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Among the additions made to this re-publiction, we are pleafed to find a letter to the Author, from the holy fathers of the monaftery at the mountain of Montferat, in acknowledgment of the prefent which he had fent them of his perspective view of that mountain,' &c. which he justly ftyles (in the preface to this edition) one of the moft fingular and beautiful productions of nature. The fubftance † of the letter is as follows:
The letter and print which came enclosed to me, demand our warmest thanks, and it is with pleasure we hear of your health, and that of your worthy family; this whole community highly value the print, on two accounts; first, for the excellent and delicate manner in which the work is executed, and fecondly, for its ftrong resemblance to the place; but as none of our fraternity understand English, the books would have been to us quite ufelefs. We fhould be happy to fee you and your good family once more on our mountain. Pere Tendre, is at this time very much indifpofed, but defires his refpects. May all manner of felicity attend you and yours, for which I offer up my prayers, being, with great esteem
Your obliged fervant,
PERE PASQUAL RODRIEGUO.' A letter from the Hermits of Montferrat, is like news from the other world with what peculiar pleasure muft it have been received by Mr. Thickneffe: we envy him his feeling on this occafion. Art. 28. Candid and impartial Narrative of the Tranfactions of the Fleet under the Command of Lord Howe, from the Arrival of the Toulon Squadron on the Coaft of America, to the Time of his Lordship's departure for England. With Obfervations, by an Officer then ferving in the Fleet. 8vo. I S. Almon. 1779. From the circumftances detailed in this narrative, we are led to conclude, that the pamphlet is really the production of a perfon actually prefent in the fervice which he defcribes.
The Author highly extols the conduct-the skill, the bravery, of Lord Howe, but he violently exclaims against the ignorance,' the daftardly councils, or treacherous defigns,' of our miniftry; and he, particularly, makes very free with the name of Lord Sa―h. -He may have spoken the honest truth, in the warm praises which he has bestowed on his favourite hero; and we are inclined to believe that he has done fo; but we cannot commend the fplenetic, the virulent, we may add, the outrageous manner, in which this candid and impartial' Narrator inveighs against the steerfmen placed at the helm of the British tate. He produces, however, fome facts in fupport of his invectives; and we must do him the justice to acknowledge, that he can argue as well as rail.
* Our extract from the Author's very ample description of this erial habitation of monks and hermits, may be feen in the Review for Sept. 1777.
The original is given at length, in our Author's Appendix. One of the good fathers of the monaftery, particularly mentioned in our Author's defcription of Montferrat.
Art. 29. Verfes to the Memory of Colonel Ackland. With some Letters to a oble Lord. Particulary one on the Advantages arifing from the Newfoundland Fishery, to Great Britain and Ireland. 4to. 1 s. 6 d. Brown.
A trange jumble of wretched verfe, and illiterate profe. What had the accident by which Col. Ackland unfortunately loft his life, to do with the advantages of the Newfoundland fifhery? Why did the author not add a differtation upon Dumptins ?
Art. 30. Effays Moral and Literary. By the Rev. Mr. Knox, Fellow of St. John's College, Oxford, and Mafter of Tunbridge School. The fecond Edition corrected and enlarged. 12mo. 48. Dilly. 1778.
Having already expreffed our fentiments on the merits of this publication, we again introduce it to the attention of our Readers, only to make them acquainted with the name of the Author, and to inform them that they will meet with feveral additional effays, equally ingenious and elegant with thofe which appeared in the first edition. The fubjects of thefe are-the art of Phyfic:-the means of vindicating old Age from Contempt :- Ridicule as a teft of Truth in commen life:— the old English Poets.
Art. 31. The prefent State of the Weft-Indies: Containing an accurate Defcription of what Parts are pofleffed by the feveral Powers in Europe.-The Materials collected on the Spot [here are many Spots!] during the laft War, by fome of the Officers of his Majefty's Forces, and diligently compared with all authentic narrators. Illuftrated with a complete Map of the West Indies, done from the latest Obfervations. 4to. 3s. Baldwin.
As the Weft-Indies are at all times, but in these times, especially, a great object of commercial attention in this country, the prefent compilement will probably afford much fatisfaction to thofe Readers who need the information of books on the fubject. What the Compiler obferves in his preface, is certainly juft, the laft peace,' fays he, • has made such various changes in the whole face of affairs in this part of the world, that all former accounts of it are become almost ufelefs, and contradictory to the prefent ftate, with regard to trade, government, and proprietors: a new defcription and hiftory of the Weft Indies, and adjacent countries, was therefore highly neceffary.' What new changes the next peace may make, time will reveal, to those who live to fee it.
