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Art. 29. Verses to the Memory of Colonel Ackland. With some Leiters to a

oble Lord. Particulary one on the Advantages arising from the Newfoundland Fishery, to Great Britain and Ireland. 4to. 1 s. 6 d. Brown.

A itrange jumble of wretched verse, and illiterate profe. What had the accident by which Col. Ackland unfortunately lost his life, to do with the advantages of the Newfoundlarid fithery? Why did the author not add a differtation upon Dumplins ? Art. 30. Esays Moral and Literary. By the Rev. Mr. Knox,

Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and Master of Tunbridge School. The second Edition corrected and enlarged. 12mo. 48. Dilly. 1778.

Having already expreffed our sentiments on the merits of this pub. lication *, we again introduce it to the attention of our Readers, only to make them acquainted with the name of the Author, and to inform them that they will meet with several additional essays, equally ingenious and elegant with those which appeared in the first edition. The subjects of these are the art of Physic the means of vindicating old Age from Contempt :- Ridicule as a test of Truth in common life: the old English Poets. Art. 31. The present State of the West-Indies: Containing an

accurate Description of what Parts are pollefled by the several Powers in Europe.—The Materials collected on the Spot [here are many Spots !] during the last War, by some of the Officers of his Majesty's Forces, and diligently compared with all authentic nar

Illustrated with a complete Map of the West Indies, done from the latest Observations. 460. zs. Baldwin. 1778.

As the Weft-Indies are at all times, but in these times, especially, a great object of commercial attention in this country, the present compilement will probably afford much satisfaction to those Readers who need the information of books on the subje&. What the Compiler obferves in his preface, is certainly just, the last peace,' says he, ' has made such various changes in the whole face of affairs in this part of the world, that all former accounts of it are become almost useless, and contradictory to the present itate, with regard to trade, government, and proprietors: a new description and history of the Weft-Indies, and adjacent countries, was therefore highly necessary.' What new changes ihe next peace may make, time will reveal, co those who live to see it. Art. 32. A Voyage to California to observe the Transit of Venus,

with an Historical Description of the Author's Route through Mexico; by M. Chappe d'Auteroche. Also a Voyage to Newfoundland and Sallee, &c. By M. de Callini. 12m10. 4 s. Bound. Dilly. 1778.

An account of the first part of this performance, the whole of which is translated from the French, was given in the Appendix to our xlviii. volume, page 560. The other part contains the relation of a voyage to Newsoundland and Sallee, made by M. Caflini, by order of the King of France, principally with a view of making trial of M. le Roy's lime-keepers. The Author's first observations on Thore, were made at the island of St. Pierre ; of which, and of the

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ifle of Miquelon (both lately taken by us from the French) he gives a description, and of the method of preparing and drying the cod-fish caught there. This is followed by an account of the Town of Sallee, in the King of Morocco's dominions; where a second course of obfervations was made. On his arrival at Cadiz, the Author was eager to examine the results of his various operations : from which he draws the following conclufions.

That a ship which had been at sea near four months, in the dif. ferent climates through which he passed in the voyage, would have been milled by one of the watches under his care, only 56 minutes of a degree; which makes an error only of about 14 leagues in longitude. By the other watch, which had been opened at the island of St. Pierre, this error would have amounted to i degree and 45 minutes, that is, about 27 leagues. Art. 33. An Appeal to the Public on the right of using Oil-Cement,

or Composition for Stucco, &c.-Containing Proviros in Letters Patent granted for Joventions; and the Provisos in the Act of Parlia. ment for extending the Term of the Patent granted to John Liardet ; with Specifications to Patents granted before that of Liardet, for Oily Composition or Cement, and those of Liardet; several Extracts from various Authors, some of which were produced in Court at a late Trial; also the Evidence given of the Public Use of Oil Composition, in different Parts of the Kingdom, before the Date of Liardet's Patent. To which are added Remarks, &c. on Liardet's Patent and Specifications, &c. 8vo. I s. 6d, Bew,

In the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and of James I. monopolies of various kinds were become so great a public grievance, that they ree quired a public remedy; and this grievance was at length in some measure removed by the statute of 21 Jac. Io which declares monopolies to be contrary to law, and void ; but an exception was made in favour of patents not exceeding the grant of fourteen years for New Inventions, upon certain conditions, in order to encourage the pro, gress of commerce and the arts; and which if granted with proper caution might be a great public benefit; though this power like that of granting monopolies, it is obvious, must be very liable to abuse, and in danger of becoming a public injury.

