zealous and wisely directed investigation would not permit him to perpetuate. In his 'Burns,' vol. ii. p. 168, Edinburgh, 1851, Chambers states: Having in the course of his [Burns's] exertions for Johnson's Museum formed the acquaintance of Mr. William Tytler, of Woodhouselee, he sent him one of Miers's portraits."

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Dr. Charles Rogers (with whom I had a long and very interesting "crack" on this very subject in 1889), in his great work on Burns, vol. ii. p. 353, states that the poet sent William Tytler a copy of his silhouette portrait by Miers." The first Edinburgh edition of Burns's Poems,' containing the Nasmyth-Beugo portrait, had been published several months when the poet sent Tytler his lyrical address with his portrait. Is it not more than probable that he already possessed the alternative portrait facing the title-page of a volume of the 1787 edition? If in error, I am in very good company.

EFFIGIES, and many others, will doubtless be interested in hearing that the writer has, through the courteous insertion of his inquiries respecting portraits of Burns in the pages of N. & Q.,' been successful in unearthing the Dumfries miniature of the poet by Alexander Reid, painted shortly previous to his crossing the border betwixt two worlds. It is quite a distinct work from that in the Watson bequest (N.P.G. Edin.), which is a much earlier and sketchy production. Also a beautiful portrait of Burns in coloured soft chalks, very spirited and masterly, and withal having a history extending to prior ownership by a descendant of the poet's family. It is ascribed to David Martin. E. B. N.

58, Glebe Place Studios, Chelsea.

MR. SECRETARY JOHNSTONE AND THE JOHNSTONES OF WARRISTON (7th S. x. 364, 453; xi. 329, 450).-Permit me to correct an error into which I fell at the last reference. I find, on reinspection of the entry in the Edinburgh Burgess Rolls which seemed to prove that the father of Rachel Arnot or Johnstone was dead before May 15, 1577, that the word "umquhile," before "Jon Arnot," has been scored through with a pen, apparently at the time the entry was made. The ink is so much faded as to render the whole entry almost illegible, and the obliteration, which is barely perceptible, escaped my observation in the first instance. R. E. B..

ARCHBISHOP WHATELY: "CONFESSOR " (8th S. iii. 6). In his note on "Prisoner" your correspondent J. quotes from the English Synonyms' a passage in which "confessor" is adduced as a rare example of a noun with an agent ending having a passive function. This is a mistake. The priest is a confessor not because he is confessed by the penitent, but because he confesses the penitent. I gave Miss Whately some help in preparing the

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WELSH SONGS (8th S. iii. 68). In a note to his poem The Dying Bard,' Sir Walter Scott says, "The Welsh tradition bears that a bard on his death-bed demanded his harp, and played the air [Daffydz Gangwen'] to which these words are adapted, requesting that it might be performed at his funeral. The air of 'Sweet Richard' is said to have been composed by Richard II.'s minstrel, Owen Glendower, during his master's captivity, and it was afterwards played at the risings in favour of the unfortunate king, as the Jacobite airs were played to excite the adherents of the Stuarts. (See Miss Strickland's life of Isabella of Valois, in her 'Queens of England.') The popular song, Farwel iti Peggy ban,' was composed by the minstrels of North Wales when Margaret of refuge after the defeat of July 9, 1460, near Anjou left, Harlech Castle, where she had taken Northampton. (See notes to the Warkworth chronicle by J. O. Halliwell.) A. G. B.

KIMBOLTON CASTLE (8th S. ii. 209, 291, 377). Strafford is doubtless derived from the Wapentake of Strafford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, from which the first earl took his title. Arms are recorded in Robson's 'British Herald,' and the name is extant at Wakefield and Pateley Bridge in Yorkshire, Rogate in Sussex, and Belfast in Ireland. GEORGE BOWLES. "

10, Lady Margaret Road, N.W.

