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celebrated Persons, Natives of Cremona, extant at Rome, collected
modern erudition. It contains an account of the lives and writings, hitherto unpublished, of several learned men, natives of Cremona, fome of whom are already known by productions of merit. The work opens with the life and writings of Platina, who wrote, in elegant Latin, the Lives of the Popes, so far down as Paul II., was honoured with the protection of the Gonzagues and Medicis; composed the history of the former, and a dialogue De optimo Cive, which he dedicated to Laurent de Medicis, and, coming to Rome in the year 1458, under the pontificate of Calixtus III., acquired there great reputation for erudition and eloquence, and was appointed librarian of the Vatican by Sixtus V. with the title of one of kis Famigliari. The writings of this great man, with several anecdotes of his life and conduct, fill the first part of Frater VAIRANI's work. The second part begins with the life of Vida, who was born at Cremona in 1470, and is known to have been distinguished by extraordinary marks of the favour and protection of Leo X. The next in order is the life of Faerno, who rose to the highest credit and fortune under the pontificate of Pius IV., had a peculiar place in the esteem' of that pontiff, and maintained, at the papal court, bis native modesty and fimplicity of manners. Our Author has made the following discovery concerning Faerno; that, soon after his arrival at Rome, he was appointed reviser and corrector of books in the library of the Vatican, and that he distinguished himself in this employment by his dexterity in restoring the true text of those ancient Greek and Latin manuscripts that had been injured by time, or by the negligence of copyists. There is no doubt but he tendered important service to claffic literature by his corrections of Plautus, Terènce, Livy, Cicero, and other ancient authors.' His own fables are truly classical, and worthy of the pureft periods of Latinity. He has been accused of fuppresling the MSS. of the Fables of Phaedrus, which was in his poffeffion, that they might not eclipse or diminish the merit of his own. But though it be true, that these fables were first publifhed in 1996 by P. Pithou, yet our Author vindicates Faerno from this charge, and proves it a calumny, from several circumstances; among which the reputation of probity, which this amiable man enjoyed and merited, is not the least persuasive. Faerno died in the year 1961; his
image in marble arose almost to life under the immortal hand of Michael Angelo Buonoroti, who bonoured his memory with this precious mark of his esteem. It is still to be seen in the Campidoglio, and though placed in the midst of a confiderable number of fine Grecian heads, is not at all eclipsed by their beauty.-The other names we meet with in this publication are leís illustrious; some of them are scarcely worth mentioning : we do not except those of pope Gregory XIV. and of cardinal Sfondrati, his nephew.
never been yet publihed. Collected by Mr. STROBEL. First
bulk generally consigns them to an undeserved oblivion, may often be of eminent service to the cause of literature. The work here announced, which consists of such treatises, literary anecdotes, letters, and biographical compositions as may tend to throw light upon ecclefiaftical, philosophical, or literary history, particularly that of the fixteenth century, is undoubtedly of this kind, and deserves to be encouraged. Among the pieces contained in this first voluine, several are curious, such as Five Letters of Luther, -An Apology for the Works of Melanithon, -Singular Anecdotes relative to the turbulent Kaufman of Bruns. wick, and a Treatise, containing the Names of the most ancient Printers. This last piece may be of signal use to those who collect, with avidity, rare books and old impressions, as the equivocal marks of antiquity, that often deceive the unwary collector, are here examined, and unmasked, with great fagacity.
A R T. XXII. Histoire & Memoires de la Societé, &c.—The History and Memoirs of the Society eltablished at Amsterdam, for the Recovery of drowned Persons. Tom. II. Part 3. 1778.
E formerly noticed in a pretty full and particular man
ner the origin, and have since repeatedly, though briefly, announced the progress, of this benevolent and patriotic fociety; the establishment of which has been followed by the inftitution of many others in various parts of Europe. At present, we should content ourselves with barely announcing the continuance of its success, here displayed in fixty-eight new cases, did we not think it proper to extract from the present publication some interesting particulars that occur in it, and which merit the attention of our Readers.
The first of these observations is contained in the extract of a better sent to the society by M. P. Winkelhaak, a surgeon at Alkmaar; in which he relates fome experiments made to ascertain the cause that produces death in animals that are drowning; and describes an instrument contrived for the purpofe of recovering drowned persons, founded on the principles deduced from these experiments. The trials were made in the course of three lectures given upon this subject, by Dr. C. Hoefman, lecturer in anatomy and surgery at Alkmaar, and at which Mr. Winkelhaak was present.