The intention of this pamphlet is to prove that this power has been abused in a recent case; which has already occasioned two tedious and expensive trials at law; and the Author has rected prior patents, and receipts, long published, in various Authors, to thew that Liardet's or what is now called Adams's Oil Cement, is not a new invention; and in our opinion it plainly appears from his compilation and observations, that this famous cement so nearly resembles many composicions known long before the date of Liardet's patent, that were they to be used now those who used them would risk danger of being protecuted by the Patentee, as imitators of his new invention; consequently, that the patent instead of promoting the public good, or bringing any new matter to light, has a tendency to prevent the public from making use of those lights which they had before, and which have been published for ages. In this, as in many other cases, we may complain of the Ancients for having stolen our choughts, and say with a gentleman well read in the history of philosophy, and

the

nor

one

the arts, that we suspect neither Mr. L-, nor Mr.-A
Mr. ) , were the inventors of the Oil Cement, but rather “
Mr. Vitruvius."
Art. 34. Observations on two Trials at Law, respecting Messrs.

Adams's new invented Patent Stucco. 8vo. 6d. Fielding and
Walker.

We learn from the preface that these observations are extracted from one of the periodical pamphlets for September last; being taken from the Review of a Pamphlet lately published, entitled, an Appeal to the Public on the right of using Oil Cement, or Composition for Stucco, &c. Art. 35. A Reply to Observations on two Trials at Law, respecting

Messrs. Adam's New-invented Stucco, containing Mr. Wallace s Reply to Mr. Dunning, with the Summary of the Evidence and Charge to the Jury, as taken down in Court. 8vo. 6d. Bew,

If we have here a true copy of the Council's reply to Mr. Dunning, we do not wonder that the learned judge was fatigued, and the jury. confounded; but the following summary has much more perspicuity, and brings considerable light out of that chaos in which the court seems to have been involved :

:-we cannot however subscribe even to this great authority, when he represents the merit of the invention as of litile consequence; because it is obvious that patents for ineffectual or imperfect discoveries, are the means of preventing better things from taking place under the character of inventions.

We think the ingenious proprietors of the patent for Oil Cement have very considerable merit in prevailing upon gentlemen to make use of a better plailtering than usual; and that in their hands it will contribute greatly to the beauty of our public buildings : but it does not seem to us to have such evident characters of a new invention as to entitle the discoverers to an exclusive right to the ule of what we, apprehend has long lain in a great measure dormant, not so much through ignorance of such compositions, as on account of the great expence attending the use of them: and which expence will still greatly limit their application and utility.

We apprebend it is yet as great a defideratum as ever to find out a cheap and durable covering for the walls of houses; and we hope such a discovery would not be deemed as an imitation of one much less valuable, because of less universal application.

AFFAIRS OF THE EAST-INDIA COMPANY. Art. 36. Every Merchant not his own Ship-Builder. Addressed

to the Proprietors of India. Stock. Svo, is. 6 d. Murray. 1778.

On the side of the ships husbands; but the Author's pert sarcastic manner of treating his antagonist, the writer of Confiderations on the Important Benefits to be derived from the Eaft-India Company's building and navigating their own Ships*, is disguitful enough to destroy the effect of any thing he may say to the purpose; and to excite a furpicion that the force of argument is on the opposite side of the queftion.

• See Review, August 1778.

MEDICAL

1778.

MEDICAL. Art. 37. Historical and practical Enquiries on the Section of the

Symphysis of the Pubes, as a substitute for the Cæsarian Operation, performed at Paris by M. Sigault, October 2, 1777. By M. Alphonse Le Roy, Doctor Regent of the Faculty of Physic in Paris, and Professor of Midwifery. Translated from the French by Lewis Poignand, of the Corporation of Surgeons, London, and Surgcon to the Westminster Lying in-Hospital. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Baldwin.

Whatever may be the fate of this attempt to introduce a new opesation into the practice of surgery, the fact of its having been successfully performed is certainly an important one in the annals of medicine, and wet worthy the attention of every one interested in the improvement of the healing art. Without troubling our Readers with any extracts from the introductory part of this pamphlet, we shall lay before them the substance of the narrative relating this extraordinary case.

