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fufion in the purfuit. For these reasons the country gentleman, like the fox, feldom preys near his own home.
In the fame manner I have made a month's excurfion out of the town, which is the great field of game for fportfmen of my fpecies, to try my fortune in the country, where I have started feveral fubjects, and hunted them down, with fome pleasure to myself, and I hope to others. I am here forced to use a great deal of diligence before I canfpring any thing to my mind, whereas in town, whilft I am following one character, it is ten to one but I am croffed in my way by another, and put up fuch a variety of odd creatures in both fexes, that they foil the fcent of one another, and puzzle the chafe. greatest difficulty in the country is to find fport, and in town to choose it. In the mean time, as I have given a whole month's reft to the cities of London and Westminster, I promife myself abundance of new game upon my return thither.
It is indeed high time for me to leave the country, fince I find the whole neighbourhood begin to grow very inquifitive after my name and character: my love of folitude, taciturnity, and particular way of life, having raised a great curiofity in all these parts.
The notions which have been framed of me are various; fome look upon me as very proud, fome as very melancholy. Will Wimble, as my friend the butler tells me, obferving me very much alone, and extremely filent when I am in company, is afraid I have killed a man. The country people feem to fufpect me for a conjurer; and fome of them hearing of the vifit which I made to Moll White, will needs have
SUPPOSE this letter will find thee picking of daifies, or fmelling to a lock of hay, or paffing away thy time in fome innocent country diverfion of the like nature. I have how ever orders from the club to fammon thee up "to town,' being all of us curfedly afraid thou wilt not be able to relifh our company, after thy converfations with Moll White and Will Wimble. Pr'ythee do not fend us any more ftories of a cock and bull, nor frighten the town with fpirits and witches. Thy fpeculations begin to fmell confoundedly of woods and meadows. If thou dost not come up quickly, we fhall conclude that thou art in love with one of Sir Roger's dairy-maids. Service to the knight. Sir Andrew is grown the
it that Sir Roger has brought down a cunning-cock of the club fince he left us, and if he does
man with him, to cure the old woman, and free
not return quickly will make every mother's
A juftice of peace, who lives about five miles off, and is not of Sir Roger's party, has it feems faid twice or thrice at his table, that he wishes Sir Roger does not harbour a Jefuit in his houfe, and that he thinks the gentlemen of the country would do very well to make me give some ac count of myself.
On the other fide, fome of Sir Roger's friends are afraid the old knight' is impofed upon by a designing fellow, and as they have heard that he converfes very promifcuously when he is in town, do not know but he has brought down with him fome difcarded Whig, that is fullen, and fays nothing because he is out of place.
Such is the variety of opinions which are here entertained of me, fo that I pafs among fome for a difaffected perfon, and among others for a popifh prieft; among fome for a wizard, and among others for a murderer; and all this for no other reafon, that I can imagine, but because I do not hoot and halloo and make a noife. It is true my friend Sir Roger tells them, that it is my way, and that I am only a philofopher; but this will not fatisfy thera. They think there is more in me than the discovers, and that I do not hold my tongue for nothing.
upon him, and does not care for facrificing an afternoon to every chance-comer; that will be the master of his own time, and the purfuer of his own inclinations, makes but a very unfociable figure in this kind of life. I fhall therefore retire into the town, if I may make use of that phrafe, and get into the crowd again as faft as I can, in order to be alone. I can there raise what fpeculations I pleafe upon others without being obferved myfelf, and at the fame time cnjoy all the advantages of company with all the privileges of folitude. In the mean while, to finifh the month and conclude thefe my rural fpeculations, I fhall here infert a letter from my friend Will Honeycomb, who has not lived a month for thefe forty years out of the fmoke of London, and rallies me after his way upon my country life.
For these and other reasons I fhall fet out for London to-morrow, having found by experience that the country is not a place for a perfon of, my temper, who does not love jollity, and what they call good neighbourhood. A man that is out of humour when an expected guest breaks in
No 132. WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 1.
