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during that period.-He also refutes in this chapter the objections of Abauzit againft Eufebius of Cæfarea, Athanafius, Ephrem, Bafilius, Macarius the Elder, and Didymus of Alexandria. In the ninth chapter our Author explains the real fentiments of Epiphanius, and proves, or attempts to prove, in the tenth, that Cyril of Jerufalem, and the two Gregories of Nyffa and Nazianze, acknowledged the authenticity of the Revelation, though M. Abauzit represents them as having rejected it. The three following chapters contain the testimonies of later times.
Origine e Antichita Fermane, &c.-Concerning the Origin and Antiquities of Fermo. Folio. Printed at Fermo. 1778.
HE Abbé CATALANI, to whom the lovers of antiqui ties are indebted for a learned Differtation on the Origin of the Picentes, is the author of this piece, which is in the fame tafte, and abounds with ancient erudition.
AR T. XVII.
Specimen Hierarchie Hungarice, &c-An Effay concerning Ecclefiaftical Power in Hungary, containing a chronological Series of the Archbishops and Bishops of that Kingdom, and a Defcription of its Diocefes. Part I. By Mr. George Pray. Prefburg and Cafchaw. 1778.
E fhould not have mentioned this publication, were it not adapted to fhew us how little the progrefs of light, and a liberal manner of thinking, have contributed to the abolition or amendment of inftitutions founded upon the tyranny of fuperftition. This is remarkably exemplified in that Coloffus of opulence and power, the archbishop of Gran in Hungary, whofe rights, immunities, privileges, and revenues, form the chief, nay almoft the only contents of this volume.-The annual income of this prelate is valued at 360,000 florins: fince the year 1257 he has enjoyed the title and performs the functions of perpetual count, principal fecretary and chancellor, and reprefentative of the royal prefence: he crowns the kings of Hungary: his lands and vaffals are exempted from all fecular jurifdiction and every fpecies of taxation: he has a right to name the palatine, or the principal judge of the diftrict, and to inveft him with powers, which the palatine holds of him and not of the fovereign: he has the tenth part of the produce of the royal domain, of the revenue of the exchequer, of the taxes imposed upon the cattle of the Walachians, and of all the money that is coined in the kingdom, or imported: if one of his vaffals be condemned to death, for theft, by the civil tribunal, the confifcated goods of the criminal become the property of this pre
Philofophical Researches into the Caufes of the Aurora Borealis. 563
late. The prefent archbishop of Gran is the count Jofeph Bathiana, who was raised to that dignity in 1776. The fee had been vacant eleven years before his filling it; and we fuppofe vacancies of this kind will happen oftener in time to
Phyficalifche Untersuchung der Naturlichen Urfachen des Nordfcheins, &c.-Philofophical Researches concerning the Natural Caufes of the Aurora Borealis, or Northern Lights, together with fome new Obfervations relative to that fingular Meteor. By M. J. W. C. A. Baron DE HUPSCH. Cologn. 1779.
OWEVER ingenious the new obfervations of this learned inquirer may be, we do not think his hypothefis more plaufible than those that have been already employed in order to account for this fingular phenomenon. There is, nevertheless, a good deal of fagacity and philofophical knowledge difcovered in these researches. The Author diftinguishes the different kinds of meteors that are comprehended under the general denomination of aurora borealis, or nothern light. Some of the meteors, thus called, are produced by the refraction and reflexion of rays of light, and this kind has most commonly an arched form, when obferved in thofe countries that lie between the 55th and 75th degrees of latitude. The true aurora borealis, according to our Author, is produced by a phosphorical matter, which derives its origin from fulphureous exhalations of a very refined and fubtile nature. This hypothefis is not new; it was one of the fuppofitions formerly proposed by Dr. Halley, who imagined that the watery vapours, or effluvia, rarified exceedingly by fubterraneous fire, and tinged with fulphureous feams, might be the caufe of the phenomenon under confideration. Halley, indeed, offered another fuppofition to account for this meteor; i. e. a subtile matter, which, entering into the earth near the fouthern pole, and freely pervading its pores, paffed out again with fome force into the ether, at the fame distance from the northern, and having its denfity or velocity fome way or other increased, might produce a small degree of light, after the manner of effluvia from electric bodies, which by a strong and quick friction (fays he) emit light in the dark. This hypothefis was looked upon as vague and unfatisfactory. It was, however, the effort of genius in a period of darkness; and fince experience has thrown fome new rays of light on the myfterious operations of nature, this hypothefis has acquired a high degree of plaufibility and evidence, and is likely to make its way, in a new form. For fince it has been proved with a very high degree of evidence, that the electric matter
and lightning are one and the fame fubftance, philofophers now are difpofed to seek the explication of all aerial luminous meteors in the principles of electricity, and the aurora borealis is now almoft univerfally supposed to be an electrical phenomenon. Our learned Author Baron DE HUPSCH is not, indeed, of this opinion; he thinks that the duration of the meteor in question is too confiderable to admit of its being attributed to an electrical principle as to its caufe; but this obfervation is fallacious in the highest degree.
Vitè dei più Architetti e Scultori Veneziani, &c.—The Lives of the moft celebrated Venetian Architects and Sculptors, who flourished in the Sixteenth Century. By THOMAS TEMANZA, Architect to the Moft Serene Republic of Venice. 4to. Venice. 1778.
