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We may here likewise observe that our proper names, when familiarized in English, generally dwindle to monofyllables, whereas in other modern languages they receive a fofter turn on this occafion, by the addition of a new fyllable. Nick in Italian is Nicolini, Jack in French Janot; and fo of the reft.
There is another particular in our language which is a great inftance of our frugality of words, and that is the fuppreffing of feveral particles which must be produced in other tongues to make a fentence intelligible: this often perplexes the best writers, when they find the relatives whom, which, or they, at their mercy whether they may have admiffion or not; and will never be decided until we have fomething like an academy, that by the beft authorities. and rules drawn from the analogy of languages fhall fettle all controverfies between grammart and idiom.
he had at laft the good fortune to be the man 'who took Count Piper. With all this fire I 'knew my coufin to be the civileft creature in the world. He never made any impertinent fhow of his valour, and then he had an ex'cellent genius for the world in every other kind. I had letters from him, here I felt in my pockets, that exactly spoke the Czar's cha
I have only confidered our language as it fhewsracter, which I knew perfectly well; and I the genius and natural temper of the English, which is modeft, thoughtful and fincere, and which perhaps may recommend the people, though it has fpoiled the tongue. We might perhaps carry the fame thought into other languages, and deduce a great part of what is peculiar to them from the genius of the people who speak them. It is certain, the light talkative humour of the French has not a little infected their tongue, which might be fhewn by many inftances; as the genius of the Italians, which is fo much addicted to mufic and ceremony, has moulded all their words and pltrafes to thofe particular ufes. The ftateliness and gravity of the Spaniards fhews itself to perfection in the folemnity of their language, and the blunt honeft humour of the German founds better in the roughness of the High-Dutch, than it would in a politer tongue.
could not forbear concluding, that I lay with his imperial majesty twice or thrice a week all the while he lodged at Deptford. What is worfe than all this, it is impoffible to speak to me, but you give me fome occafion of coming out with one lye or other, that has neither wit, humour, profpect, or intereft, or any other • motive that I can think of in nature. The other day, when one was commending an eminent and learned divine, what occafion in the world had I to fay, methinks he would look · more venerable if he were not fo fair a man? I remember the company smiled. I have seen the gentleman fince, and he is coal-black. I have intimations every day in my life that nobody believes me, yet I am never the better. I was faying fomething the other day to an old friend at Will's coffee-houfe, and he made no manner of anfwer; but told me, that an acquaintance of Tully the orator having two 6 or three times together faid to him, without receiving any answer, that upon his honour he · was but that very month forty years of age; Tully anfwered, Surely you think me the most incredulous man in the world, if I do not be lieve what you have told me every day this ten < years. The mischief of it is, I find myself wonderfully inclined to have been prefent at " every occurrence that is spoken of before me: this has led me into many inconveniencies, but indeed they have been the fewer, because I am no ill-natured man, and never speak things to any man's difadvantage. I never directly defame, but I do what is as bad in the 'confequence, for I have often made a man fay fuch and fuch a lively expreffion, who was born a mere elder brother. When one has faid in my hearing, fuch a one is no wifer than he 'fhould be, I immediately have replied, now 'faith, I cannot fee that, he faid a very good thing to my lord fuch a one, upon fuch an occafion, and the like. Such an honeft dolt < as this has been watched in every expreffion he uttered, upon my recommendation of him, and confequently been subject to the more ridicule. I once endeavoured to cure myfelf of this impertinent quality, and refolved to hold my tongue for feven days together; I did fo, but then I had fo many winks and unneceffary distortions of my face upon what any body elfe faid, that I found I only forbore the expreffion, and that I still lyed in my heart to ! every
N° 136. MONDAY, AUGUST 6.
Hor. Ep. 1. 1. 2. V. 112. A greater liar Parthia never bred.
low, I fhall print the following letter.