A VIEW OF LIFE (8th S. iii, 7).—This inscription appears to be much the same in purport as the well-known Latin epigram

Balnea, vina, Venus, corrumpunt corpora nostra. Sed faciunt vitam, balnea, vina, Venus. These carpe diem gentlemen are all alike, and as wise as the philosophic sage who tells us that the object of life is happiness-happiness of man and nations'; secondly, that commerce is to bring. luxuries, not necessaries; and thirdly, that

luxuries are necessaries. This last follows; because time longer of the horror attending his irretrievable if you confine man's wants to the mere animal situation." requirements you brutalize nature and undermine cultivated society. Next follows the utility wrangle, and then we get back to pleasure. So the theory of life is like that of poetry to please. Such philosophies enable men to talk on for ever, and arrive nowhere at last. C. A. WARD.

Chingford Hatch, E.

WIGGIN (8th S. iii. 28).-Is not this a corrupt pronunciation of widgeon, the most abundant and hardiest of our winter sea-birds? I cannot say I have ever heard it called so; but I received a gift (with a letter) of two "wigans" a few days ago. And sometimes, I think, corrupt spelling produces corrupt pronunciation. For instance, the word demesne is commonly pronounced 66 dimmense "" here, which I presume arose from that oddly placed s.

H. CHICHESTER HART. Carrablagh, Portsalon, Letterkenny.

DR. SMYTHE PALMER will probably find that the word wiggin, used to signify a "sea-dog" or "salt," is an equivalent or corruption of the North-country word wigger, meaning strong. An example of its use is thus given in Bailey's English Dictionary' (my edition is dated 1733):Wigger, strong, as a clean pitched wigger fellow."



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SIR JOHN MENNES, KNT. (8th S. iii. 86).—Can MR. HIPWELL, from his treasure-house, tell me what relation the poetical admiral bore to Francis Hamon, Gent., described in a Court Roll of March 21 (24 Car. II.) as his next heir? Or can he give me a reference to Sir John's will, for which I have made search in vain? He acquired a copyhold of four acres at Loughton, co. Essex, in 1664, possibly as a country house. W. C. W.

COWPER'S 'CASTAWAY' (8th S. iii. 107).-Since my last, on a fresh reading of Anson's 'Voyages,' I find (ed. of 1749, p. 79) the following passage relating to the commodore's ship the Centurion in the storm off the Straits of Le Maire:

"One of our ablest seamen was canted overboard; and notwithstanding the prodigious agitation of the waves we perceived that he swam very strong, and it was with the utmost concern that we found ourselves incapable of assisting him; and we were the more grieved at his unhappy fate, since we lost sight of him struggling with the waves and conceived from the manner in which he swam that he might continue sensible for a considerable

I fail to see any "story" in this, except as applied in a cynical sense to the Rev. Mr. Walter's account of the swimming. An equally able seaman had been just in the same way canted overboard and drowned a few days previously. We have neither "name nor "age" mentioned here, and certainly we have them given nowhere else in Anson in connexion with any mishap of this kind that occurred in the Atlantic voyage. J. O'BYRNE CROKE.

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GELERT IN INDIA (8th S. iii, 25).—Many variants of the Gelert story, from different climes and times, are given in Baring-Gould's well-known 'Curious Myths of the Middle Ages.' C. C. B.

PENINSULAR MEDAL (8th S. iii. 108).-Replying to MR. RAYNER's question, I can inform him that a Peninsular medal with fifteen clasps is catalogued in Col. Eaton's collection, and that another medal with a similar number of clasps is exposed at an establishment in Great Newport Street, W.


CHURCH BRASSES (8th S. iii. 26, 117).—The with propriety, the brasses named by J. W. is the best-I think the only-method for protecting, following: Raise the slab and have it carefully fitted into a shallow box of oak or greenheart, like a picture in its frame, with a stout door of the same wood shutting upon its face; slightly excavate the site, and replace the framed slab so that the protecting trap-door is level with the chancel floor. For lifting the door fasten down level a bar, undercut for grasping. Darken the door to the tone of the adjoining floor. A precedent for this is the covering by boards of the figures of the sibyls in the pavement of the Cathedral of Siena.

