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felf to your honour to interpose with thefe gentlemen, that they would leave off fuch low ⚫ and unnatural expreffions: for furely though the lawyers fubfcribe to hideous French and falfe Latin, yet they fhould let their clients have a little decent and proper English for their money. What man that has a value for a good-name would like to have it faid in a public-court, that Mr. Such-a-one was ftripped, faddled, or hung up? This being what has escaped your Spectatorial obfervation, be pleafed to correct such an illiberal cant among • profeffed fpeakers, and you will infinitely oblige Your humble fervant,
towards a proposal frequently inclosed to me by Mr. Renatus Harris, organ-builder. The ambition of this artificer is to erect an organ in St. Paul's cathedral, over the west door, at the entrance into the body of the church, which in art and magnificence fhall tranfcend any work of that kind ever before invented. The propofal in perfpicuous language fets forth the honour and advantage fuch a performance would be to the British name, as well as that it would apply the power of founds, in a manner more amazingly forcible, than, perhaps, has yet been known, and I am fure to an end much more worthy. Had the vaft fums which have been laid out upon operas without skill or conduct, and to no other purpose but to fufpend or vitiate our under• Philonicus.' standings, been difpofed this way, we should now perhaps have an engine fo formed as to ftrike the minds of half the people at once in a place of worship with a forgetfulness of prefent care and calamity, and a hope of endless rapture, joy, and hallelujah hereafter.
N° 552. WEDNESDAY, DEC. 3.
Qui prægravat artes
When I am doing this juftice, I am not to forHOR. Ep. 1. 1. 2. ver. 13. get the best mechanic of my acquaintance, that ufeful fervant to fcience and knowledge, Mr. For thofe are hated that excel the reft, tion on the public by acquainting them with his John Rowley; but I think I lay a great obligapropofals for a pair of new globes. After his preamble, he promises in the faid proposals that, In the Celestial Globe,
Although, when dead, they are belov'd and bleft.
Care fhall be taken that the fixed ftars be placed according to the true longitude and latitude, from the many and correct obfervations of Hevelius, Caffini, Mr. Flamstead, reg. aftronomer, Dr. Halley, Savilian profeffor of geometry in Oxon; and from whatever elfe can be procured to render the globe more exinftructive, and ufeful.
That all the conftellations be drawn in a 'curious, new and particular manner; each star in fo juft, diftinet, and confpicious a proportion, that its magnitude may be readily known by bare inspection, according to the different light and fizes of the ftars. That the track or way of fuch comets as have been well observed, but not hitherto expreffed in any globe, be carefully delineated in this.
A day in a hackney-coach, and delighting
myfelf with bufy fcenes in the fhops of each
Among other omiffions of which I have been alfo guilty, with relation to men of induftry of à fuperior order, I must acknowledge my filence
In the Terrestrial Globe.
That by reafon the defcriptions formerly made, both in the English and Dutch great 'globe, are erroneous, Afia, Africa, and Ame<rica, be drawn in a manner wholly new; by ⚫ which means it is to be noted that the under'takers will be obliged to alter the latitude of fome places in ten degrees, the longitude of others in 20 degrees; befides which great and neceffary alterations, there are many remark able countries, cities, towns, rivers, and lakes, ⚫ omitted in other globes, inferted here accord ing to the best discoveries made by our late 'navigators. Lastly, That the courfe of the trade-winds, the monfoons, and other winds periodically fhifting between the tropics, be visibly expreffed.
Now in regard that this undertaking is of fo univerfal ufe, as the advancement of the moft neceffary parts of the mathematics, as well as tending to the honour of the British nation, and that the charge of carrying it on is very expenfive; it is defired that all gentlemen who are willing to promote fo great a work, will
be pleased to fubfcribe on the following con
I. The undertakers engage to furnish each fubfcriber with a celeftial and terreftrial globe, each of thirty inches diameter, in all refpects curiously adorned, the stars gilded, the capital cities plainly diftinguished, the frames, meridians, horizons, hour-circles and indexes fo exactly finished up, and accurately divided, that a pair of thefe globes will really appear, in the judgment of any difinterested and intelligent perfon, worth fifteen pounds more than will be ⚫ demanded for them by the undertakers.