Qui, aut tempus quid poftulet non videt, aut plura loquitur, aut je offentat, aut eorum quibufcum eft ra tionem non habet, is ineptus effe dicitur. TULL That man is guilty of impertinence, who con
fiders not the circumftances of time, or engroffes the conversation, or makes himself the fubject of his difcourfe, or pays no regard to the company he is in, ?
AVING notified to my good friend Sir * Roger that I fhould fet out for London the next day, his horfes were ready at the appointed hour in the evening; and attended by one of his grooms, I arrived at the county town at twilight, in order to be ready for the ftage-coach the day following. As foon as we arrived at the inn, the fervant, who waited upon me, inquir'd of the chamberlain in my hearing what company he had for the coach? The fellow answered, Mrs. Betty Arable the great fortune, and the the widow her mother; a recruiting officer, who took a place becaufe they were to go; young Squire Quickfet her coufin, that her mother wifhed her to be married to; Ephraim the quaker, her guardian; and a gentleman that had ftudied himself dumb from Sir Roger de Coverley's. I obferved by what he had faid of myfelf, that acY 4 cording
cording to his office he dealt much in intelli-
We were in fome little time fixed in our feat, and fat with that dislike which people not too good-natured ufually conceive of each other at first fight. The coach jumbled us infenfibly into fome fort of familiarity: and we had not moved above two miles, when the widow afked the captain what fuccefs he had in his recruiting? The officer, with a franknefs he believed very graceful, told her, " that indeed he had "but very little luck, and had suffered much
"faid nothing; but how doft thou know what "he containeth? If thou fpeakeft improper "things in the hearing of this virtuous young "virgin, confider it is an outrage against a "diftreffed person that cannot get from thee: "to fpeak indifcreetly what we are obliged to "hear, by being hasped up with thee in this "public vehicle, is in fome degree affaulting on "the high road."
by defertion, therefore fhould be glad to end his warfare in the fervice of her or her fair daughter. In a word, continued he, I am a "foldier, and to be plain is my character: you fee me, Madam, young, found, and impu"dent; take me yourself, widow, or give me "to her; I will be wholly at your disposal. I am a foldier of fortune, ha!" This was followed by a vain laugh of his own, and a deep filence of all the reft of the company. I had nothing left for it but to fall fast afleep, which I did with all speed. "Come, faid he, refolve upon it, we will make a wedding at next "town: we will awake this pleasant companion "who is fallen afleep, to be the bride-man, and, "giving the quaker a clap on the knee, he con"cluded, This fly faint, who, I will warrant, << understands what is what as well as you or I, "widow, fhall give the bride as father." The quaker, who happened to be a man of smartness, anfwered,Friend, I take it in good part that "thou haft given me the authority of a father
over this comely and virtuous child; and i "muft affure thee, that if I have the giving her, "I shall not beftow her on thee. Thy mirth, "friend, favoureth of folly: thou art a perfon "of a light mind; thy drum is a type of thee, << it foundeth because it is empty. Verily, it "is not from thy fulness, but thy emptiness "that thou haft fpoken this day. Friend, friend, "we have hired this coach in partnership with thee, to carry us to the great city; we cannot go any other way. This worthy mother must hear thee if thou wilt needs utter thy follies; we cannot help it, friend, I fay; if "thou wilt, we must hear thee; but if thou "wert a man of understanding, thou wouldst "not take advantage of thy courageous coun"tenance to abafh us children of peace. Thou "art, thou fayft, a foldier; give quarter to us, "who cannot refift thee. Why did thou fleer " at our friend, who feigned himfeli afleep? he
Here Ephraim paufed, and the captain with an unhappy and uncommon impudence, which can be convicted and fupport itself at the fame time, cries, "Faith, friend, I thank thee; I "fhould have been a little impertinent if thou "hadft not reprimanded me. Come, thou art, "I fee, a fmoky old fellow, and I will be very "orderly the enfuing part of my journey. I was "going to give myself airs, but, ladies, I beg "pardon."