J. A. B.

iii. 16).-The following may be of general interest. GEORGE ISHAM, OF LONDON (8th S. ii. 467; It is the rough draft of a letter in the handwriting of Sir John Isham, of Lamport, to George Isham, 1607-8:

ing unto you that I protest I know no on waye of satis "Good cosin Isham I have bin so many wayes beholdfaction but only by ye acknowledgment of your kindnes & ye assurednes of my love which you shall not faile to will so far as my poor abilitye will extende. The only finde if at any tyme you will be pleased to use my rich newse that I can sertefy you is of a greate incounter that we had this Chrismas betwixt Mr Maydwell's longe & dangerus yet notwithstandinge at the last oulde Tobacco & my oulde Hammon the conflyckt was very

hammon with much adoe got ye_victory because his adversary tobacco was but leafe I did earnestly wish your companyes here with us to have incouraged your champeon. I do intreate you that my [" brother Ardses" erased, and perhaps "self" omitted] with my brother Ardses may be remembred to your selfe my cosin your wife Mr Write Mr Maydwell & ye rest of your good company with many thankes for our greate intertaynement My wife hath sent my cosin a cupple of

capons & 2 cheses for a token by this carrier. Thus in haste I leave you to ye tuition of ye almighty from Lamport this xixth ["xijth" erased] of January your assured lovinge cosin J. ISHAM.”

Mr. George Isham's reply to the above is also at Lamport. It is dated "6 Feb., 1607-8," from

London. He thanks his cousin John Isham for
his kindness, and also for his pleasant discourses of
"yr olde Hamonde and Mr Maydwells tobacco butt I am
gladd thatt our Englysh Champyon hathe the vyctorye
over thatt Indyan fume......I would nott have thatt nasste
Indyan weed to have overcome so grand a captayne."
No doubt this "conflyckt" (?) was the event of
Christmas, 1607, at Lamport.


Shangton Rectory, Leicester.

May I suggest that the entries in the Speene registers may be recovered from the Bishop's transcripts? Mr. Rye (Records and Record Searching, p. 123) says that, "owing to special circumstances, certain records are preserved" at Somerset House "relating to (inter alia) Berks." Has MR. LONGDEN Consulted these materials? Q. V.

"PHILAZER" (8th S. iii. 28, 97).-Mr. Luttrell spells this word in more ways than one, as is to be expected. On February 21, 1705-6, he spelt it "Philizer," with a capital P, and this proved too much for the Oxford University Press. In the 1857 edition of the delightful 'Diary' (vol. vi. p. 19) is to be read how "Mr. Rider Philizer is dead, and his place worth 1,000l. in the disposal of the Lord chief [sic, for a wonder] Justice Trevor."

That there was no accidental omission of the

comma is evidenced by the index, where "Philizer, Rider, dies" quite unsuspected.

W. F. WALler.

COLLINGS (8th S. iii. 68).-All I can gather about the Collings family is that they were supposed to have come to the Channel Isles from St. Edmunds Bury, Suffolk, as shown by armorial bearings, &c., date 1577. Motto the same. I have since heard that three brothers are said to have settled in Jersey in 1606 from Ansford, co. Somerset. F. D. L.

CHARLES STEWARD, OF BRADFORD-ON-AVON (2nd S. vi. 327, 359).—Thirty-five years ago, at the first of the above references, MR. WM. HENRY JONES, Vicar of Bradford, inserted a query about Charles Steward, whose marble monument is in the chancel of the parish church there, and to that query no reply seems to have been given. He was son (by Jane, daughter of Sir William Button, Bart.) of Dr. Richard Stewart, Dean of the Chapel Royal and Provost of Eton, who was born 1595, and died 1651. He married Mary, daughter (by Mary Habingdon, his wife) of Walter Compton, of Hartbury, and died July 11, 1698. That bis arms on the monument should have been impaled with those of Compton, Marquis of Northampton,

instead of those of Compton of Hartbury is inexplicable, save on the ground of error. The insertion in these columns of a copy of the Latin boon to those who, like myself, are interested in inscription on his monument would be a great the history of the family of Stewart. SIGMA.

