No. 8.


At Venus obfcuro gradientes aere fepfit, Et multo nebula circum Dea fudit amictu, Cernere ne quis eos ----- VIRG. Æn. i. ver. 415. They march obfcure, for Venus kindly shrouds With mists their perfons, and involves in clouds. DRYDEN. SHALL here communicate to the world a couple of letters, which I believe will give the reader as good an entertainment as any that I am able to furnish him with, and therefore thall make no apology for them.




AM one of the directors of the Society for the reformation of manners, and therefore think myself a proper perfon for your correspondence. I have thoroughly examined the present state of religion in Great Britain, and am able to acquaint you with the predominant ⚫vice of every market-town in the whole ifland. I can tell you the progrefs that virtue has made in all our cities, boroughs, and corporations; and know as well the evil practices that are committed in Berwick or Exeter, as what is done in my own family. In a word, Sir, I have my correfpondents in the remoteft parts of the nation, who fend me up punctual accounts from time to time of all the little irre"gularities that fall under their notice in their ⚫ feveral diftri&ts and divifions.

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perfon reafon to think himself affronted by


If we are rightly informed, the rules that are obferved by this new fociety are wonderfully contrived for the advancement of cuckoldom. The women either come by themfelves, or are introduced by friends who are obliged to quit them, upon their first entrance, to the conver'fation of any body that addreffes himfelf to them. There are feveral rooms where the parties may retire, and, if they pleafe, fhew their faces by confent. Whifpers, fqueezes, nods, and embraces, are the innocent freedoms of the place. In fhort, the whole design of this libidinous affembly, feems to terminate in affignations and intrigues; and I hope you will take effectual methods, by your public advice and admonitions, to prevent fuch a promifcuous multitude of both fexes from meeting together in fo clandeftine a manner. I am Your humble fervant,


' and fellow-labourer,

rage the hofpital of Bridewell, and improve the hempen manufacture, I am very well acquainted with all the haunts and reforts of female night-walkers.

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'T. B.. Not long after the perufal of this letter, I received another upon the fame fubject; which by the date and ftile of it, I take to be written by fome young templar.

Middle-Temple, 1710-11.

HEN a man has been guilty of any vice or folly, I think the best atone"ment he can make for it, is to warn others not to fall into the like. In order to this I must acquaint you, that fometime in February last I went to the Tuesday's masquerade. Upon my first going in I was attacked by a half dozen female quakers, who feemed willing to adopt me for a brother; but upon a nearer examination I found they were a fifterhood of coquettes disguised in that precife habit. I was foon after taken out to dance, and, as I fancied, by a woman of the first quality, for fhe was very ' tall, and moved gracefully. As foon as the minuet was over, we ogled one another through our masks; and as I am very well read in Waller, I repeated to her the following verfe out of his poem to Vandike,




I am no lefs acquainted with the particular quarters and regions of this great town, than with the different parts and diftributions of the whole nation. I can describe every parifh by its impieties, and can tell you in which of our streets lewdness prevails, which gaming has taken the poffeffion of, and where drunkennefs has got the better of them both. When I am difpofed to raise a fine for the poor, I know the lanes and alleys that are inhabited < by common fwearers. When I would encou


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After this fhort account of myself, I must let +6 you know, that the defign of this paper is to give you information of a certain regular affembly, which I think falls very properly under your obfervation, efpecially fince the perfons it is compofed of are criminals too confiderable for the animadverfions of our fociety, I mean, Sir, the midnight mask, which has of late been very frequently held in one of the most confpicuous parts of the town, and which I hear will be continued with additions and improve-room · ments. As all the perfons who compofe this lawless affembly are masked, we dare not attack any of them in our way, left we should fend a women of quality to Bridewell, or a peer of Great Britain to the Counter: Befides that their numbers are fo very great, that I am afraid they would be able to rout our whole fraternity, though we were accompanied with all our guard of conflables. Both thefe reafons, which fecure them from our authority, make them obnoxious to yours; as both their difquife and their numbers will give no particular

The heedlefs lover does not know

'Whofe eyes they are that wound him fo; But confounded with thy art,

Inquires her name that has his heart.

