laws of affinity, as well as of hofpitality, pleaded in his cause and that of his followers.


Here, fays Mr. O'Halloran in a kind of triumph, we see to demonstration the Milefian adventurers well acquainted with the country, its inhabitants, and their ancestry:-we alfo find them fpeaking the fame language; nor is there in history a fact better afcertained than this, notwithstanding the flippant affertions of fome moderns, who will, on their bare authorities, have it, that all the colonies, previous to the Milefian expedition, came from Britain.' On this point we will not dispute with our hiftorian.



"It is told of Ith, that finding the three princes (brothers) who then jointly ruled Ireland, were met at a palace not very diftant, to agree about a partition of the crown jewels, he refolved to pay them a vifit. He conducted himself with fo much difcretion, that the princes agreed to conftitute him umpire. His juftice and impartiality on the occafion is faid not only to have prevented a civil war, but to have entirely reconciled the brothers, and given them great pleasure. But foon after Ith had left them, they began to reflect on the high encomiums he beftowed on their country, and the diligence with which he had obferved and explored it, from whence, with other circumftances, they concluded he was a fpy, and formed the refolution, for their own fecurity, to cut off him and his party before they could reach their fhip. One of the brothers was immediately detached with a number of men by a different route; they foon overtook Ith, who with his men retreated as fast as they could to their fhip, and as they drew nearer to it, a defperate attack was made, in which the flower of his fmall company were killed, and with great difficulty the remains of the hattered troop reached the veffel, bearing with them their general mortally wounded.

Such was the event of the first Milefian expedition to Ireland. Those who reached Spain were provided with fufficient arguments to excite their countrymen to renew the attempt. Their preparations were, vigorous, their troops numerous, and their fleet, it is faid, fuch as would be refpectable at any time, but for that period a very great one. This was the grand Milefian expedition under the conduct of Heber and Heremon. Our Author gives us the names of feveral principal perfons as they have been, he fays, carefully preferved in the Irish annals, and he mentions them, because many confiderable places in the kingdom yet commemorate them,' of which he produces inftances. On their landing, an embaffy was fent to the reigning princes, the three fons of Cearmada, requiring a fpeedy fubmiffion. They replied, that it was contrary to the rules of war to take them thus by furprize, but if they would give proper time to collect



their troops, they would then put the fate of the kingdom to the iffue of a battle.' It was at length agreed that the Milefians fhould re-embark, and their ships clear the coafts; after which, if they made good their fecond landing, it should be deemed an equitable invafion, and the Damnonii, or prefent poffeffors, would either fubmit or oppose them as they found most convenient.

I fhall make no comment, fays Mr. O'Halloran, on this extraordinary agreement, but obferve to my readers, that it was faithfully adhered to by the Milefian chiefs. They conveyed all their troops and provifions on board, and put to fea with their whole fleet. When they had all cleared the land, and were fairly in the main ocean, they tacked about to reach the coafts they had left; but at this very critical time, a violent ftorm of wind at Weft arofe, owing, fay our annals, to the magical powers of the Damnonii; but let that pass as one of the many inftances of pitiable credulity in our annalifts, though at the fame time of their great dread to alter the leaft iota in the national records; fince nothing can be more abfurd than recurring to preternatural caufes in accounting for facts which we know may happen, and often happen, as a Westerly wind is a kind of trade wind on our coaft. The wind increasing, and want of fufficient fea room, were the fources of dreadful calamities. The galley commanded by Donn ran into the Shannon, and was dafhed to pieces beyond the Cafhel, at a place which to this day retains his name, and every foul on board perished! Befide this chief, we are particularly told that twentyfour common foldiers, twelve women, four galley flaves, fifty felect warriors, and five captains, being all on board, shared his fate! The galley commanded by Ir, met the fame fate on the Defmond coaft. The remainder of this fleet, though much damaged, stood off to fea till the storm abated, and then relanded at Inbher-Sceine; but Arranan a moft experienced feaman, in the height of their diftrefs, mounting the maft to fecure fome fails, which none other had the boldness to attempt, was by the violence of the wind dafhed down on the deck, where he died. The place of his interment yet goes by the name of Cnoc Arranan, though vulgarly called Cnoc Arrar, bordering on the Shannon, in Kerry. The fquadron commanded by Heremon felt part of this ftorm, though moft of them landed fafely at Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, fo called from Colpa who perished here, as did likewife Aireach. Thus by this high point of honour, of the eight fons of Milefius five perifhed in this form, befide many ladies and captains of fpecial note, and numbers of foldiers.