"HARIOLE" (VERB) (8th S. iii. 86).—I should be glad to have C. C. B.'s authority for the assertion that the late Bishop of St. Andrews coined this word. The noun hariolation (of which I take it hariole is the verb) is quoted as an old Scotch saying in Bailey's English Dictionary,' of which my edition, which is the sixth, was published in 1733. Dr. Wordsworth was not born until 1806. G. YARROW BALDOCK.

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to MR. CULLETON for pointing out the works in TRUMBULL (8th S. ii. 527; iii. 98).—I am obliged which notices of Turnbull are to be found; but unfortunately none of them is within my reach. Would he be so very kind as to give me a short abstract of one of these notices; just stating the date and place of the artist's birth and death, and a list of his chief productions? I suppose he was an American loyalist; for one of the other side would hardly have commemorated the heroic defence of Gibraltar, which shed a last gleam of lustre on the British arms.


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Symonds refers to the incident, adding that the fall took place from the top of the castle wall. The effigy represents the lady in a plain, close-fitting gown, buttoned to the waist, whence it falls in loose folds to the feet. The right hand is laid across the body, and the left formerly held the squirrel, now broken away. From this hand a chain sweeps across the body and ends in a pocket on the right side of the gown, a very unusual feature in effigies of this period. It must have been from the pocket and attached chain here represented that the animal escaped, with such disastrous results, for there seems no reason in this case to doubt the truth of the story that has been

handed down for three hundred years. Many of the legends associated with monumental figures are mere fables, made to fit the crests or cagnons of effigies; they usually have their origin in the lively archeology of a parish clerk; but the one in question has so good a record that I am tempted to add it to the limited number which my first note on the subject has elicited.


The following is from an old tombstone, in memory of one Thomas Rawlin, in Epworth Churchyard:

A pale consumption gave the fatal blow;

The stroke was certain, but th' effect was slow; With wasting Pain death found me long opprest, Pity'd my Sighs and kindly brought me rest. C. C. B. SLAUGHTER FAMILY (8th S. ii. 467; iii. 17, 75). -There are two villages in Gloucestershire not far from Stow-on-the-Wold, named Upper and Lower Slaughter, but I am unable to say whether they gave name to the family or took their name from it. Readers of 'Vanity Fair,' by W. M. Thackeray, one of the best of novels, though styled "a novel without a hero," may remember the description of Old Slaughter's Coffee-House, where officers at the time of the Battle of Waterloo "most did congregate," as George Osborne, Capt. Dobbin, and Easign Stubble. Are there any coffee-houses now? I have read that in Oxford, about the first half of the eighteenth century, they were the great resort of the gownsmen. JOHN PICKFORD, M.A.

Newbourne Rectory, Woodbridge.

ST. CUTHBERT (8th S. ii. 386, 449, 498, 535; iii. 53, 114)-OSWALD, O.S.B., does not quite see the point of my inquiry. Of course, I knew that the Cathedral Church of Durham was often called "the Church of St. Mary and St. Cuthbert," and that Symeon calls it "ecclesia S. Cuthberti." See my communication in 8th S. ii. 498. But what I inquired for was any record of any formal dedication of the church to either saint. Simeon, in his account of the dedication, does not mention any such thing, though we do read of Wilfrid long before dedicating Ripon, "in honorem S. Petri Apostolorum Principis " (Eddii Vit. Wilf. xvii.). Eddius also relates how St. Michael appeared to Wilfrid to say from the B. Virgin that as he had built churches in honour of St. Peter and St. Andrew (which he did at Ripon and at Hexham), so he ought to have dedicated one to the Blessed Mother of God. He accordingly dedicated to St. Mary another church at Hexham. It is this sort of information which seems wanting in the case of Durham, which, so far as I have yet seen, appears to have been called St. Cuthbert's, or SS. Mary and Cuthbert's, only by popular usage, as Ripon Minster was first the Church of St. Peter, then of SS. Peter and Wilfrid, and now usually of St. Wilfrid

alone. It is very seldom that we have such evidence
as in the case of St. Wilfrid's churches, scarcely ever,
in fact, and I am not disputing that the church of
Durham was dedicated to SS. Mary and Cuthbert,
but only asking if there be any evidence to that
effect, such as there is in the cases of Ripon and
J. T. F.