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I pronounced these words with such a languishing air, that I had fome reafon to conclude I had made a conqueft. She told me that the hoped my face was not akin to my tongue, and looking upon her watch, I accidentally difcovered the figure of a coronet on the back part * of it. I was fo tranfported with the thought. * of fuch an amour, that I plied her from one. to another with all the gallantries I could invent; and at length brought things to fo happy an iffue, that he gave me a private. meeting the next day, without page or footman, coach or equipage. My heart danced in raptures, but I had not lived in this golden 'dream above three days, before I found good reafon to wish that I had continued true to my laundrefs. I have fince heard, by a very great accident, that this fine lady does not live far from Covent-Garden, and that I am not the firit cully whom he has paffed herself upon for a countef...

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-----Tigris agit rabidâ cum tigride pacem
Perpetuam, fævis inter fe convenit urfis.
Juv. Sat. xv. ver. 163.
Tiger with Tiger, Bear with Bear, you'll find
In leagues offenfive and defenfive join'd.



AN is faid to be a fociable animal, and,, as an instance of it, we may obferve, that we take all occafions and pretences of forming ourselves into thofe little nocturnal affemblies, which are commonly known by the name of Clubs, When a fet of men find themfelves agree in any particular, though never fo trivial, they establish themselves into a kind of fraternity, and meet once or twice a week, upon the account of fuch a fantastic refemblance. I know a confiderable market-town, in which there was a club of fat men, that did not come together, as you may well fuppofe, to entertain one another with fprightlinefs and wit, but to keep one another in countenance; the room where the club met was fomething of the largest, and had two entrances, the one by a door of a moderate size, and the other by a pair of folding doors. If a candidate for this corpulent club could make his entrance through the firft, he was looked upon as unqualified; but if he ftuck in the paffage, and could not force his way through it, the foldingdoors were immediately thrown open for his reception, and he was faluted as a brother. I have heard that this club, though it confifted but of fifteen perfons, weighed above three tun.

In oppofition to this fociety, there fprung up another, composed of scarecrows and skeletons, who being very meagre and envious, did all they could to thwart the defigns of their bulky brethren, whom they reprefented as men of dange rous principles; till at length they worked them out of the favour of the people, and confequently out of the magiftracy. These factions tore the corporation in pieces for feveral years, till at length they came to this accommodation; that the two bailiffs of the town should be annually chofen out of the two clubs; by which means the principal magiftrates are at this day coupled like rabbets, one fat and one lean.

Every one has heard of the club, or rather the confederacy of the Kings. This grand alliance was formed a little after the return of King Charles the Second, and admitted into it men of all qualities and profeffions, provided they agreed in the furname of King, which, as they imagined, fufficiently declared the owners of it to be altogether untainted with republican and antimomarchical principles.

A Chriftian name has likewife been often used as a badge of distinction, and made the occafion of a club. That of the George's, which used to meet at the fign of the George on St. George's.. day, and fwear before George, is ftill fresh in every one's memory.

There are at present in several parts of this city what they call Street-Clubs, in which the

chief inhabitants of the street converfe together every night. I remember, upon my enquiring after lodgings in Ormond-street, the landlord,.. to recommend that quarter of the town, told me, there was at that time a very good club in it; he also told me, upon farther difcourfe with him, that two or three noify country-fquires, who were fettled there the year before, had confiderably funk the price of houfe-ren; and that the club (to prevent the like inconveniencies for the fu ture) had thoughts of taking every houfe that became vacant into their own hands, till they had found a tenant for it, of a fociable nature and good converfation.

The Hum-Drum club, of which I was formerly an unworthy member, was made up of. very honeft gentlemen, of peaceable difpofitions, that used to fit together, fmoke their pipes, and fay nothing till midnight. The Mum-club, as I am informed, is an inftitution of the fame nature, and as great an enemy to noise.

After these two innocent focieties, I cannot forbear mentioning a very mischievous one, that was erected in the reign of King Charles the Second: I mean the Club of Duellifts, in which none was to be admitted that had not fought his man. The Prefident of it was said to have killed half a dozen in fingle combat; and as for the other members, they took their feats according to the number of their flain. There was likewife a fide-table, for such as had only drawn blood, and fhewn a laudable ambition of taking the first opportunity to qualify themselves for the first table. This club confifting only of men of honour, did not continue long, most of the members of it being put to the fword, or hanged, a little after its inftitution.