Mrs. Souchot, a very small and deformed ivoman, had four times been delivered of children which could not be brought into the world without the use of the crotchet. In her fifth pregnancy, a design was formed to put in practice upon her the operation of cutting the fymphysis of the pubes, in order to allow the separation of those bones, so as to give room for the extraction of a living child. In jutice to the gentlemen concerned, Messrs. Signault and Le Roy, is must be observed, that they had previously, by experiments on other animals, and on dead bodies, assured themselves, as much as possible, of the probable success of the operation. The patient confenting, it was performed in the following manner. An incifion was made with a biftory through the integuments (which were drawn downwards), from a little above the pubes to the middle of the fymphyfis, immediately after which, the upper part of the cartilage was divided; the lower part of the integuments, and of the cartilage, was then cut through in the same manner. The purpose of this double incision seems to have been, to allow of the division of the úpper edge of the cartilage, where it is connected with the bladder, before any hæmorrhage should come on, sufficient to obftruet this nicelt pait of the operation. As soon as the cartilage was completely divided, the pubes parted with a degree of violence, which the writer judiciously proposes to prevent in fature, by not raising and opening the thighs till the section is finished. The space between the feparated bones was two inches and an balf, admitting the writer's four kouckles. He immedia:ely proceeded to extract the child; which, presenting by the feet, was brought in that direction, and was born alive. Very little blood was loit in the operation, and it was neither very painful nor tedious. . On lowering the thighs, the feparation of the pubes was reduced to right lines. A particular journal is given of the progress of the cure, and method of treating the wound, concerning which we shall only observe, that it does not give a very favourable idea of French surgery. The event, however, was, that the bones perfectly reunited, the patient recovered her strength, was able to walk up and down stairs, and appeared with her child at the end of 60 days before the College of

Physicians,

I 2mo.

Physicians, with no other complaint than an involuntary discharge of urine, which appeared to be getting better. Since the publication of this case, the operation has been performed with success by Mr. Despres of St. Paul de Leon in Britany, and Mr. Cambon in Mons.

For several objections made to this operation, and the answers given to them, we must refer to the pamphlet, without attempting to anticipate any further reflections which may suggest themselves to the minds of our Readers on this curious and interefting subject.

RELIGIOUS and CONTROVERSIAL. Art. 38. The Conquest of Canaan : in which, the natural and

moral State of its inhabitants, the Character of their Conquerors, with the Manner and Design of their Conquest, are confidered: In a Series of Letters from a Father to his Son. Intended for the Amusement and Instruction of Youth. By John Martin. 35. Boards. Buckland. 1777.

Calculated to convey, both to youth and to other persons, instruction and assistance as to this part of the Old Testament History, and also to improve their minds, and promote their virtue and piery. Such ends the Author proposed by this publication, and such ends it is fitted to answer. Some objections to this part of Sacred Hire tory are briefly considered, and several useful observations are made. Art.

39. A Memoir of some principal Circumstances in the Life and Death of the reverend and learned Augultus Montagu Toplady, B. A. late Vicar of Broad Hembury, Devon. To which is added, written by himself, the Dying Believer's Address to his Soul; and his last Will and Testament. 8vo. 6 d. Mathews. 1778.

The followers and admirers of Mr. Toplady will read this account with great edification, as it appears to have been drawn by an intimate friend of the deceased. Art. 40. Remarks on the Prophetic part of the Revelation of St. John: especially the three laft Trumpets. By Thomas Reader.

Boards. Buckland. 1778. The general scheme of this Autbor's work is as follows: the seven seals include a space of time from A. D. 96 to 395; the seven trumpets from A. D. 395 to 3,125, i, e. to the end of the world and last judgment, in which is included the seven vials extending from A. D. 1936 to 1942. He acknowledges his obligations for much knowledge of this book to Mr. Fleming, Mr. Mede, Mr. Lowman, Bishop Newton, and others; and where, says he, I have left my guides, I have submitted my reasons for it to the understanding and candor of every reader, who must judge of them as he can? He appears to be a man of piety, and diicovers a degree of knowledge and learning suitable to this kind of enquiries. He is possibly too much biafied by an attachment to system. It shoald be confidered that human fyftems whether Arminian, Calvinistic, or otherwise, are not absolute y Scripture-truth. We agree with him in fuppoíing that papal and other establishments have debased Christianity; and is there not allo

reason

8vo. 48.

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