The captain was fo little out of humour, and our company was fo far from being foured by this little ruffle, that Ephraim and he took a particular delight in being agreeable to each other for the future; and affumed their different provinces in the conduct of the company. Our reckonings, apartments, and accommodation, fell under Ephraim; and the captain looked to all difputes on the road, as the good behaviour of our coachman, and the right we had of taking place as going to London of all vehicles coming from thence. The occurrences we met with were ordinary, and very little happened which could entertain by the relation of them; but when I confidered the company we were in, I took it for no small good-fortune that the whole journey was not spent in impertinences, which to the one part of us might be an entertainment, to the other a suffering. What therefore Ephraim faid when we were almost arrived at London, had to me an air not only of good understanding but good breeding. Upon the young's lady's expreffing her fatisfaction in the journey, and declaring how delightful it had been to her, Ephraim delivered himfelf as follows: "There "is no ordinary part of human life which ex
preffeth fo much a good mind, and a right in"ward man, as his behaviour upon meeting "with ftrangers, efpecially fuch as may feem "the most unfuitable companions to him: fuch
a man, when he falleth in the way with per"fons of fimplicity and innocence, however "knowing he may be in the ways of men, will
not vaunt himself thereof; but will the rather hide his fuperiority to them, that he may not "be painful unto them. My good friend, con"tinued he, turning to the officer, thee and "I are to part by and by, and peradventure we 66 may never meet again: but be advised by a "plain man; modes and apparel are but trifles "to the real man, therefore do not think fuch à 66 man as thyself terrible for thy garb, nor such "a one as me contemptible for mine. When << two fuch as thee and I meet, with affections
as we ought to have towards each other, thou "fhouldft rejoice to fee my peaceful demeanour, " and I should be glad to fee thy ftrength and ability to protect me in it."
N° 133. THURSDAY, AUGUST 2.
HOR. Od. 24. l. I. V. I, -Who can grieve too much, what time shall end Our mourning for fo dear a friend?
HERE is a fort of delight, which is alternately mixed with terror and forrow, in the contemplation of death. The foul has its curiofity more than ordinarily awakened, when it turns its thoughts upon the subject of fuch who have behaved themselves with an equal, a refigned, a chearful, a generous or heroic temper in that exrremity. We are affected with thefe respective manners of behaviour, as we fecretly believe the part of the dying perfon imitable by ourfelves, or fuch as we imagine ourfelves more particularly capable of. Men of exalted minds march before us like princes, and are, to the ordinary race of mankind, rather fubjects for their admiration than example. However, there are no ideas strike more forcibly upon our imaginations, than those which are raised from reflections upon the exits of great and excellent men. Innocent men who have fuffered as criminals, though they were benefactors to human fociety, feem to be perfons of the highest distinction, among the When vaftly greater of human race, the dead. the iniquity of the times brought Socrates to his execution, how great and wonderful is it to be hold him, unfupported by any thing but the teftimony of his own confcience and conjectures of hereafter, receive the poifon with an air of mirth and good-humour, and as if going on an agreeable journey befpeak fome deity to make it fortu
When Phocion's good actions had met with the like reward from this country, and he was led to death with many others of his friends, they bewailing their fate, he walking compofedly towards the place of execution, how gracefully does he support his illuftrious character to the very last instant! One of the rabble fpitting at him as he paffed, with his ufual authority he called to know if no one was ready to teach this fellow how to behave himself. When a poor fpirited creature that died at the fame time for his crimes bemoaned himself unmanfully, he rebuked him with this question, Is it no confolation to fuch a man as thou art to die with Phocion? At the inftant when he was to die, they alked what commands he had for his fon: he anfwered, to forget this injury of the Athenians. Niocles, his friend, under the fame fentence, defired he might drink the potion before him; Phocion faid, because he never had denied him any thing he would not even this, the most difficult request he had ever made.