• Mr. Spectator,
account of a kinfman of mine, a young merchant who was bred at Moscow, that had too 'much mettle to attend books of entries and accounts, when there was fo active a scene in the country where he refided, and followed the Czar as a volunteer: this warm youth, born at the inftant the thing was fpoke of, was the 'man who unhorfed the Swedish general, he 'was the occafion that the Mufcovites kept their fire in fo foldier-like a manner, and brought 6 up thofe troops which were covered from the 6 enemy at the beginning of the day; befides this,
Shall without any manner of preface or apology acquaint you, that I am, and ever have been from my youth upward, one of the greatest liars this ifland has produced. have read all the moralifts upon the fubject, but could never find any effect their difcourfes had upon me, but to add to my misfortune by new thoughts and ideas, and making me more ready in my language, and capable of fometimes mixing feeming truths with my improbabilities. With this ftrong paffion towards falfhood in this kind, there does not live an ⚫ honefter man or a fincerer friend; but my imagination runs away with me, and whatever is started I have fuch a fcene of adven<tures appears in an instant before me, that I
cannot help uttering them, though, to my im'mediate confufion, I cannot but know I am liable to be detected by the first man I mect.
Upon occasion of the mention of the battle of Pultowa, I could not forbear giving an
· every man I met with. You are to know one thing, which I believe you will fay is a pity, confidering the ufe I fhould have made of it, I never travelled in my life; but I do not know whether I could have fpoken of any foreign country with more familiarity than I do at prefent, in company who are firangers to me. C have curfed the inns in Germany; commended ⚫ the brothels in Venice; the freedom in converfation in France; and though I never was out · of this dear town, and fifty miles about it, ' have been three nights together dogged by bravoes for an intrigue with a cardinal's mistress ' at Rome.
Then, Sir, there is my little merchant, honeft Indigo of the 'Change, there is my man for lofs and gain; there is tare and tret, there is lying all round the globe; he has fuch a prodigious intelligence he knows all the French are doing, or what we intend or ought to intend, and has it from fuch hands. But alas, whither am I 'running! while I complain, while I remonftrate to you, even all this is a lye, and there is not one fuch perfon of quality, lover, foldier, or 'merchant as I have now defcribed in the whole ' world, that I know of. But I will catch myfelf once in my life, and in fpite of nature speak one truth, to wit, that I am
'It were endless to give you particulars of this kind, but I can affure you, Mr. Spectator, there 6. are about twenty or thirty of us in this town 'I mean by this town the cities of London ⚫ and Westminster; I fay there are in town a fufficient number of us to make a fociety among " ourselves; and fince we cannot be believed any longer, I beg of you to print this my letter, "that we may meet together, and be under fuch · regulation as there may be no occafion for helief or confidence among us. If you think fit; we might be called The Hiftorians, for liar is ❝ become a very harsh word. And that a mem⚫ber of the fociety may not hereafter be ill re
Your humble fervant, &c."
ceived by the rest of the world, I defire you ' would explain a little this fort of men, and not • let us hiftorians be ranked, as we are in the imaginations of ordinary people, among com6. mon liars, make-bates, impoftors, and incendiaries. For your inftruction herein, you are to know that an hiftorian in conversation is only a 'perfon of fo pregnant a fancy, that he cannot be contented with ordinary occurrences. ⚫ know a man of quality of our order, who is of the wrong fide of forty-three, and has been of that age, according to Tully's jeft, for fome · years fince, whofe vein is upon the romantic. Give him the leaft occafion, and he will tell you something so very particular that happened in fuch a year, and in fuch company, where by the by was prefent fuch a one, who was afterwards made fuch a thing. Out of all thefe circumftances, in the beft language in the world, ⚫ he will join together with fuch probable inci• dents an account that fhews a perfon of the deepest penetration, the honefteft mind, and withal fomething fo humble when he speaks of himself, that you would admire. Dear Sir, why should this be lying! There is nothing fo inftructive. He has withal the graveft afpect; fomething fo very venerable and great? Ano <ther of thefe hiftorians is a young man whom
· we would take in, though he extremely wants < parts; as people fend children, before they can learn any thing, to fchool to keep them out of harm's way. He tells things which have nothing at all in them, and can neither please nor • difpleafe, but merely take up your time to no manner of purpofe, no manner of delight; but he is good-natured, and does it because he loves to be saying something to you, and entertain you.
I could name you a foldier that hath done very great things without flaughter; he is prodigiously dull and flow of head, but what he can fay is for ever falfe, fo that we must have
world, left what happened between him and a great beauty fhould ever be known. Yet again 'he comforts himfelf. "Hang the jade her wo
man. If money can keep the flut trusty I will "do it, though I mortgage every acre: Anthony "and Cleopatra for that: all for love and the "world well loft."