The fecond landing was effected on the 17th day of the month Bel or May, and in the year of the world, according to : RBV, Feb. 1779.



the Hebrew computation, 2736. The troops of Heber imme diately took poffeffion of their former camp at Sliabh-mis; nor were the Damnonii in the mean time idle, fince we find them collect fo confiderable a force as to attack his entrenchments the third day after their landing. The attack was long and bloody; but the Danaans at length gave way to fuperior courage, having left a thousand of their best troops killed in the trenches. The lofs of the Milefians was alfo confiderable; three hundred brave fellows falling by the fword of the enemy, with two Druids, who animated them by their prayers, and two ladies, Scota, widow of Milefius, and Fais, wife to Un. The next day the remains of these amazons were interred with great funeral pomp; Scota in a vale, to this day from her called Glean-Scota, near Tralee, where a royal monument was erected to her memory. The beauty of this place has been celebrated by antiquity; but at prefent it appears a dreary uncultivated wafte, the fatal confequences of depopulation and neglect of tilJage! Fais was buried in another valley near Sliabh-mis, which yet retains the name of Glean Fais.

Encouraged by this first defeat of the enemy, the Milefians in good order proceeded towards Inbher-Colpa, or Drogheda, to join their affociates commanded by Heremon; and we cannot doubt but in their route they were joined by many malcontents, but particularly by the Belge. This junction was happily affected, and now united, they fend a fecond fummons to the fons of Ce.rmada to furrender the kingdom, or to appoint a day to put its fate to the iffue of the fword. These princes return a refolute answer, that they would die as they lived, monarchs of Ireland; and that they would meet them on the plains of Tailten, in Meath, where the longeft fword and strongest arm should determine the conqueft. At the time agreed on the two armies. met, refolved on victory or death. Their numbers were nearly equal, as were the commanders; the three fons of Milefius, to wit, Heber, Heremon, and Amhergin, heading the invaders, while the Damnonii were led on by the three fons of Cearmada. The fight foon began, and continued with aftonishing obftinacy from fun-rife, even to fun- fet, as the book of invafion notes. The oppofing princes eagerly fought for each other, through numbers of wounded and dying enemies. At length they met. The fate of Ireland now, like that of Rome, in the days of the Horatii, hung on the fwords of these contending brothers! At length Mac Cuill fell by the hand of Heber-fion, Mac Creacht was flain by Heremon, and Mac Greine by Amhergin. The Danaans, now deprived of their chiefs, gave way on every fide, but this had more the air of a regular retreat, than a precipitate flight. The victors wifely confidering, that if the enemy now elcaped, it would be the fource of fresh devaftations, closely,


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but in good order, purfued them. The Danaans made a gallant effort at Sliabh-Cualgne, fo called from Cualgne, the fon of Breogan, who fell in this battle; a second stand they made at Sliabh-Fuadh, fo named from Fuadh, brother to Cualgne, who was here flain. But more enraged than intimidated at these checks, the Milefians continued the purfuit, putting to the fword all the enemy they met, and fo effectually broke them, that they were never after able to make the leaft difturbance in the kingdom; and fuch as did not paffively submit to the new government retired to Britain, poffeffing themfelves of Devonhire and Cornwall, and carrying with them their name and language. Thus, after ruling Ireland for an hundred and ninety-five years, under nine princes, were the Danaans com> pletely conquered. From their hiftory it is evident that they were a very warlike, as well as a learned people.'

