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The firft of these obfervations is contained in the extract of a letter fent to the fociety by M. P. Winkelhaak, a furgeon at Alkmaar; in which he relates fome experiments made to afcertain the cause that produces death in animals that are drowning; and describes an inftrument contrived for the purpofe of recovering drowned perfons, founded on the principles deduced from these experiments. The trials were made in the courfe of three lectures given upon this fubject, by Dr. C. Hoefman, lecturer in anatomy and furgery at Alkmaar, and at which Mr. Winkelhaak was present.

We faw clearly,' fays Mr. W. that the lungs of the animals that had been drowned in coloured water, were filled and tinged with the coloured fluid. Hence it follows, that the only and proximate caufe of the death of drowned perfons arifes from the total obstruction of respiration, produced by the water that enters into their lungs.'

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On this occafion, not one of the animals fubjected to these experiments was reftored to life; though bleeding was employed, particularly in the jugular veins, as well as frictions, fmoke clyfters, blowing air into the lungs, and even bronchotamy. Having,' fays Mr. W. frequently interrogated Dr. Hoefman on this fubject, he answered, that the good or bad fuccefs in these cafes depended folely on the circumstances attending a man's falling into the water; that he believed a recovery was more likely to be effected, when his lungs happened to be filled with air at the inftant of the fubmerfion; that the refult depended on the greater or leffer quantity of water that had been drawn into the lungs in infpiration; and that it were to be wished that an inftrument could be contrived, by means of which all this water might be inftantly pumped out, and air immediately introduced in its room.'

Dr. Hoefman afterwards invented, and caufed to be conftructed, an inftrument to answer these purposes. It is represented as a kind of fyphon, which is to be introduced through an opening made into the windpipe, fo far as to reach to the part where it divides into two branches. A copper fyringe is adapted to it, through which the water is to be drawn from the lungs of the patient; and air is afterwards forced into them by means of a small pair of bellows fixed to the apparatus.

M. Hoefman,' fays Mr. W. made a trial of this inftrument in our presence. He kept an animal under water till bubbles of air rofe from his fauces; and then opening the windpipe, he introduced into it the fyphon, to which the fyringe was adapted, and pumped out a confiderable quantity of water, forcing in air, in the room of it, by means of the bellows. The animal was then exposed to the fun's rays, which were very powerful. Two hours afterwards fome figns of life appeared:

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the opening was then closed; and the animal foon put himself
in motion, though flowly. I cannot exprefs the joy we felt on
this occafion.'

On the next day, however, we are told that the Doctor re peated the experiment on five other animals; but that none of them recovered. On opening their chefts, it was found that their lungs were filled with water, even in their minutest rami fications. On this occafion, Dr. Hoefman was convinced that the failure of the inftrument was to be afcribed to its extremity not reaching, or coming into contact with, the water.

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Although our expectations,' fays Mr. W. have not been answered, I have requested leave of the Doctor to inform you of thefe trials. I do this, partly to fhew you that we-zealously coneur with you in profecuting the objects of your inftitution; and partly in hopes that thefe trials may lead the way to fomething more perfect.'

In the Appendix to our 47th Volume, 1772, page 521, we gave an account of an apparatus conftructed by M. de la Cha pelle, to which he gives the name of a faphandre; by means of which the moft timorous perfon, ignorant of the art of fwimming, may keep himself in an erect pofition in the water, and may, as it were, walk across the deepeft rivers; the water rifing no higher than the pit of his ftomach. Mr. Van Engelen, one of the members of the Amfterdam fociety, having read with much pleasure the treatise published by the inventor, in which this inftrument is particularly deferibed, was convinced of its great fuperiority to the cork jacket, or other inventions of the fame kind. The fociety warmly recommends the use of this ap paratus, not only for the purpofe of preventing accidents, but likewife that of facilitating the extraction of drowned bodies. As the inftrument cofts but little, and may be contained in a very finall box; they propofe that veffels and even boats fhould be provided with them, and that, in cities and villages, a fufficient number should be depofited in the moft convenient places.

We shall only further obferve, with refpect to this publication, that befides the relation of cafes, and of various particulars respecting the proceedings of other inftitutions formed in England, France, Italy, and other parts of Europe, this number contains three plates, in which the various inftruments or articles to be employed in the recovery of drowned perfons, are accurately delineated.

INDEX

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INDEX

To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this

Volume.

N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, fee the
Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume,

A.

A

BAUZIT, M. his objections
to the Apocalypfe of St.
John answered, 561.
ACHARD, M. his experiments on
the Electropherus, 514.

his memoir on the earth
which is the bafis of the vege-
table and animal creation, 516.
ADAM, Meff. their oil-cement, re-
marks on, 72.