Give me leave to tell you of one more who is a lover; he is the most afflicted creature in the
No 137. TUESDAY, AUGUST 7.
At hæc etiam fervis femper libera fuerunt, timerent, gauderent, dolerent, fuo potius quàm_alterius arbiTULL. Epift. Even flaves were always at liberty to fear, rejoice, and grieve, at their own rather than another's pleasure.
Tis no fmall concern to me, that I find fo many complaints from that part of mankind whofe portion it is to live in fervitude, that thofe whom they depend upon will not allow them to be even as happy as their condition will admit inform me, mafters who are offended at a chearof. There are, as thefe unhappy correfpondents ful countenance, and think a fervant is broke loofe from them, if he does not preferve the utmoft awe in their prefence. There is one who fays, if he looks fatisfied, his mafter afks him what makes him fo pert this morning, if a little four, hark ye, firrah, are not you paid your wages? The poor creatures live in the most extreme mifery together: the mafter knows not how to preferve respect, nor the fervant how to give it. he knows but little fatisfaction in the midst of a It feems this perfon is of fo fullen a nature, that plentiful fortune, and fecretly frets to fee any aphundredth part of his income, who is unhappy pearance of content, in one that lives upon the who cannot poffefs their own minds, vent their in the poffeffion of the whole. Uneafy perfons, fpleen upon all who depend upon them; which, I think, is expreffed in a lively manner in the following letters.
August 2, 1711. Have read your Spectator of the third of the laft month, and with I had the happiness of being preferred to ferve fo good a mafter as Sir Roger. The character of my master is the very reverfe of that good and gentle knight's. All his directions are given, and his mind revealed by way of contraries: as when any thing is to be remembered, with a peculiar caft of face he cries, "Be fure to forget now.". If I am to make hafte back, "Do not come thefe two "hours; be fure to call by the way upon fome "of your companions.' Then another excellent way of his is, if he fets me any thing to do, which he knows must neceffarily take up
half a day, he calls ten times in a quarter of an hour to know whether I have done yet. This is his manner: and the fame perverseness runs 6 through all his actions, according as the circumstances vary. Befides all this, he is fo fufpicious, that he fubmits himself to the drudgery of a fpy. He is as unhappy himself as he makes his fervants: he is constantly watching us, and we differ no more in pleasure and liberty than as a gaoler and a prifoner. He lays " traps for faults, and no fooner makes a difco< very, but falls into fuch language, as I am more afhamed of for coming from him, than for being directed to me. This, Sir, is a fhort fketch of a mafter I have ferved upwards of nine 6 years; and though I have never wronged him, I confefs my despair of pleasing him has very much abated my endeavour to do it. If you will give me leave to fteal a sentence out of my mafter's Clarendon, I shall tell you my cafe in a word, "Being used worse than I deferved, I "cared lefs to deferve well than I had done."
Thefe are great calamities; but I met the other day in the five fields towards Chelsea, a pleafanter tyrant than either of the above represented. A fat fellow was paffing on in his open waistcoat; a boy of fourteen in a livery, carrying after him his cloke, upper coat, hat, wig, and fword. The poor lad was ready to fink with the weight, and could not keep up with his master, who turned back every half furlong, and wondered what made the lazy young dog lag behind.
Sir, Your humble fervant,
There is fomething very unaccountable, that people cannot put themfelves in the condition of the perfons below them, when they confider the* commands they give. But there is nothing more common, than to fee a fellow, who, if he were ' reduced to it, would not be hired by any man living, lament that he is troubled with the most worthless dogs in nature.
It would, perhaps, be running too far out of common life to urge, that he who is not master of himself and his own paffions cannot be a proper mafter of another. Equanimity in a man's own words and actions, will eafily diffuse itself through his whole family. Pamphilio has the happiest houthold of any man I know, and that' proceeds from the humane regard he has to them in their private perfons, as well as in refpect that' they are his fervants. If there be any occafion, wherein they may in themfelves be supposed toʻ be unfit to attend their master's concerns, by reafon of any attention to their own, he is fo good as to place himself in their condition. I thought it very becoming in him, when at dinner the other day he made an apology for want of more attendants. He faid, "One of my footmen is gone "to the wedding of his fifter, and the other I do' 66 not expect to wait, because his father died but T two days ago."