Our modern celebrated clubs are founded upon eating and drinking, which are points wherein moft men agree, and in which the learned and illiterate, the dull and the airy, the philofopher and the buffoon, can all of them bear a part. The Kit-Cat itfélf is faid to have taken its original from a mutton-pye. The Beaf-Steak, and October clubs, are neither of them averfe to eating and drinking, if we may form a judgment of them from their respective titles,

When men are thus knit together, by a love of fociety, not a spirit of faction, and do not me.t to cenfure or annoy those that are absent, but to enjoy one another; when they are thus combine for their own improvement, or for the good of others, or at least to relax themfelves from the business of the day, by an innocent and chearfu! converfation, there may be fomething very useful in these little inftitutions and establishments.

I cannot forbear concluding this paper with a fcheme of laws that I met with upon a wall in a little alehouse: how I came thither I may inform my reader at a more convenient time. Thes laws were enacted by a knot of artisans and mechanics, who used to meet every night; and as there is fomething in them which gives us a pretty picture of low life, I shall transcribe them word for word,

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IV. If any member fwears or curfes, his neigh our may give him a kick upon the fhins. V. If any member tells stories in the club that are not true, he thall forfeit for every third lye, an halfpenny.

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I would therefore in a very particular manner recommend these my fpeculations to all well-regulated families, that fet apart an hour every morning for tea and bread and butter; and would earnestly advife them for their good to order this paper to be punctually served up, and to be looked upon as a part of the tea-equipare.

Sir Francis Bacon obferves, that a well written book, compared with its rivals and antagonists, is like Mofes's ferpent, that immediately swallowed up and devoured thofe of the Ægyptians. I shall not be so vain as to think, that where the Spectator appears, the other public prints will vanish; but fhall leave it to my readers confideration, whether it is not much better to be let inte the knowledge of one's felf, than to hear what paffes in Mufcovy or Poland; and to amufe ourfelves with fuch writings as tend to the wearing out of ignorance, paffion, and prejudice, than fuch as naturally conduce to inflame hatreds, and make enmities irreconcileable.

In the next place I would recommend this paper to the daily perufal of thofe Gentlemen whom I cannot but confider as my good brothers and allies, I mean the fraternity of fpectators, who live Cin the world without having any thing to do in it; and either by the affluence of their fortunes, or laziness of their difpofitions, have no other bufinefs with the rcft of mankind, but to look upon them. Under this clafs of men are comprehended all contemplative Tradefmen, titular Phyficians, Fellows of the Royal Society, Templars that are not given to be contentious, and Statefrnen that are out of bufinefs; in fhort, every one that confiders the world as a theatre, and defires to form a right judgment of those who are the actors on it.

VI. If any member strikes another wrongfully, he fhall pay his club for him.

VII. If any member brings his wife into the club, he fhall pay for whatever the drinks or fmokes.

VIII. If any member's wife comes to fetch him home from the club, fhe fhall speak to him without the door.

IX. If any member calls another cuckold, he fhall be turned out of the club.

X. None fhall be admitted into the club that is of the fame trade with any member of it.

XI. None of the club fhall have his clothes or fhoes made or mended, but by a brother member.

XII. Nō Non-jurør fhall be capable of being member.

The morality of this little club is guarded by fuch wholfome laws and penalties, that I queftion not but my reader will be as well pleafed with them, as he would have been with the Leges Convivales of Ben Johnson, the regulations of an old Roman club cited by Lipfius, or the rules of a Symposium in an ancient Greek author.

count in the fpeculation of the day. And to the
end that their virtue and difcretion may not be
short tranfient intermitting starts of thought. I
have refolved to refresh their memories from day to
day, till I have recovered them out of that defpe-
rate ftate of vice and folly into which the age is
fallen. The mind that lies fallow but a fingle
day, fprouts up in follies that are orly to be kill-
ed by a conftant and affiduous culture.
It was
fad of Socrates, that he brought philofophy down
from heaven, to inhabit among men; and I shall
be ambitious to have it faid of me, that I have
brought philofophy out of clofets and libraries,
schools and colleges, to dwell in clubs and affem-
blies, at tea-tables and in coffee-houses.