We saw clearly,' says Mr. W. that the lungs of the animals that had been drowned in coloured water, were filled and tinged with the coloured Auid. Hence it follows, that the only and proximate cause of the death of drowned persons arises from the total obstruction of respiration, produced by the water that enters into their lungs.'
On this occasion, not one of the animals subjected to these experiments was restored to life; though bleeding was employed, particularly in the jugular veins, as well as frictions, smoke clysters, blowing air into the lungs, and even bronchotamy.
Having,' says Mr. W. frequently interrogated Dr. Hoefman on this subject, he answered, that the good or bad fuccess in these cases depended folely on the circumstances attending a man's falling into the water ; that he believed a recovery was more likely to be effected, when his lungs happened to be filled with air at the instant of the submersion; that the refult depended on the greater or lesser quantity of water that had been drawn into the lungs in inspiration; and that it were to be wished that an instrument could be contrived, by means of which all this water might be instantly pumped out, and air immediately introduced in its room.'
Dr. Hoefman afterwards invented, and caused to be constructed, an instrument to answer these purposes. It is represented as a kind of syphon, which is to be introduced through an opening made into the windpipe, so far as to reach to the part where it divides into two branches. A copper syringe is adapted to it, through which the water is to be drawn from the lungs of the patient; and air is afterwards forced into them by means of a small pair of bellows fixed to the apparatus. .
. M. Hoefman,' says Mr. W. 'made a trial of this inftrument in our presence. He kept an animal under water till bubbles of air rose from his fauces; and then opening the windpipe, he introduced into it the syphon, to which the fyringe was adapted, and pumped out a considerable quantity of water, forcing in air, in the room of it, by means of the bellows. The animal was then exposed to the sun's
which were very powerful. Two hours afterwards some signs of life appeared: 5
the opening was then closed ; and the animal foon put himself in motion, though flowly. I cannot express the joy we felt on this occafion.'
On the next day, however, we are told that the Doctor se peated the experiment on five other animals; but that none of them recovered. On opening their chests, it was found that their lungs were filled with water, even in their minutest rami. fications. On this occasion, Dr. Hoelman was convinced that the failure of the instrument was to be ascribed to its extremity not reaching, or coming into contact with, the water.
" Although our expectations,' says Mr. W. have not been answered, I have requested leave of the Doctor to inform you of these trials. I do this, partly to thew you that we-Lealously con. eur with you in prosecuting the objects of your infitution; and partly in hopes that these trials may lead the way to something more perfect.'
In the Appendix to our 47th Volume, 1772, page 521, we gave an account of an apparatus constructed by M. de la Chapelle, to which he gives the name of a saphandre; by means of which the most timorous perfon, ignorant of the art of swimming, may keep himself in an erect position in the water, and may, as it were, walk across the deepest rivers; the water rising no higher than the pit of his stomach. Mr. Ván Engelen, one of the members of the Amsterdam society, having read with much pleasure the treatise published by the inventor, in which this instrument is particularly deferibed, was convinced of its great superiority to the cork jacket, or other inventions of the fame kind. The society warmly recommends the use of this apparatus, not only for the purpose of preventing acciderits, but likewise that of facilitating the extraction of drowned bodies
. As the instrument costs but little, and may be contained in a very small box; they propose that vessels and even boats should be provided with them, and that, in cities and villages, a fufficient number fhould be deposited in the most convenient places.
We shall only further obferve, with respect to this publication, that besides the relation of cases, and of various particulars respecting the proceedings of other institutions formed in England, France, Italy, and other parts of Europe, this number contains three plates, in which the various inftruments or articles to be employed in the recovery of drowned persons, are accurately delineated.
Ι Ν D E X
To the REMARKABLE PASSAGES in this
N. B. To find any particular Book, or Pamphlet, see the
Table of Contents, prefixed to the Volume,
ARABIANS, their kill in astrono.
See De Luc.
'ARISTARCHUS, the astronomer,
ARISTOTLE, his philosophy ob-
scure, 123. The value of his
table and animal creations 516. rules for tyrannical government,
ib. His ideas of a just govern-
cussion of, on the principles of ARTICLES, of the Church, lati-
tude in the interpretation of,
pleaded for, 8;. The 18th Art.
AsTRONOMY, history of the va-
rious revolutions and improve.
French ac, ATHELSTAN, King, curious form
Present civil war ATLANTIS, Platonic, essay on, 490.
grees of, 36.
some new properties of light,
BEEF-EATERS, derivation of, 259.