Thefe inftances were very noble and great, and the reflections of thofe fublime fpirits had made death to them what it is really intended to be by the author of nature, a relief from a various being ever fubject to forrows and difficulties.
"foldiers; it is now your Epaminondas is born, "who dies in fo much glory.'
It were an endless labour to collect the accounts with which all ages have filled the world of noble and heroic minds that have refigned this being, as if the termination of life were but an ordinary occurrence of it.
Epaminondas the Theban general, having received in fight a mortal ftab with a fword, which was left in his body, lay in that posture until he had intelligence that his troops had obtained the victory, and then permitted it to be drawn out, at which inftant he expreffed himself in this manper, "This is not the end of my life, my fellow
This common-place way of thinking I fell into from an aukward endeavour to throw off a real and fresh affliction, by turning over books in a melancholy mood; but it is not eafy to remove griefs which touch the heart, by applying remedies which only entertain the imagination. As therefore this paper is to confift of any thing which concerns human life, I cannot help letting the prefent fubject regard what has been the laft object of my eyes, though an entertainment of forrow.
I went this evening to vifit a friend, with a defign to rally him, upon a story I had heard of his intending to fteal a marriage without the privity of us his intimate friends and acquaintance. I came into his apartment with that intimacy which I have done for very many years, and walked directly into his bed-chamber, where I found my friend in the agonies of death. What could I do? The innocent mirth in my thoughts ftruck upon me like the moft flagitious wickednefs: I in vain called upon him; he was fenfelefs, and too far spent to have the least knowledge of my forrow, or any pain in himself. Give me leave then to tranfcribe my foliloquy, as I ftood by his mother, dumb with the weight of grief for a fon who was her honour and her comfort, and never until that hour fince his birth had been an occafion of a moment's forrow to her.
"OW furprising is this change! from the "to be reduced in a few hours to this fatal ex"tremity! Thofe lips which look fo pale and liv "id, within thefe few days gave delight to all "who heard their utterance; it was the bufi"nefs, the purpose of his being, next to obeying "him to whom he is going, to please and in"ftruct, and that for no other end but to please "and inftruct, Kindnefs was the motive of his "actions, and with all the capacity requisite for "making a figure in a contentious world, mo"deration, good nature, affability, temperance " and chastity, were the arts of his excellent life. "There as he lies in helpless agony, no wife man "who knew him fo well as I, but would refign "all the world can bestow to be fo near the end " of fuch a life. Why does my heart fo little "obey my reason as to lament thee, thou excel· "lent man Heaven receive him, or restore "him. Thy beloved mother, thy obliged "friends, thy helpless fervants, ftand around "thee without diftinction. How much would"eft thou, hadft thou thy fenfes, fay to each of ❝ us!
"But now that good heart bursts, and he is at "reft-with that breath expired a foul who never
indulged a paffion unfit for the place he is gone "to where are now thy plans of justice, of "truth, of honour? Of what ufe the volumes "thou haft collated, the arguments thou haft in"vented, the examples thou haft followed ? "Poor were the expectations of the ftudious, the "modeft and the good, if the reward of their la"bours were only to be expected from man. "No, my friend, thy intended pleadings, thy in.
tended good offices to thy friends, thy intended fervices to thy country, are already performed, as to thy concern in them, in his fight before 4 whom the paít, prefent, and future appear at one view. While others with thy talents were tormented with ambition, with vain-glory, with envy, with emulation, how well didft thou turn thy mind to its own improvement in things out of the power of fortune; in probity, in integrity, in the practice and ftudy of juftice, how filent thy paffage, how private thy journey, how glorious thy end! many have I known more famous, fome more knowing, *not one fo innocent."
that is not affected by you. I cannot fay in-
FRIDAY, AUGUST 3.
And am the great phyfician call'd below.