II. Whofoever will be pleafed to fubfcribe, and pay twenty-five pounds in the manner following for a pair of thefe globes, either for their own ufe, or to prefent them to any college in the univerfities, or any public library or fchools, fhall have his coat of arms, name, title, feat, or place of refidence, &c. inferted in fome convenient place of the globe.
III. That every subscriber do at firft pay down the fum of ten pounds, and fifteen pounds more on the delivery of each pair of globes perfectly fitted up. And that the faid globes be delivered within twelve months, after "the number of thirty fubscribers be compleatzed; and that the fubfcribers be ferved with globes in the order in which they fubfcribed
IV. That a pair of thefe globes fhall not hereafter be fold to any perfon but the fubfcribers under thirty pounds.
V. That if there be not thirty fubfcribers, within four months, after the firit of Decem-, <ber, 1712, the money paid fhall be returned an demand by Mr. John Warner, goldfimith, near Temple-Bar, who fhall receive and pay the fame according to the above-inentioned, 'articles.' 2 162.
ཝཱ ཙ ཙིཏྟཱ * 2:10
muft confefs that I am not a little gratified and obliged by that concern which appears in this great city upon my prefent defign of laying down this paper. It is likewife with much fatisfaction, that I find some of the moft outlying parts of the kingdom alarmed upon this occafion, having received letters to expoftulate with me about it from several of my readers of the remotest boroughs of Great-Britain. Among these I am very well pleased with a letter dated from Berwick upon Tweed, wherein my correfpondent compares the office, which I have for fome time executed in thefe realms, to the weeding of a great garden; which, says he, it is not fufficient to weed once for all, and afterwards to give over, but that the work must be continued daily, or the fame spots of ground which are cleared for a while, will in a little time be over-run as much as ever. Another gentleman lays before me feveral enormities that are already iprouting, and which he believes will difcover themfelves in their growth immediately after my difappearance. There is no doubt, fays he, but the ladies heads will fhoot up as foon as they know they are no longer under the Sperator's eye; and I have already feen fuch monftrous broad-brimmed hats under the arms of foreigners, that I question not but they will overshadow the island within a month or two after the dropping of your paper. But among all the letters which are come to my hands, there is none fo handfomely written as the following one, which I am the more pleased with as it is fent me from gentlemen who belong to a body which I fhall always honour, and where, I cannot fpeak it without a fecret pride, my fpeculations have
HOR. Ep. 14. 1. 1. ver. 36. met with a very kind reception. It is ufual for poets, upon the publishing of their works, to print before them fuch copies of verfes as have been made in their praife Not that you must imagine they are pleafed with their own commendations, but because the elegant compofitions of their friends fhould not be loft. I must make the fame apology for the publication of the enfuing letter, in which I have fuppreffed no part of thofe praifes that are given my speculations with too lavish and good-natured a hand; though my correfpondents can witnefs for me, that at other times I have generally blotted out thofe parts in the letters which I have received from then.
N° 553. THURSDAY, DEC. 4.
Nec lufiffe pudet, fed non incidere ludum.
Once to be wild, is no fuch foul difgrace;
enemies fhall take advantage of my filence to be-
HE project which I published on Monday laft has brought me in feveral packets of letters. Among the reft I have received one from a certain projector, wherein after having reprefented, that in all probability the folemnity of opening my mouth will draw together a great confluence of beholders, he propofes to me the hiring of Stationers-Hall for the more convenient exhibiting of that public ceremony. He undertakes to be at the charge of it himself, provided he may have the erecting of galleries on every fide, and the letting of them out upon that cccation. I have a letter alfo from a bookseller, petitioning me in a very humble manner, that he may have the printing of the fpeech which I fhail make to the affembly upon the first opening of my mouth. I am informed from all parts, that there are great canvaffings in the feveral clubs about town, upon the choofing of a proper perfon to fit with me on thofe arduous affairs, ta which I have fummoned them. Three clubs have already proceeded to election, whereof one has made a double return. If I find that my
• Mr. Spectator,
Oxford, Nov. 25.