Dear Mr. Spelter, Am the next thing to a lady's woman, and am under both my lady and her woman. am fo used by them both, that I should be very glad to fee them in the Specter. My lady herfelf is of no mind in the world, and for that rea fon her woman is of twenty minds in a moż ment. My lady is one that never knows what to do with herfelf; fhe pulls on and puts off 6+ every thing he wears twenty times before the refolves upon it for that day. I ftand at one "end of the room, and reach things to her woWhen my lady afks for a thing, I hear and have half brought it, when the woman < meets me in the middle of the room to receive it, and at that inftant the fays No she will not have it. Then I go back, and her woman ¿ comes up to her, and by this time fhe will have that and two or three things more in an inftant: the woman and run to each other; 1 am loaded and delivering the tliings to her, when He ufes unneceffary proofs in an indifputable' my lady fays fhe wants none of all thefe things, and we are the dulleft creatures in the world, and fhe the unhappiest woman living, for the fhall not be dreffed in any time. Thus we ftand not knowing what to do, when our good lady with all the patience in the world tells us as plain as he can fpeak, that he will have temper because we have no manner of underftanding; and begins again to drefs, and fee if we can find out of ourselves what we are to • do. When he is dreffed fhe goes to dinner, and after he has difliked every thing there, the calls for her coach, then commands it in again, and then she will not go out at all, and then will go too, and orders the chariot. Now, good Mr. Specter, I defire you would in the behalf of all who ferve froward ladies, give out in your pa" per, that nothing can be done without allowing time for it, and that one cannot be back again with what one was fent for, if one is called back before one can go a step for that they want. And if you pleafe, let them know that all miftreffes are as like as all fervants, I am your loving friend, Patience Giddy,
No 138. WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 8.
NE meets now and then with perfons who are extremely learned and knotty in expounding clear cafes. Tully tells us of an author that spent fome pages to prove that generals could not perform the great enterprises which have made them fo illuftrious, if they had not had men. He afferted alfo, it feems, that a minifter at home, no more than a commander abroad, could do any thing without other men were his inftruments and affiftants. On this occafion he produces the example of Themiftocles, Pericles, Cyrus, and Alexander himself, whom he denies to have been capable of effecting what they did, except they had been followed by others. It is pleafant enough to fee fuch perfons contend without opponents, and triumph without vi&ory.
The author abovementioned by the orator is placed for ever in a very ridiculous light, and we meet every day in converfation fuch as deferve the fame kind of renown, for troubling thofe with whom they converfe with the like certainties. The perfons that I have always thought to deferve the highest admiration in this kind are your ordinary ftory-tellers, who
are most religiously careful of keeping to the truth in every particular circumftance of a narration, whether it concern the main end or not. A gentleman whom I had the honour to be in company with the other day, upon fome occafion that he was pleased to take, said, he remembered a very pretty repartee made by a very witty man in King Charles's time upon the like occafion. I remember, faid he, upon entering into the tale, much about the time of Oates's plot, that a cousin-german of mine and I were at the Bear in Holborn: No, I am out, it was at the CrossKeys; but Jack Thomson was there, for he was very great with the gentleman who made the anfwer. But I am fure it was fpoken .fomewhere thereabouts, for we drank a bottle in that neighbourhood every evening; but no matter for all that, the thing is the fame; but
He was going on to fettle the geography of the jeft when I left the room, wondering at this odd turn of head which can play away its words, with uttering nothing to the purpofe, ftill obferving its own impertinencies, and yet proceed. ing in them. I do not question but he informed the rest of his audience, who had more patience than I, of the birth and parentage, as well as the collateral alliances of his family, who made the repartee, and of him who provoked him to it.
It is no fmall misfortune to any who have a juft value for their time, when this quality of being fo very circumftantial, and careful to be exact, happens to fhew itself in a man whofe quality obliges them to attend his proofs, that it is now day, and the like. But this is augmented when the fame genius gets into autho.rity, as it often does. Nay, I have known it more than once afcend the very pulpit. One of this fort taking it in his head to be a great admirer of Dr. Tillotfon and Dr. Beveridge, never failed of proving out of these great authors things which no man living would have denied him upon his own fingle authority. One day re-folving to come to the point in hand, he said, according to that excellent divine, I will enter upon the matter, or in his words, in his fifteenth fermon of the folio edition, page 160.