N° 10. MONDAY, MARCH 12.

Non aliter quam qui adverfo vix flumine lembum
Remigiis fubigit: fi brachia fortè remifit,

que illum in præceps prono rapit alveus amni.
VIRG. Georg. I. ver. 201.
So the boat's brawny crew the current stem,
And, flow advancing, ftruggle with the ftream:
But if they flack their hands, or ceafe to strive,
Then down the flood with headlong hafte they


DRYDEN, T is with much fatisfaction that I hear this

Igreat city inquiring by day after

my papers, and receiving my morning lectures with a becoming ferioufnefs and attention. My publither tells me, that there are already three thousand of them distributed every day; fo that if I allow twenty readers to every paper, which I look upon as a modeft computation, I may reckon about threefcore thousand difciples in London and Westminster, who I hope will take care to diftinguish themselves from the thoughtless herd of their ignorant and unattentive brethren. Since I have raised to myself fo great an audience, I fhall fpare no pains to make their inftruction agreeable, and their diversion useful. For which reafons I fhall endeavour to enliven morality with wit, and to temper wit with morality, that my Leaders may, if poffible, both ways find their ac

There is another fet of men that I must like

wife lay a claim to, whom I have lately called

nifhed with ideas, till the bufinefs and converthe Blanks of fociety, as being altogether unfur


commiferarion, when I have heard them asking en confidered thefe poor fouls with an eye of great the first man they have met with, whether there was any news ftirring? and by that means ga thering together materials for thinking. Thefe needy perfors do not know what to talk of, 'till about twelve o'clock in the morning; for by that' know which way the wind fits, and whether the time they are pretty good judges of the weather, Dutch mail be come in. As they lie at the mercy of the first man they meet, and are grave and impertinent all the day long, according to the notions, which they have imbibed in the morning, I would earnestly intreat them not to ftir out of their chambers till they have read this paper, and do promife them that I will daily inftil into ther fuck

fuch found and wholesome fentiments, as fhall have a good effect on their converfation for the enfuing twelve hours,

But there are none to whom this paper will be more useful than to the female world. I have often thought there has not been fufficient pains taken in finding out proper employments and diverfions for the fair ones. Their amufements feem contrived for them, rather as they are women, than as they are reasonable creatures; and are more adapted to the sex than to the species. The toilet is their great scene of bufinefs, and the right adjusting of their hair the principal employment of their lives. The forting of a fuit of ribbons is reckoned a very good morning's work; and if they make an excurfion to a mercer's or a toy-fhop, fo great a fatigue makes them unfit for any thing else all the day after. Their more fe rious occupations are sewing and embroidery, and their greatest drudgery the preparation of jellies and sweet-meats, This, I fay, is the ftate of or dinary women; though I know there are multi tudes of thofe of a more elevated life and converfation, that move in an exalted sphere of know ledge and virtue, that join all the beauties of the mind to the ornaments of drefs, and infpire a kind of awe and respect, as well as love, into their male-beholders. I hope to increase the num ber of thefe by publishing this daily paper, which I fhall always endeavour to make an innocent if not an improving entertainment, and by that means at least divert the minds of my female readers from greater trifles. At the fame time, as I would fain give fome finishing touches to thofe which are already the most beautiful pieces in human nature, I fhall endeavour to point out all thofe imperfections that are the blemishes, as well as thofe virtues which are the embellishments, of the fex. In the mean while I hope these my gentle readers, who have so much time on their hands, will not grudge throwing away a quarter of an hour in a day on this paper, fince they may do it without any hindrance to business.

I know feveral of my friends and well-wishers are in great pain for me, left I fhould not be able to keep up the spirit of a paper which I oblige myfelf to furnish every day; but to make them eafy in this particular, I will promise them faithfully to give it over as foon as I grow dull. This I know will be matter of great raillery to the fmall wits; who will frequently put me in mind of my promife, defire me to keep my word, affure me that it is high time to give over, with many other little pleasantries of the like nature, which men of a little smart genius cannot forbear throwing out against their best friends, when they have fuch a handle given them of being witty. But let them remember that I do hereby enter my caveat against this piece of raillery.