The above relation of an important revolution in the Irish history we have chofen to lay before the reader in the author's own words, from whence fome judgment may be formed of his manner of writing. He proceeds to tell us of the policy and humanity with which the Mile fians treated their new fubjects, which he contrafts with what he calls, the oppofite conduct purfued fince the revolution; but it should be remarked, that he does not, here at least, ftate those reasons and motives which, when they are properly examined, might poffibly give fome ground for a different mode of policy. However, this is an ar gument we do not undertake to difcufs.

The fupreme command of Ireland was vefted in Heber and Heremon; the former, this writer fays, had the fouthern half of the island, and the northern was the property of the latter. The nobility, the military, and the followers of these two princes, had estates and lands affigned to them, in proportion to their different ranks; but O'Naoi, a celebrated mufician, and Mac Cis, a bard of the firft eminence, had like to have produced much trouble, each prince being fond of retaining both in his fervice. It was, however, determined by lot, when the musician fell to the share of Heber, and the bard to that of his brother Heremon; an early index, remarks Mr. O'Halloran, who neglects nothing for the honour of his country, of that protection which the Irish nation ever after afforded to poetry and mufic! Nor were arts, agriculture, and manufactures leis attended to.-Nor should it be forgot to the credit of our literati, that while many important actions of our ancestors have been loft, yet the names of fuch princes as moft remarkably attended to and encouraged agriculture have carefully been handed down from age to age! Ireland was undoubtedly formerly, what China. is at this day, one continued fcene of tillage.'

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Should any of our Readers wish to know how Heber and Heremon proceeded in their new conqueft and government, this Author gives the following account:

The prefent pleafing dawn was foon clouded by ambition, for, rara concordia fratrum! Like Pompey and Cæfar, Heber Our could not brook an equal, nor Heremon a fuperior. writers tell us, that the ambition of the queen of Heber gave rife to a war, in which this prince loft his diadem and his life. On the confines of their different territories were three lovely vales, two of which were the property of Heber, the third that of his brother. Tea, the queen of Heremon (we must fuppofe, to account for this quarrel), began to lay this out in great taste; and the other lady mortified, requested the poffeffion of it also. Heber, it appears, in compliance to his queen, folicited-but folicited in vain-this favour from his brother. However eafy it may be fometimes to reconcile men, yet difputes among the fair are not fo foon compromifed! The ladies on both fides grew pofitive. Each engaged her husband in her cause, and this difpute, in itself of fo little confequence, was the fource of the most dreadful calamities, and laid a foundation for those bloody wars which for near thirty centuries after diftracted Ireland! These altercations produced indifference on both fides; this was fucceeded by coldness; hatred foon followed; and revenge and war were the certain confequences. What a leffon of inftruction! The contending princes, no longer to be reftrained by prudence, or fraternal love, agreed to put their caufe to the iffue of a general engagement. Both armies met on the plains of Geifiol, in Leinster; and Heber, befide the lofs of three of his beft commanders, and numbers of gallant foldiers, tell also in this battle, a facrifice to folly and vanity!'

Heremon now appears fole monarch of Ireland; it was in his reign, Mr. O'Halloran obferves, and about the year 2746, that the Picts first landed in Ireland: unable to oppofe the power of Heremon, they fued for peace on fuch terms as might be impofed, and requested that fettlements might be allotted them in Britain. To prove, he adds, the fincerity of their intentions, and their future dependance on Ireland, they at the fame time requested wives from Heremon, engaging in the most folemn manner, that not only then, but for ever after, if they or their fucceffors should have iffue by a British, and again by an Irish woman, that the iffue of this laft only fhould be capable of fucceeding to the inheritance! Which law continued in force to the days of venerable Bede; i. e. about two thousand years! a mark of fuch ftriking diftinction, that it cannot be paralleled in the hiftory of any other nation under the fun! The principal leader of this people on their landing here was Gud; but he


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