HE Author of this work is already known by the lives of Sanfovino, Palladio, and Scamozzi, which appeared fome time ago, and are republished here, with feveral interesting additions. In the first part of the prefent publication, M. TEMANZA gives us the lives of thofe Venetian artifts, who contributed to the revival of the fine arts,-Francis Colonna, a Dominican, furnamed Polyphilus; John Focond, an architect of Verona, a monk alfo, whom Lewis XII. fent for to France, where he built the Pont de Notre Dame, and diftinguished himfelf by his writings; Pietro Lombardi, who was the architect of the tomb of Dante at Ravenna; Barthelemi Buono-Antonio Scarpagnino, Alexander Leopardo, the two fons of Lombardi, and laftly, John Maria Falconetto, a native of Verona. The life of this laft artist, who, according to our Author, was one of the first who introduced a true taste and a good style of architecture into the Venetian ftate, and brought that art very near its perfection, is more complete, and more enriched with facts and anecdotes, than any that has been hitherto given.The articles contained in the second part of this work are less numerous, but more ample and alfo more interefting. Their fubjects, who are more modern and better known than those contained in the first part, are eight in number, the two Sammichelis of Verona, Tatti, Cataneo, who was architect, fculptor, and poet, and whofe productions, in the two former arts, are to be feen in the church of St. Anaftafius at Verona, and in the mint and the library of St. Mark at Venice; Palladio, Scamozzi, Antonio da Ponte, who conftructed the new bridge of the Rialto, and began the prifons of Venice, which Contino finished after his death, and Campagna,
Gremonenfium Monumenta Roma extantia, &c.-Remains of several celebrated Perfons, Natives of Cremona, extant at Rome, collected and illuftrated by F. R. THOM. AUGUSTIN VAIRANI, of the preaching Order. 4to. Rome. 1778.
HIS publication is a valuable prefent to the lovers of modern erudition. It contains an account of the lives, and writings, hitherto unpublished, of feveral learned men, natives of Cremona, fome of whom are already known by productions of merit. The work opens with the life and writings of Platina, who wrote, in elegant Latin, the Lives of the Popes, fo far down as Paul II., was honoured with the protection of the Gonzagues and Medicis; compofed the history of the former, and a dialogue De optimo Cive, which he dedicated to Laurent de Medicis, and, coming to Rome in the year 1458, under the pontificate of Calixtus III., acquired there great reputation for erudition and eloquence, and was appointed librarian of the Vatican by Sixtus V. with the title of one of his Famigliari. The writings of this great man, with several anecdotes of his life and conduct, fill the first part of Frater VAIRANI'S work.-The fecond part begins with the life of Vida, who was born at Cremona in 1470, and is known to have been diftinguished by extraordinary marks of the favour and protection of Leo X. The hext in order is the life of Faerno, who rofe to the higheft credit and fortune under the pontificate of Pius IV., had a peculiar place in the esteem of that pontiff, and maintained, at the papal court, his native modefty and fimplicity of manners. Our Author has made the following discovery concerning Faerno; that, foon after his arrival at Rome, he was appointed revifer and corrector of books in the library of the Vatican, and that he diftinguished himself in this employment by his dexterity in reftoring the true text of thofe ancient Greek and Latin manufcripts that had been injured by time, or by the negligence of copyifts. There is no doubt but he rendered important fervice to claffic literature by his corrections of Plautus, Terence, Livy, Cicero, and other ancient authors. His own fables are truly claffical, and worthy of the pureft periods of Latinity. He has been accused of fuppreffing the MSS. of the Fables of Phaedrus, which was in his poffeffion, that they might not eclipfe or diminish the merit of his own. But though it be true, that thefe fables were firft publifhed in 1596 by P. Pithou, yet our Author vindicates Faerno from this charge, and proves it a calumny, from feveral circumftances; among which the reputation of probity, which this amiable man enjoyed and merited, is not the leaft perfuafive. Facrno died in the year 1561; his
image in marble arofe almost to life under the immortal hand of Michael Angelo Buonoroti, who honoured his memory with this precious mark of his esteem. It is ftill to be seen in the Campidoglio, and though placed in the midst of a confiderable number of fine Grecian heads, is not at all eclipfed by their beauty. The other names we meet with in this publication are lefs illuftrious; fome of them are fcarcely worth mentioning: we do not except thofe of pope Gregory XIV. and of cardinal Sfondrati, his nephew.
AR T. XXI.
Mifcellaneen, &c.—Mifcellanies, of which the greatest Part have never been yet published. Collected by Mr. STROBEL. First Collection. 8vo. Nuremberg. 1779.
HE collection of small fugitive pieces, whofe inconfiderable bulk generally configns them to an undeserved oblivion, may often be of eminent service to the cause of literature. The work here announced, which confifts of fuch treatifes, literary anecdotes, letters, and biographical compofitions as may tend to throw light upon ecclefiaftical, philofophical, or literary hiftory, particularly that of the fixteenth century, is undoubtedly of this kind, and deferves to be encouraged. Among the pieces contained in this first volume, feveral are curious, fuch as Five Letters of Luther,-An Apology for the Works of Melanthon,—Singular Anecdotes relative to the turbulent Kaufman of Brunswick, and a Treatife, containing the Names of the most ancient Printers. This laft piece may be of fignal use to those who collect, with avidity, rare books and old impreffions, as the equivocal marks of antiquity, that often deceive the unwary collector, are here examined, and unmasked, with great fagacity.
Hiftoire & Memoires de la Societé, &c.-The Hiftory and Memoirs of the Society established at Amsterdam, for the Recovery of drowned Perfons. Tom. II. Part 3. 1778.
E formerly noticed in a pretty full and particular manner the origin, and have fince repeatedly, though briefly, announced the progrefs, of this benevolent and patriotic fociety; the establishment of which has been followed by the inftitution of many others in various parts of Europe. At prefent, we should content ourselves with barely announcing the continuance of its fuccefs, here difplayed in fixty-eight new cafes, did we not think it proper to extract from the prefent publication fome interefting particulars that occur in it, and which merit the attention of our Readers.