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able both to the young and the old. Her behaviour is very frank, without being in the least blameable; as the is out of the track of any amorous or ambitious pursuits of her own, her vifitants entertain her with accounts of themselves very freely, whether they concern their paffions or their interefts. I made her a vifit this afternoon, having been formerly introduced to the honour of her acquaintance, by my friend Will Honeycomb, who has prevail'd upon her to admit me fometimes into her affembly, as a civil inoffenfive man. I found her ac companied with one perfon only, a common-place talker, who, upon my entrance, arofe, and after a very flight civility fat down again; then turning to Arietta, purfued his difcourfe, which I found was upon the old topick of conftancy in love. He went on with great facility in repeating what he talks every day of his life; and with the ornaments of infignificant laughs and geftures, enforced his arguments by quotations out of plays and fongs, which allude to the perjuries of the fair, and the general levity of women. Methought he ftrove to fhine more than ordinary in his talkative way, that he might infult my filence, and diftinguish himself before a woman of Arietta's taste and understanding. She had often an inclination to interrupt him, but could find no opportunity, till the larum ceafed of itfelf; which it did not till he had repeated and murdered the celebrated story of the Ephefian matron.

Arietta feemed to regard this piece of raillery as an outrage done to her fex; as indeed I have always obferved that women, whether out of a nicer regard to their honour, or what other reafon I cannot tell, are more fenfibly touched with thofe general afperfions which are caft upon their sex, than men are by what is faid of theirs.

When the had a little recovered herself from the serious anger she was in, fhe replied in the follew


Sir, when I confider how perfectly new all you have faid on this fubject is, and that the story you have given us is not quite two thousand years old, I cannot but think it a piece of prefumption to difpute with you; but your quotations put me in mind of the fable of the Lion and the Man. The man walking with that noble animal, fhewed him, in the oftentation of human fuperiority, a fign of a man killing a lion. Upon which the lion faid very juftly, "We lions are none of us painters, elfe we

could fhew a hundred men killed by lions, for "one lion killed by a man." You men are writers, and can reprefent us women as unbecoming as you please in your works, while we are unable to return the injury. You have twice or thrice obferved in your difcourfe, that hypocrify is the very foundation of our education; and that an ability to diffemble our affections is a profeffed part of our breeding. These, and fuch other reflections, arc fprinkled up and down the writings of all ages, by authors, who leave behind them memorials of their refentment against the fcorn of particular women, in invectives against the whole fex. Such a writer, I doubt not, was the celebrated Petronius, who invented

the pleafant aggravations of the frailty of the Ephefian Lady; but when we confider this queftion between the fexes, which hath been either a point of difputé or raillery ever fince there were men and

facts from plain people,

from fuch as have not either ambition or capacity to embellish their narrations with any beauties of imagination. I was the other day amusing myfelt with Ligon's account of Barbadoes; and in anfwer


o your well-wrought tale, I will give you (as it wells upon my memory) out of that honeft traeller, in his fifty-fifth page, the hiftory of Inkle nd Yarico.