"I fhall briefly explain the words, and then "confider the matter contained in them."
This honeft gentleman needed not, one would think, ftrain his modesty so far as to alter his defign of "entering upon the matter," to that of "briefly explaining." But fo it was, that he would not even be contented with that authority, but added alfo the other divine to ftrengthen his method, and told us, with the pious and learned Dr. Beveridge, page 4th of the ninth volume, "I fhall endeavour to make
it as plain as I can from the words which I "have now read, wherein for that purpose we "fhall confider. "This wifeacre was reckoned by the parish, who did not understand him, a moft excellent preacher; but that he read too much, and was fo humble that he did not truft enough to his own parts.
Next to thefe ingenious gentlemen, who argue for what nobody can deny them, are to be ranked a fort of people who do not indeed attempt. to prove infignificant things, but are ever labouring to raise arguments with you about matters you will give up to them without the leaft controverfy. One of these people told a gentle
man who faid he faw Mr. fuch a one go this morning at nine of the clock towards the Gravel-pits, Sir, I must beg your pardon for that, for though I am very loth to have any difpute with you, yet I must take the liberty to tell you it was nine when I faw him at St. James's. When men of this genius are pretty far gone in learning they will put you to prove that fnow is white, and when you are upon that topic can fay that there is really no fuch thing as colour in nature; in a word, they can turn what little knowledge they have into a ready capacity of raifing doubts; into a capacity of being always frivolous and always unanfwerable. It was of two difputants of this impertinent and laborious kind that the cynic faid, "One of these fellows "is milking a ram, and the other holds the "pail."
"The exercife of the fnuff-box, according to "the most fashionable airs and motions, in op"pofition to the exercife of the fan, will be "taught with the best plain or perfumed fnuff, "at Charles Lillie's, perfumer, at the corner of "Beaufort-Buildings in the Strand, and attend"ance given for the benefit of the young mer"chants about the Exchange for two hours
every day at noon, except Saturdays, at a "toy-fhop near Garraway's coffee-houfe. There "will be likewife taught the ceremony of the
fnuff-box, or rules for offering snuff to a "ftranger, a friend, or a miftrefs, according to "the degrees of familiarity or diftance; with
an explanation of the careless, the scornful, "the politic, and the furly pinch, and the geftures proper to each of them.
"N. B. The undertaker does not queftion but in a fhort time to have formed a body of "regular fnuff-boxes ready to meet and make "head against all the regiment of fans which "have been lately difciplined, and are now in ,"motion." T
N° 139. THURSDAY, AUGUST 9. Vera gloria radices agit, atque etiam propagatur: fiia omnia celeriter, tanquam flofculi, decidunt, nec fimulatum poteft quidquam effe diuturnum.
TULLO True glory takes roof, and even spreads: all false pretences, like flowers, fall to the ground; nor can any counterfeit laft long.
which attend human life, the love of glory is the most ardent. According as this is cultivated in princes, it produces the greatest good or the greatest evil Where fovereigns have it by impreffions received from education only, it creates an ambitious rather than a noble mind; where it is the natural bent of the prince's inclination, it prompts him to the purfuit of things truly glorious. The two greatest men now in Europe, according to the common acceptation of the word great, are Lewis King of France, and Peter Emperor of Ruffia, As it is certain that all fame does not arise from the practice of virtue, it is, methinks, no unpleafing amufement, to examine the glory of thefe potentates, and diftinguish that which is empty, perifhing, and frivolous, from what is Z 2 folid,
folid, lafting, and important. Lewis of France had his infancy attended by crafty and worldly men, who made extent of territory the moft glorious inftance of power, and mistook the fpread ing of fame for the acquifition of honour. The young monarch's heart was by fuch converfation eafily deluded into a fondness for vain-glory, and upon thefe unjuft principles to form or fall in with fuitable projects of invafion, rapine, murder, and all the guilts that attend war when it is unjuft. At the fame time this tyranny was laid, fciences and arts were encouraged in the moft generous manner, as if men of higher faculties were to be bribed to permit the maffacre of the rest of the world. Every fuperftructure which the court of France built upon their first defigns, which were in themselves vicious, was fuitable to its falfe foundation. The oftentation of riches, the vanity of equipage, fhame of poverty, and ignorance of modefty, were the common arts of life; the generous love of one woman was changed into gallantry for all the fex, and friendships among men turned into commerces of intereft, or mere profeffions. "While "thefe were the rules of life, perjuries in the "prince, and a general corruption of manners, "in the fubject, were the fnares in which France "has entangled all her neighbours." With fuch falfe colours have the eyes of Lewis been enchanted, from the debauchery of his early youth, to the fuperftition of his present old age. Hence it is, that he has the patience to have ftatues erected to his prowefs, his valour, his fortitude; and in the foftneffes and luxury of a court to be applauded for magnanimity and enterprise in military atchivements.