ADIEUX du Duc de Burgogne, 312,
AFFINITIES, chemical, new dif

cuffion of, on the principles of
Mr. Sage, 537·
AGRICULTURE, various obferva-
tions and experiments in, 22-
29, 169, 250, 471.
AIR, experiments on, 409, 444.
AMERICA, North, many parts of
little known, 90, French ac-
counts and maps of not to be
relied on, 91. Prefent civil war
there poetically lamented, and
the calamities of described, 373.
See COLONIES.
AMSTERDAM, fuccefs of the fo-
ciety there, for recovering per-
fons apparently drowned, 567.
ANAXAGORAS, fome account of

--·

his philofophy, 122.
ARABIA, accounts relative to,
303-311.

APP. Rev. Vo!. Ix,

ARABIANS, their skill in aftrono-
my, 528.

AREOMETER. See De Luc.
ARISTARCHUS, the aftronomer,
his difcoveries, 526.
ARISTOTLE, his philofophy ob.
fcure, 123. The value of his
writings eftimated, 330. His
rules for tyrannical government,
ib. His ideas of a just govern-
ment, 332.
ARITHMETIC of impoffible quan-
tities, observations on, 418.
ARTICLES, of the Church, lati-
tude in the interpretation of,
pleaded for, 85. The 18th Art.
interpreted, ib,
ASTRONOMY, hiftory of the va-
rious revolutions and improve-
ments in that science, 526.
ATHELSTAN, King, curious form
of a deed of gift by him, 263.
ATLANTIS, Platonic, effay on, 490.
AURORA Borealis, philofophical
inquiry into the causes of, 563.

B.

BARDS, Welch, orders and de-
grees of, 36.

BEGUELIN, M. his obf. concerning
fome new properties of light,
513.
BEEF-EATERS, derivation of, 259.
BERTHOUD,

P p

the opening was then closed; and the animal foon put himself
in motion, though flowly. I cannot exprefs the joy we felt on
this occafion.'

On the next day, however, we are told that the Doctor re-
peated the experiment on five other animals; but that none of
them recovered. On opening their chefts, it was found that
their lungs were filled with water, even in their minutest rami-
fications. On this occafion, Dr. Hoefman was convinced that
the failure of the inftrument was to be ascribed to its extremity
not reaching, or coming into contact with, the water.

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Although our expectations,' fays Mr. W. have not been
anfwered, I have requefted leave of the Doctor to inform you of
thefe trials. I do this, partly to fhew you that we-zealously con-
eur with you in profecuting the objects of your inftitution; and
partly in hopes that these trials may lead the way to fomething
more perfect.'

In the Appendix to our 47th Volume, 1772, page 521, we
gave an account of an apparatus conftructed by M. de la Cha-
pelle, to which he gives the name of a faphandre; by means of
which the most timorous perfon, ignorant of the art of fwim-
ming, may keep himself in an erect pofition in the water,
and may, as it were, walk across the deepest rivers; the water
rifing no higher than the pit of his ftomach. Mr. Van Engelen,
one of the members of the Amfterdam fociety, having read with
much pleasure the treatife published by the inventor, in which
this inftrument is particularly defcribed, was convinced of its
great fuperiority to the cork jacket, or other inventions of the
fame kind. The fociety warmly recommends the ufe of this ap-
paratus, not only for the purpose of preventing accidents, but
likewife that of facilitating the extraction of drowned bodies.
As the inftrument cofts but little, and may be contained in a
very fmall box; they propofe that veffels and even boats fhould
be provided with them, and that, in cities and villages, a fuffi-
cient number should be depofited in the moft convenient places.

We fhall only further obferve, with refpect to this publication,
that befides the relation of cafes, and of various particulars
refpecting the proceedings of other inftitutions formed in Eng-
land, France, Italy, and other parts of Europe, this number
contains three plates, in which the various inftruments or ar
ticles to be employed in the recovery of drowned perfons, are
accurately delineated.

INDEX

INDEX

To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this

N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, fee the
Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume,

Volume.

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ARABIANS, their skill in aftrono-

my, 528.

AREOMETER. See De Luc.
ARISTARCHUS, the aftronomer,
bis difcoveries, 526.
ARISTOTLE, his philofophy ob.
fcure, 123.
The value of his
writings eftimated, 330. His
rules for tyrannical government,
ib. His ideas of a just govern-
ment, 332.
ARITHMETIC of impoffible quan-
tities, obfervations on, 418.
ARTICLES, of the Church, lati-
tude in the interpretation of,
pleaded for, 85. The 18th Art.
interpreted, ib.
ASTRONOMY, hiftory of the va-
rious revolutions and improve-
ments in that science, 526.
ATHELSTAN, King, curious form
of a deed of gift by him, 263.
ATLANTIS, Platonic, effay on, 490.
AURORA Borealis, philofophical
inquiry into the causes of, 563.

B.

BARDS, Welch, orders and de-
grees of, 36.

BEGUELIN, M. his obf. concerning
fome new properties of light,

513.
BEEF-EATERS, derivation of, 259.
BERTHOUD,

P p

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