-Opiferque per ortem
DRYDEN. URING my abfence in the country, feveral packets trave been left for me, which were not forwarded to me, because I was expected every day in town. The author of the following Letter, dated from Tower-hill, having fometimes been entertained with fome learned gentlemen in plufh doublets, who have vended their wares from a flage in that place, has pleafantly enough addre led to me, as no lefs a fage in morality, than thofe are in phyfic, To comply with his kind inclination to make my cures famous, I fhall give You his teftimonial of my great abilities at large in his own words.
Ovid. Met I. 1. V. 521,
OUR faying the other day there is fomething wonderful in the narrowness of thofe minds which can be pleafed, and be barren of bounty to those who please them, makes me in pain that I am not a man of power. If I were, you fhould foon fee how much I approve your fpeculations. In the mean time I · beg leave to fupply that inability with the
The careful father and humble petitioner hereafter mentioned, who are under difficulties about the juft management of fans, will foon receive proper advertisements relating to the profeffors in that behalf, with their places of abode and methods of teaching.
July the 5th, 1711.
N your Spectator of June the 7th, you tranfcribe a letter fent to you from a new fort of mufter-mafter, who teaches ladies the whole exercife of the fan; I have a daughter juft come to town, who though she has always held a fan in her hand at proper times, yet the knows no more how to use it according to true difcipline, ✦ than an aukward school-boy does to make ufe
of his new-fword: I have fent for her on pur
6 are neceffary for a young lady to understand;
my requeft is, that you will speak to your cor→
C empty tribute of an honeft mind, by telling you plainly I love and thank you for your daily refreshments. I conftantly perufe your paper < as I fmcke my morning's pipe, though, I cannot forbear reading the motto before I fill and light, and really it gives a grateful relish to every whiff; each paragraph is freighted either with ufeful or delightful notions, and I never *fail of being highly diverted or improved. The variety of your fubjects furprizes me as much as a box of pictures did formerly, in which there was only one face, that by pulling fome pieces of ifinglafs over it, was changed into a grave fenator or a Merry-Andrew, a patched lady or a nun, a beau or a black-a-moor, à prude or a coquette, a country 'fquire or a conjurer, with many other different reprefentations, very entertaining, as you are, though ftill the fame at the bottom. This was a childish amufement when I was carried away with outward appearance, but you make a deeper impreffion, and affect the fecret fprings of the mind; you' charm the fancy, footh the paffions, and infenfibly lead the reader to that fweetness of temper that you fo well defcribe; you roufe generofity with that fpirit, and inculcate humanity with tia: cafe, that he must be miferably ftupid
pofe to learn the exercife, the being already
As foon as my fon is perfect in this art, which 'I hope will be in a year's time, for the boy is pretty apt, I defign he fhall learn to ride the great horfe, although he is not yet above twenty years old, if his mother, whofe darling he is, will venture him.'
To the Spectator,
The humble petition of Benjamin Eafy, Gent,
HAT it was your petitioner's misfortune to
C to his great amazement he met with a foldier of
fill goes on laying wafte wherefoever the comes, whereby the whole village is in great danger. Our humble request is therefore, that < this bold Amazon be ordered immediately to < lay down her arms, or that you would iffue forth an order, that we who have been thus injured may meet at the place of general rendezvous, and there be taught to manage our fnuff-boxes in fach manner as we may be an • equal match for her.
And your petitioner fhall ever pray, &c.'
N° 135. SATURDAY, AUGUST 4.
Have fomewhere read of an eminent perfon, who used in his private offices of devotion to give thanks to Heaven that he was born a Frenchman: for my own part, I look upon it as a peculiar bleffing that I was born an Englishman. Among many other reasons, I think myfelf very happy in my country, as the language of it is wonderfully adapted to a man who is fparing of his words, and an enemy to loquacity.
As I have frequently reflected on my good fortune in this particular, I fhall communicate to the public my fpeculations upon the English tongue, not doubting but they will be acceptable to all my curious readers.