emperor is alfo literally under his own command. How generous and how good was his entering his own name as a private man in the army he raifed, that none in it might expect to out-run the fteps with which he himself advanced? By fuch measures this godlike prince learned to conquer, learned to use his conquefts. How terrible has he appeared in battle, how gentle in' victory? Shall then the bafe arts of the Frenchman be held polite, and the honeft labours of the Ruffian barbarous? No: barbarity is the ignorance of true honour, or placing any thing instead of it. The unjuft prince is ignoble and barbarous, the good prince only renowned and glorious.
Peter Alexowitz of Ruffia, when he came to years of manhood,though he found himfelfemperof of a vast and numerous people, master of an endless territory, abfolute commander of the lives and fortunes of his fubjects, in the midft of this unbounded power and greatnefs turned his thoughts upon himself and people with forSordid ignorance and a brute manner of life this generous prince beheld and contemned from the light of his own genius. His judgment fuggefted this to him, and his courage prompted him to amend it. In order to this he did not fend to the nation from whence the reft of the world has borrowed its politeness, but himself left his diadem to learn the true way to glory and honour, and application to useful arts, wherein to employ the laborious, the fimple, the honeft part of his people. Mechanic employments and operations were very juftly the fft objects of his favour and obfervation. Wich this glorious intention he travelled into foreign nations in an obfcure manner, above receiving little honours where he fojourned, but prying into what was of more confequence, their arts of peace and of war. By this means has this great prince laid the foundation of a great and lafting fame, by perfonal labour, perfonal knowledge, perfonal valour. It would be injury to any of antiquity to name them with him. Who, bat himfelf, ever left a throne to learn to fit in it with more grace? Who ever thought himself mean in abfolute power, until he had learned to
If we confider this wonderful perfon, it is perplexity to know where to begin his encomium. Others may in a metaphorical or philofophic fenfe be faid to command themfelves, but this
Though men may impose upon themselves what they please by their corrupt imaginations, truth will ever keep its ftation; and as glory is nothing elfe but the fhadow of virtue, it will certainly disappear at the departure of virtue. But how carefully ought the true notions of it to be preferved, and how induftrious fhould we be to encourage any impulfes towards it? The Weftminfter fchool-boy that faid the other day he could not fleep or play for the colours in the hall, ought to be free from receiving a blow for
But let us confider what is truly glorious according to the author I have to-day quoted in the front of my paper.
The perfection of glory, fays Tully, confifts in these three particulars: "That the people "love us; that they have confidence in us; "that being affected with a certain admiration "towards us, they think we deferve honour." This was fpoken of greatnefs in a commonwealth; but if one were to form a notion of confummate glory under our conftitution, one must add to the above-mentioned felicities a certain neceffary inexiftence, and difrelifh of all the reft, without the prince's favour. He fhould, methinks, have riches, power, honour, command, glory; but riches, power, honour, command and glory fhould have no charms, but as accompanied with the affection of his prince. He fhould, methinks, be popular because a favourite, and a favourite because popular. Were it not to make the character too imaginary, I would give him fovereignty over fome foreign territory, and make him efteem that an empty addition without the kind regards of his own prince. One may merely have an idea of a man thus compofed and circumftantiated, and if he were fo made for power without an incapacity of giving jealousy, he would be alfo glorious without poffibility of receiving difgrace. This humility and this importance must make his glory immortal.
These thoughts are apt to draw me beyond the ufual length of this paper, but if I could fuppofe fuch rhapsodies could outlive the common fate of ordinary things, I would fay thefe fketches and faint images of glory were drawn in Auguft 1711, when John Duke of Marlborough made that memorable march wherein he took the French lines without bloodtheḍ.