X is expressed by a sound like that of our pronoun personal she, if you add an s to it, as shees.

Y is expressed by a sound like that of an i in the English word visible, and is called ypsilon.

Z is expressed by the sound of our English zed, leaving out the d, or zea.

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In Portuguese, is commonly pronounced like a in the following English words adapted, castle, bath, &c. It is sometimes pronounced with less strength, and closely, as in ambos, both, where the a is pronounced like a in the English word ambition.


The letter e has two different sounds; the one open like ai in daily; the other close, like that in the English

*E has three different sounds (the same as the French è, é, e, respectively corresponding with the Portuguese é, ê, e): no notice has been taken of the e mute, as in the words appetite, appetite, retrato, portrait. The accent (^) in the words rêde, parede, is used here only to show which e bears the second or close sound (the other e being mute), not that the words are generally written with that accent. Indeed, whenever a vowel is found accentuated in Portuguese, the proper sound of the accent must, of course, be given to it; but the student must not expect always to find the respective accents on the vowels whenever any such sound belongs to them.-S.

word mellow. Examples of the former, fé, faith, pe, foot, &c. Examples of the latter, réde, a net, parêde, a wall, &c. In this consists a great part of the beauty of the Portuguese pronunciation, which, however, cannot be learned but by long use, notwithstanding all the rules that can be given.


Is pronounced like ee in the English word steel, aço; or like in the English words still, ainda, visible, visivel.


This vowel has two sounds; one open, as in the 7.223. word dó, pity, where the o is pronounced like our o in the word store; the other close, as in the Portuguese article do, of, and the word redondo, round, where the o is pronounced like our u in turret or stumble. It is likewise in the different pronunciation of this vowel that

*The Portuguese O has three different sounds, as the E, and equally accentuated, ó, ô, o; the first is open, as in the words dó, pity; tópo, I hit upon, where the o is pronounced much like the English in top; the other close, as in tôpo, top, pôr, to place, for the sound of which I find no equivalent in English; the third mute, as in the Portuguese article do, of, and the final unaccentuated o ending all Portuguese words, where its sound is just the same as in the English verb do, or the preposition to, when lightly pronounced without stress or emphasis. In the word redondo, the on somewhat resembles that of the English in controversy, and therefore bears no analogy to the u in turret or stumble. For those who know French pronunciation it is sufficient to say that on in Portuguese has the same sound as in French.-S.

the greatest part of the beauty of the Portuguese pronunciation consists; but it can be learnt only by long



The vowel u is pronounced like oo in English.


Has the same sound as the Portuguese vowel i.



Keeps always the same sound as in English.


is properly pro

Before a, o, u, and the consonants 1, r, nounced as k; but before e and i it takes the hissing sound ofs it takes also the sound of s, before a, o, u, when there is a cedilla under it thus ç.

I wish the learned in Portugal would follow the resolution of the Royal Academy of Madrid, by expunging such cedilla, and placing the s in its stead, since they have in both languages the same hissing sound, which frequently occasions great confusion in the proper use of them.

C before his pronounced like ch in the English words charity, caridade, cherry, cereja, &c.*

* In Lisbon ch is pronounced like sh in English, and, when there, people will do well to conform to such use; but its true Portuguese pronunciation is the same as in English, except in a

Double c is sounded only before e and c,* the first with the sound of k, and the other with the hissing sound of s ; as an accidente, accident, pronounce, aksidente.


Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English.


Is pronounced always as in English.


Before the vowels a, o, u, and before consonants, is pronounced as in English: example, gosto, taste; gailoa, cage; grito, a cry.

G before e and i denotes the sound of j consonant.

Gua sounds almost like the English wa: example, guarda, pronounce gwarda.

Gue, gui are pronounced as gue in the word guest, and gui in the word gift; but in the verbs arguir and redarguir, it is pronounced as if it were written argueer, &c.


The letter h is never aspirated nor pronounced at the beginning of words, as hora, an hour; homem, a man. H, when preceded by a c, makes a sound with it like our ch. See the letter C, and also the letters L and N.

few words from the Greek or Latin, as charidade, charity, chôro, choir, monarcha, monarch, which now are most commonly written without the h. When the student meets with such words in ancient Portuguese books, and perhaps does not find them in modern Dictionaries, he must look for them without the h.-S.

* Double c is usually pronounced as the single, no matter before what vowel.-S.


Is pronounced like our j consonant.


The Portuguese have no k.


Is pronounced in Portuguese as in English.

Lh, is pronounced like g before an 7 in the Italian words figlio, foglio, &c.


Is pronounced as in English, when placed before a vowel with which it forms a syllable; but, when it is at the end of words, and preceded by the letter e, it forms in Portuguese a nasal sound like that of the French words vin, wine; pain, bread; except sôem, tôem, from the verbs soar, toar, and some others. 10

M, at the end of words preceded by an a, o, or i, has a nasal obtuse sound, which can only be learned from the mouth of a master.


Before a vowel with which it forms a syllable, is pronounced as in English; otherwise, it only gives a nasal sound to the vowel that precedes it.

N before h has the same sound as gn in Italian, or in the French words, Espagne, Allemagne.


And ph are pronounced as in English.

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