Bp. Hatfield's Hall, Durham.

LUCE (8th S. ii. 328, 353, 391, 435, 511; iii. 93). -Burke quotes the Skinners' arms thus: "Ermine, on a chief gules, three princes' crowns composed of crosses pattee and fleurs-de-lis or; with caps of the first, tasselled of the third." This quotation fully authenticates the presence of the lily, but, seeing that royalty in England has discarded this contestible emblem, it may well become the Skinners to do so likewise. The dates quoted vary very considerably. One report says, granted Oct. 5, 1551; others say granted by William Harvey, varied to Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux, 4 Ed. IV. (should be Edward VI.); again, entered and approved in the Visitation of 1634. Thomas Hawley, Clarencieux 1534, died 1557; his reign would include 4 Ed. VI., 1550-1; his successor, Wm. Harvey, Clarencieux 1557, died 1566-7. It would therefore appear that Harvey's name is incorrectly introduced; but he may be responsible for the supporters in 1561. A. HALL.

of arms of the Skinners' Company. It is as I MR. MARSHALL asks what is the "actual grant" stated in my last communication. Both Guillim and Edmonston were wrong as to charges and dates. The Skinners' Company was incorporated in 1 Edward III. (1327), and confirmed in 16 Richard II. (1393). If your correspondent will consult Overall's 'Dictionary of Chronology,' p. 782, and Boutell's exhaustive Historical Heraldry,' third edition, p. 369, he will come to the root of the matter. I gladly endorse MR. MARSHALL'S observations regarding the usual critical accuracy of PROF. SKEAT's writings, some of which I possess and use with grateful appreciation.

Basingfield, Basingstoke.


"COMMENCED M. A." (8th S. iii. 8, 57).—This refers, no doubt, to the "commencement "at Cambridge. But there is a common expression in the literature of the last century, "he commenced author, commenced patriot, cheesemonger," or whatever it might be. EDWARD H. Marshall, M.A.


"SPIRITED AWAY” (8th S. ii. 485). —In Phillips's New World of Words,' ed. 1720, it is stated that "to spirit away children, is to entice or steal them privily from their parents or relations in order to convey them beyond sea, especially to the plantations in the West Indies." Cotton, in his 'Bur

lesque upon Burlesque,' 1675, uses spiriter in the that no references to records have come either sense of abductor :

When Jupiter, in shape of Eagle,
Came the young stripling to inveigle,
And seizing him like any Sparrow,
With his Beak holding his Tiara,
To make him sure as swift as Hobby,
He bare him into Heaven's Lobby;
Whilst the poor boy half dead with Fear,
Writh'd back to view his Spiriter.

'Judgment of Paris,' p. 257, ed. 1765.

The word spirit, in the sense of kidnapper, occurs
twice in The English Rogue.' "Kidnapper,
vulgarly called a spirit," vol. i. p. 156, and again,
vol. i. p. 164. My references are to Pearson's
reprint. This part of the work dates to 1665.

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from Oakham or Hastings.

A. T. M.

SMART'S 'SONG TO DAVID' (8th S. iii. 109).-
As the great-great-grandson of Christopher Smart,
may I reply to the queries of the REV. F. W.
JACKSON? I have the 4to. edition of the Song to
David' (signed by Smart), published in 1763, and
this contains the following notes:-

Stanza 49. "The genuine word repeat."-Ps. cxix.
53. "And Ivis with her gorgeous vest."-Humming-


67. "For Adoration on the Strings."-Æolian harp.
75. Shoots xiphias to his aim."-Sword-fish.
81. "The largess from the churl."-Sam. xxv. 18.
"And Alba's blest imperial rays.”—Rev. xi. 17.
An evident misprint for Rev. ii., the white stone.
It is interesting to note that the text of 1. 4
in st. 33 is corrected by Smart, who, in the margin
of the 4to. edition, substitutes bass for "base."

