are to be seen in the church of St. Anaftafius at Verona, and in the mint and the library of St. Mark at Venice; Palladio, Scamozzi, Antonio da Ponté, who constructed the new bridge of the Rialto, and began the prisons of Venice, which Contino finished after his death, and Campagna,


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