N fpite of your invincible filence you have found out a method of being the most agreeable companion in the world; that kind of converfation which you hold with the town, has the good fortune of being always pleafing to the men of tafte and leifure, and never offenfive to thofe of hurry and business. You are never heard, but at what Horace calls dextro tempore, and have the happiness to obferve the politick rule, which the fame difcern-` ing author gave his friend, when he enjoined him to deliver his book to Augustus;
Si validus, fi lætus erit, fi denique pofcet
When vexing cares are fled,
You never begin to talk, but when people are defirous to hear you; and 1 defy any one to be
'out of humour until you leave off. But I am led unawares into reflexions, foreign to the 'original defign of this epiftle; which was to 'let you know, that fome unfeigned admirers of your inimitable papers, who could, without any flattery, greet you with the falutation ufed to the eastern monarchs, viz. O Spec live for ever, have lately been under the fame apprehenfions with Mr. Philo-Spec: that the hafte < you have made to dispatch your best friends portends no long duration to your own fhort 'vifage. We could not, indeed, find any just grounds for complaint in the method you took to diffolve that venerable body: no, the world
was not Divine. I'
comb could not, with any reputation, live 66 fingle any longer. It was high time for the Templar to turn himself to Coke: and Sir Roger's dying was the wifeft thing he ever did in his life. It was, however, matter of great · grief to us, to think that we were in danger of lofing fo elegant and valuable an entertainAnd we could not, without forrow, reflect that we were likely to have nothing to interrupt our fips in the morning, and to fuf'pend our coffee in mid-air, between our lips and right ear, but the ordinary trash of news6 papers. We refolved, therefore, not to part with you fo. But fince, to make use of your own allufion, the cherries began now to croud the market, and their feafon was almoft over, . we confulted our future enjoyments, and endeavoured to make the exquifite pleasure that delicious fruit gave our tafte as lafting as we could, and by drying them protract their ftay beyond its natural date. We own that thus they have not a flavour equal to that of their juicy bloom; but yet, under this disadvantage, they pique the palate, and become the falver better than any other fruit at its first appea16 rance. To fpeak plain, there are a number of us who have begun your works afresh, and meet two nights in the week in order to give you a rehearing. We never come together without drinking your health, and as feldom part without general expreffions of thanks to you for our night's improvement. This we conceive to be a more ufeful inftitution than
< paper; not but we have a very great value for < your perfon; and I dare fay you can no where find four more fincere admirers, and humble "fervants, than
T.F. G. S. J.T. E. T.
N° 554. FRIDAY,
---Tentanda via eft, quâ me quoque poffim
any other club whatever, not excepting even that of ugly faces. We have one manifeft advantage over that renowned fociety, with refpect to Mr. Spectator's company. For though they may brag, that you fometimes make your perfonal appearance amongst them, it is impoffible they fhould ever get a word from you, whereas you are with us the reverfe of what Phædria would have his miftrefs be in his rival's company, "Prefent in your abfence." We make you talk as much and as long as we pleafe; and let me tell you, you feldom hold your tongue for the whole evening. I promife myfelf you will lock with an eye of favour · upon a meeting which owes its original to a mutual emulation among its members, who • shall shew the most profound efpect for your
Am obliged for the following effay, as well as for that which lays down the rules of Tully for pronunciation and action, to the ingenious author of a poem juft published, intitled, "An Ode to the Creator of the World, "occafioned by the Fragments of Orpheus."
T is a remark made, as I remember, by a celebrated French author, that "no man ever pushed his capacity fo far as it was able to extend." I fhail not inquire whether this. affertiou be ftrictly true. It may fuffice to say, that men of the greateft application and acquirements can look back upon many vacant spaces, and neglected parts of time, which have flipped away from them unemployed; and there is hardly any one confidering perfon in the world, but is apt to fancy with himself, at fome time or other, that if his life were to begin again, he could fill it up better.
The mind is most provoked to caft on itself this ingenuous reproach, when the examples of füch men are prefented to it, as have far outíhot the generality of their fpecies in learning, arts, or any valuable improvements.
One of the most extenfive and improved geniufes we have had any inftance of in our own nation, or in any other, was that of Sir Francis Bacon Lord Verulam. This great man, by an extraordinary force of nature, compafs of thought, and indefatigable ftudy, had amatfed to himself fuch ftores of knowledge as we cannot look upon without amazement. His capacity feems to have grafped all that was revealed in books before his time; and not fatisfied with that, he began to ftrike out new tracks of science, too many to be travelled over by any one man, in the compafs of the longest life. Thefe, therefore he could only mark, down, like imperfect coaftings in maps, or fuppofed points of land, to be further difcovered and afcertained by the induftry of after ages, who fhould proceed upon his notices or conjectures.