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TITUS OATES (6th S. ix. 445; 7th S. xii. 209).Titus the perjurer was not married before August, 1693, as may be seen from the marriage licences of the office of the Vicar-General for that year, and from the 'Diary' of Narcissus Luttrell, who writes, under date August 19, "On Thursday last Dr. Titus Oates was married to one Mrs. Wells, a young gentlewoman in the city worth 2,000l." The name in the licence is written Weld. The Edensor register, quoted at the second reference named above, must refer to yet another of the many Oates who were doomed to bear the ill-omened name of Titus. At the first reference a conjectural pedigree of Titus Oates was given; but I believe the follow-is a species of pineapple." ing to be equally probable:

In an 8vo. edition, published in 1819, of the
Song to David,' the anonymous editor, in a note
to st. 57 remarks:-

ling is synonymous with shekel. Thus, in Isaiah vii. 23,
"The silverlings and crusions, &c. The word silver-
'A thousand vines, at a thousand silverlings, shall be for
briers and thorns. Of crusion I am unable to speak
with certainty; but I should imagine that it is derived
from кpovos, which in general is applied to the pulsa-
tion of sonorous bodies, and also to the act of ascertain-
ing the integrity of money, vessels of metal, or earthen-
ware, by what is sometimes called ringing them."
In another note the editor says, st. 69, “Anana

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In the Song to David,' published in a very Rev. Samuel Oates, Rector of Marsham, 1577 to 1605, abbreviated form in 'The Treasury of Sacred Song,' and of North Repps, 1588 to 1620. Prof. Palgrave adds the following notes: Glede (hawk). Xiphias (sword-fish). Gier-eagle, probably circling." FREDK. COWSLADE.

Rev. Samuel Oates, born at Marsham-Anne Dix, of He-
before 1580; ordained priest by Wm.,vingham, Norf.,
Bp. of Norwich, Dec. 21, 1601; insti- m. Nov. 3, 1608;
tuted to rectory of Marsham, May 8, executrix of her
1605; died there 1658; will proved in husband's will;
London, March 9, 1659.
bur, at Marsham,
Sept. 30, 1666.

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Rev. Samuel Oates, born at Marsham, Nov. 18, 1610; adm, sizar at C.C.C., Cambridge, July 1, 1627; ordained, being then M.A., by Bp. of Norwich, Sept. 24, 1635; Rector of All Saints', Hastings, 1666.

Titus Oates, born at Oakham, 1649. The difficulty lies in the identification of Samuel, Rector of Hastings, with Samuel, born at Marsham, 1610. But the coincidences of dates make the identity probable. The late ordination seems to suggest the scholastic rather than the pastoral line, an idea favoured by his disappearance thenceforth from the diocese. The work of an usher might well take him to Oakham, where Titus was born in 1649 or 1650, and to London, where his father's will was proved in 1659. From Seddlescombe to Hastings is a short flight. One wonders

Earley, Reading.

FRENCH PRISONERS OF WAR IN SCOTLAND (8th S. ii. 428, 511; iii. 72).-I have to thank MR. COLEMAN and MR. WARREN for their kind replies to my queries under this heading. With regard to the toy coffins found on Salisbury Crags, Edinburgh, I am disposed to think that they were made and placed there by French prisoners of war on parole rather than by those expatriated refugees who formed the court of Charles X. at Holyrood. But the existence of these coffins is a problem in folk-lore to be solved. I shall try to see if any of them are still in existence in Edinburgh.

With regard to the places at which French prisoners of war were confined from 1803 to 1814the period with which I wish to deal, there being so few prisoners of war in Scotland antecedently to the former date-the following would appear to be the places of close immurement: Edinburgh Castle, Greenlaw Depôt, Esk Mills Depôt, Valley Field Depôt, Perth Depôt, and to a slight extent Dum

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