The English delight in filence more than any other European nation, if the remarks which are made on us by foreigners are true, Our difcourfe is not kept up in converfation, but falls into more paufes and intervals than in our neighbouring countries; as it is obferved, that the matter of our writings is thrown much clofer together, and lies in a narrower compafs than is ufual in the works of foreign authors: for, to favour our natural taciturnity, when we are obliged to utter our thoughts, we do it in' the shortest way we are able, and give as quick a birth to our conceptions as poffible.
formable to the genius of our tongue. This we may find in a multitude of words, as liberty, confpiracy, theatre, orator, &c.
The fame natural averfion to loquacity has of late years made a very confiderable alteration in our language, by clofing in one fyllable the termination of our præterperfect tenfe, as in thefe words, drown'd, walk'd, arriv'd, for drowned, walked, arrived, which has very much disfigured the tongue, and turned a tenth part of our fmootheft words into fo many clufters of confonants. This is the more remarkable, because the want of vowels in our language has becz the general complaint of our politeft authors, who neverthelefs are the men that have made thefe retrenchments, and confequently very much increased our former fcarcity.
This humour fhews itfelf in feveral remarks that we may make upon the English language, As first of all by its abounding in monofyllabies, which gives us an opportunity of delivering our thoughts in few founds. This indeed takes off from the elegance of our tongue, but at the fame -time exprefles our ideas in the readieft manner, and confequently anfwers the firft defign of fpeech better than the multitude of fyllables, which make the words of other languages more tunable and fonorous. The founds of our English words are commonly like thofe of ftring mufic, fhort and tranfient, which rife and perish upon a single touch; thofe of other languages are like the notes of wind inftruments, fweet and fwelling, and lengthened out into variety
This reflection on the words that end in ed, I have heard in converfation from one of the greatest genius's this age has produced. I think. we may add to the foregoing obfervation, the change which has happened in our language, by the abbreviation of feveral words that are terminated in eth, by substituting an in the room of the laft fyllable, as in drowns, walks, arrives, and innumerable other words, which in the pronunciation of our forefathers were drowneth, walketh, arriveth. This has wonderfully multiplied a letter which was before too frequent ia the English tongue, and added to that hifing in our language which is taken fo much notice of by foreigners; but at the fame time humours our taciturnity, and cafes us of many fuperAuous fyllables.
I might here obferve, that the fame fingle letter on many occafions does the office of a whole word, and represents the his or her of our forefathers. There is no doubt but the ear of a foreigner, which is the best judge in this cafe, would very much difapprove of fuch innovations, which indeed we do ourselves in fome measure by retaining the old termination in writing, and in all the folemn offices of our religion.
As in the inftances I have given we have epitomized many of our particular words to the detriment of our tongue, fo on other occafions we have drawn two words into one, which has likewise very much untuned our language, and clogged it with confonants, as mayn't, can't, fhan't, won't, and the like, för may not, can not, fhall not, will not, &c.
It is perhaps this humour of fpeaking no more than we needs muft, which has fo miferably curtailed fome of our words, that in familiar writings and converfations they often lofe all but their firft fyllables, as in mob. rep. pof, incog.. and the like; and as all ridiculous words make their first entry into a language by familiar phrafes, I dare not anfwer for thefe that they will not in time be looked upon as a part of our, tongue. We fee fome of our poets have been fo indifcreet as to imitate Hudibras's doggrel expreffions in their serious compofitions, by throw ing out the figns of our fubftantives, which are effential to the English language. Nay, this humour of fhortening our language had once run fo far, that fome of our celebrated authors, among whom we may reckon Sir Roger L'Eftrange in particular, began to prune t'air words of all fuperfluous letters, as they ter med them, in order to adjust the fpeiling to the pronuncia tion; which would have confounded all our etymòlogies, and have quite destroyed our tongue.
In the next place we may obferve, that where the words are not monofyllables, we often make them fo, as much as lies in our power, by our rapidity of pronunciation; as it generally happens in most of our long words which are derived from the Latin, where we contract the length of the fyllables that gives them a grave and folemn air in their own language, to make them more proper for dispatch, and more ten