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Mr. Thomas Inkle, of London, aged twenty ears, ambarked in the Downs on the good hip alled the Achilles, bound for the Weft-Indies, on he 16th of June, 1647, in order to improve his forune by trade and merchandise. Our adventurer was the third fon of an eminent citizen, who had aken particular care to inftil into his mind an early ove of gain, by making him a perfect master of umbers, and confequently giving him a quick view of lofs and advantage, and preventing the natural mpulfes of his paffions, by prepoffeflion towards his nterefts. With a mind thus turned, young Inkle had a perfon every way agreeable, a ruddy vigour n his countenance, ftrength in his limbs, with inglets of fair hair loofely flowing on his fhouiders. t happened, in the courfe of the voyage, that the Achilles, in fome diftrefs, put into a creek on the main of America, in fearch of provifions. The outh, who is the hero of my ftory, among others went ashore on this occafion. From their firft anding they were obferved by a party of Indians, who hid themfcives in the woods for that purpose, The Ergih unadvisedly marched a great diftance om the hoe into the country, and were intercepted by the natives, who flew the greateft number them. Our adventurer efcaped among others, by lying into a foreft. Upon his coming into a remote and pathlefs part of the wood, he threw himelf, tired, and breathlefs, on a little hillock, when n Indian maid rufhed from a thicket behind him. After the firft furprize, they appeared mutually greeable to each other. If the European was highy charmed with the limbs, features, and wild graces of the naked American: the American was o lefs taken with the drefs, complexion, and shape of an European, covered from head to foot. The Indian grew immediately enamoured of him, and confequently folicitous for his prefervation. She therefore conveyed him to a cave, where she gave him a delicious repast of fruits, and led him to a ftream to flake his thirft. In the midft of thefe good offices, he would fometimes play with his hair, and delight in the opposition of its colour to that of her fingers; then open his bofom, then laugh at him for covering it. She was, it feems, perfon of diftinction, for the every day came to him in a different drefs, of the moft beautiful fhells, bugles, and bredes. She likewife brought him a great many fpoils, which her other lovers had prefented to her, fo that his cave was richly adorned with all the fpotted fkins of beafts, and most partycoloured feathers of fowls, which that world af forded. To make his confinement more tolerable, ine would carry him in the dusk of the evening, or by the favour of moon-light, to unfrequented groves and folitudes, and fhew him where to lie down in fafety, and fleep amidst the falls of waters, and melody of nightingales. Her part was to watch and held him awake in her arms, for fear of her countrymen, and awake him on occafions to confult his fafety. In this manner did the lovers pafs away their time, till they had learned a language of their way in which the voyager communicated to his mittrefs, how happy he should be to have her in his country, where the hould be clothed in fuch filks as his waistcoat was made of, and be carried in boufes drawn by horfes, without being expofed to wind or weather. All this he promifed he enjoyment of, without fuch fears and alarms

as they were there tormented with. In this tender correfpondence thefe lovers lived for feveral months, when Yarico, inftructed by her lover, discovered a veffel on the coast, to which she made fignals; and in the night, with the utmost joy and fatisfaction, accompanied him to a fhip's crew of his countrymen, bound for Barbadoes. When a vefiel from the main arrives in that island,it seems the planters come down to the fhore, where there is an immediate mar ket of the Indians and other flaves, as with us of horfes and oxen.

To be fhort, Mr. Thomas Inkle, now coming into English territories, began ferioufly to reflect upon his lofs of time, and to weigh with himself how many days intereft of his money he had loft during his stay with Yarico. This thought made the young man very penfive, and careful what account he should be able to give his friends of his voyage. Upon which confideration, the prudent and frugal young man fold Yarico to a Barbadian merchant; notwithstanding that the poor girl, to incline him to commiferate her condition, told him that he was with child by him; but he only made ufe of that information, to rife in his demands upon the purchafer.

I was fo touch'd with this story (which I think fhould be always a counterpart to the Ephesian matron) that I left the room with tears in my eyes; which a woman of Arietta's good fense did, I am fure, take for greater applaufe, than any compliments I could make her. R

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I root th' old woman from thy trembling heart. T my coming to London, it was fome time before I could fettle myfelf in a house to my liking. I was forced to quit my first lodgings, by reafon of an officious landlady, that would be afking me every morning how I had flept. I then fell into an honest family, and lived very happily for above a week; when my landlord, who was a jolly goodnatured man, took it into his head that I wanted company, and therefore would frequently come into my chamber to keep me from being alone. This I bore for two or three days; but telling me one day that he was afraid I was melancholy, I thought it was high time for me to be gone, and accordingly took new lodgings that very night. About a week after, I found my jolly landlord, who, as I faid before, was an honeft hearty man, had put me into an advertisement of the Daily Courant, in the following words: "Whereas a melancholy man left

his lodgings on Thurfday laft in the afternoon, and was afterwards feen going towards Iflington; "if any one can give notice of him to R. B. Fish"monger in the Strand, he shall be yery well re"warded for his paint." As I am the best man in the world to keep my counfel, and my landlord the fishmonger not knowing my name, this accident of my life was never difcovered to this very day.

I am now fettled with a widow woman, who has a great many children, and complies with my humour in every thing. I do not remember that we have exchanged a word together thefe five years; my coffee comes into my chamber every morning without asking for it; if want fire, I point to my chimney, if water to my bafon upon which my landlady nods, as much as to lay fhe takes my meaning,


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