Art. 32. A Voyage to California to obferve the Tranfit of Venus, with an Hiftorical Defcription of the Author's Route through Mexico; by M. Chappe d'Auteroche. Alfo a Voyage to Newfoundland and Sallee, &c. By M. de Caffini. 12mo. 4s. Bound. Dilly. 1778. An account of the first part of this performance, the whole of which is tranflated from the French, was given in the Appendix to our xlviii. volume, page 560. The other part contains the relation of a voyage to Newfoundland and Sallee, made by M. Caffini, by order of the King of France, principally with a view of making trial of M. le Roy's Time-keepers. The Author's firft obfervations on fhore, were made at the island of St. Pierre; of which, and of the
Vid. Rev. Feb. 1778, p. 135.
ifle of Miquelon (both lately taken by us from the French) he gives a defcription, and of the method of preparing and drying the cod-fifh caught there. This is followed by an account of the Town of Sallee, in the King of Morocco's dominions; where a fecond course of obfervations was made. On his arrival at Cadiz, the Author was eager to examine the refults of his various operations: from which he draws the following conclufions.
That a fhip which had been at fea near four months, in the different climates through which he paffed in the voyage, would have been misled by one of the watches under his care, only 56 minutes of a degree; which makes an error only of about 14 leagues in longitude. By the other watch, which had been opened at the ifland of St. Pierre, this error would have amounted to 1 degree and 45 minutes, that is, about 27 leagues.
Art. 33. An Appeal to the Public on the right of using Oil-Cement, or Compofition for Stucco, &c.-Containing Provifos in Letters Patent granted for Inventions; and the Provifos in the Act of Parliament for extending the Term of the Patent granted to John Liardet; with Specifications to Patents granted before that of Liardet, for Oily Compofition or Cement, and thofe of Liardet; feveral Extracts from various Authors, fome of which were produced in Court at a late Trial; alfo the Evidence given of the Public Ufe of Oil Compofition, in different Parts of the Kingdom, before the Date of Liardet's Patent. To which are added Remarks, &c. on Liardet's Patent and Specifications, &c. 8vo. 1 s. 6d. Bew, In the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and of James I. monopolies of various kinds were become fo great a public grievance, that they re quired a public remedy; and this grievance was at length in fome measure removed by the ftatute of 21 Jac. 1. which declares monopolies to be contrary to law, and void; but an exception was made in favour of patents not exceeding the grant of fourteen years for New Inventions, upon certain conditions, in order to encourage the progrefs of commerce and the arts; and which if granted with proper caution might be a great public benefit; though this power like that of granting monopolies, it is obvious, muft be very liable to abuse, and in danger of becoming a public injury.
The intention of this pamphlet is to prove that this power has been abufed in a recent cafe; which has already occafioned two tedious and expenfive trials at law; and the Author has recited prior patents, and receipts, long published, in various Authors, to fhew that Liardet's or what is now called Adams's OIL CEMENT, is not a new invention; and in our opinion it plainly appears from his compilation and obfervations, that this famous cement fo nearly refembles many compofitions known long before the date of Liardet's patent, that were they to be used now those who used them would risk danger of being profecuted by the Patentee, as imitators of his new invention; confequently, that the patent inftead of promoting the public good, or bringing any new matter to light, has a tendency to prevent the public from making ufe of thofe lights which they had before, and which have been published for ages. In this, as in many other cafes, we may complain of the Ancients for having ftolen our thoughts, and fay with a gentleman well read in the history of philosophy, and
the arts, that we fufpect neither Mr. L-, nor Mr.-A-
We learn from the preface that thefe obfervations are extracted from one of the periodical pamphlets for September laft; being taken from the Review of a Pamphlet lately published, entitled, an Appeal to the Public on the right of ufing Oil Cement, or Compofition for Stucco, &c.
Art. 35. A Reply to Obfervations on two Trials at Law, respecting Mers. Adam's New-invented Stucco, containing Mr. Wallace's Reply to Mr. Dunning, with the Summary of the Evidence and Charge to the Jury, as taken down in Court. 8vo. 6d. Bew.
If we have here a true copy of the Council's reply to Mr. Dunning, we do not wonder that the learned judge was fatigued, and the jury confounded; but the following fummary has much more perfpicuity, and brings confiderable light out of that chaos in which the court feems to have been involved:-we cannot however fubfcribe even to this great authority, when he reprefents the merit of the invention as of little confequence; because it is obvious that patents for ineffectual or imperfect discoveries, are the means of preventing better things from taking place under the character of inventions.
We think the ingenious proprietors of the patent for Oil Cement have very confiderable merit in prevailing upon gentlemen to make ufe of a better plaittering than ufual; and that in their hands it will contribute greatly to the beauty of our public buildings: but it does not feem to us to have fuch evident characters of a new invention as to entitle the discoverers to an exclusive right to the use of what we apprehend has long lain in a great meafure dormant, not fo much through ignorance of fuch compofitions, as on account of the great expence attending the ufe of them and which expence will still greatly limit their application and utility.
We apprehend it is yet as great a defideratum as ever to find out a cheap and durable covering for the walls of houfes; and we hope fuch a discovery would not be deemed as an imitation of one much less valuable, because of lefs univerfal application.
AFFAIRS OF THE EAST-INDIA COMPANY.
Art. 36. Every Merchant not his own Ship-Builder. Addreffed to the Proprietors of India, Stock. 8vo. is. 6d. Murray. 1778.
On the fide of the fhips hufbands; but the Author's pert farcaftic manner of treating his antagonist, the writer of Confiderations on the Important Benefits to be derived from the Eaft-India Company's building and navigating their own Ships, is disgustful enough to deftroy the effect of any thing he may fay to the purpofe; and to excite a fufpicion that the force of argument is on the oppofite fide of the question.
* See Review, August 1778.
Art. 37. Hiftorical and practical Enquiries on the Section of the Symphyfis of the Pubes, as a fubftitute for the Cæfarian Operation, performed at Paris by M. Sigault, October 2, 1777. By M. Alphonfe Le Roy, Doctor Regent of the Faculty of Phyfic in Paris, and Profeffor of Midwifery. Tranflated from the French by Lewis Poignand, of the Corporation of Surgeons, London, and Surgeon to the Weftminster Lying in-Hofpital. 8vo. 1 s. 6 d. Baldwin. 1778.
Whatever may be the fate of this attempt to introduce a new operation into the practice of furgery, the fact of its having been fuccessfully performed is certainly an important one in the annals of medicine, and well worthy the attention of every one interested in the improvement of the healing art. Without troubling our Readers with any extracts from the introductory part of this pamphlet, we fhall lay before them the fubftance of the narrative relating this extraordinary cafe.
Mrs. Souchot, a very small and deformed woman, had four times been delivered of children which could not be brought into the world without the use of the crotchet. In her fifth pregnancy, a design was formed to put in practice upon her the operation of cutting the fymphyfis of the pubes, in order to allow the feparation of those bones, fo as to give room for the extraction of a living child. In justice to the gentlemen concerned, Meffrs. Signault and Le Roy, it must be obferved, that they had previously, by experiments on other animals, and on dead bodies, affured themselves, as much as poffible, of the probable fuccefs of the operation. The patient confenting, it was performed in the following manner. An incifion was made with a bistory through the integuments (which were drawn downwards), from a little above the pubes to the middle of the fymphyfis, immediately after which, the upper part of the cartilage was divided; the lower part of the integuments, and of the cartilage, was then cut through in the fame manner. The purpofe of this double incifion feems to have been, to allow of the divifion of the upper edge of the cartilage, where it is connected with the bladder, before any hæmorrhage fhould come on, fufficient to obftruct this nicelt part of the operation. As foon as the cartilage was completely divided, the pubes parted with a degree of violence, which the writer judiciously propofes to prevent in fature, by not raifing and opening the thighs till the fection is finished. The space between the feparated bones was two inches and an half, admitting the writer's four knuckles. He immediately proceeded to extract the child; which, prefenting by the feet, was brought in that direction, and was born alive. Very little blood was loft in the operation, and it was neither very painful nor tedious. On lowering the thighs, the feparation of the pubes was reduced to right lines. A particular journal is given of the progrefs of the cure, and method of treating the wound, concerning which we fhall only obferve, that it does not give a very favourable idea of French furgery. The event, however, was, that the bones perfectly reunited, the patient recovered her ftrength, was able to walk up and down ftairs, and appeared with her child at the end of 60 days before the College of