The excellent Mr. Boyle was the perfon who feems to have been defigned by nature to succeed to the labours and inquiries of that extraordinary genius I have just mentioned. By innumerable experiments he, in a great meafure, filled up thofe plans and out-lines of fcience, which his predeceffor had sketched out. His life was fpent in the purfuit of nature, through a great variety of forms and changes, and in the most rational, as well as devout adoration of its Divine Author..
It would be impoffible to name many perfons who have extended their capacities as far as thefe two, in the ftudies they purfued; but my learned readers, on this occafion, will naturally turn
numbers of people who fcarce fhew the first glimmerings of reafon, and feem to have few ideas above thofe of fenfe and appetite. Thefe, methinks, appear like large wilds, or vaft un
their thoughts to a third, who is yet living, and is likewife the glory of our own nation. The improvements which others had made in natural and mathematical knowledge have fo vaftly increased in his hands, as to afford at once a won-cultivated tracts of human nature; and when we compare them with men of the moft exalted characters in arts and learning, we find it difficult to believe that they are creatures of the fame fpecies.
derful inftance how great the capacity is of a human foul, and how inexhauftible the fubject of its inquiries; fo true is that remark in holy writ, that "tho' a wife man feek to find out the works of God from the beginning to the "end, yet fhall he not be able to do it."
Some are of opinion that the fouls of men are all naturally equal, and that the great difparity, we so often obferve, arifes from the different organization or structure of the bodies to which they are united. But whatever conftitutes this firft difparity, the next great difference which we find between men in their feveral acquirements is owing to accidental differences in their education, fortunes, or course of life. The foul is a kind of rough diamond, which requires art, labour, and time to polish it. For want of which, many a good natural genius is loft, or lies unfashioned, like a jewel in the mine.
I cannot help mentioning here one character more of a different kind indeed from thefe, yet fuch a one as may ferve to shew the wonderful force of nature and of application, and is the moft fingular inftance of an univerfal genius I have ever met with. The perfon I mean is Leonardo da Vinei, an Italian painter, defcended from a noble family in Tuscany, about the beginning of the fixteenth century. In his profeffion of hiftory-painting he was fo great a mafter, that fome have affirmed he excelled all who went before him. It is certain that he raised the envy of Michael Angelo, who was his contemporary, and that from the study of his works Raphael himself learned his best manner of defigning. He was a mafter too in fculpture and architecture, and skilful in anatomy, mathematics, and mechanics. The aqueduct from the river Adda to Milan, is mentioned as a work of his contrivance. He had learned feveral languages, and was acquainted with the ftudies of hiftory, philofophy, poetry, and mufic. Though it is not neceffary to my prefent purpose, I cannot but take notice, that all who have writ of him mention likewife his perfection of body. The inftances of his ftrength are almoft incredible. He is defcribed to have been of a wellformed perfon, and mafter of all genteel exersifes, And lastly, we are told that his moral qualities were agreeable to his natural and intellectual endowments, and that he was of an honest, and generous mind, adorned with great fweetnefs of manners. I might break off the account of him here, but I imagine it will be an entertainment to the curiofity of my readers, to find fo remarkable a character diftinguished by as remarkable a circumftance at his death. The fame of his works having gained him an universal esteem, he was invited to the court of France, where, after fome time, he fell fick; and Francis the First coming to see him, he raised himself in his bed to acknowledge the honour which was done him by that vifit. The King embraced him, and Leonardo fainting at the fame inftant, expired in the arms of that great monarch.
It is impoffible to attend to fuch inftances as thefe, without being raised into a contemplation on the wonderful nature of an human mind, which is capable of fuch progreffions in knowledge, and can contain fuch a variety of ideas without perplexity or confufion. How reasonable is it from hence to infer its divine original? And whilst we find unthinking matter endued with a natural power to laft for ever, unless annihilated by Omnipotence, how abfurd would it be to imagine, that a being fo much fuperior to it fhould not have the fame privilege?
At the fame time it is very furpring, when we remove our thoughts from fuch inftances as I have mentioned, to confider thofe wo fo frequently meet with in the accounts of barbarous nations among the Indians; where we find
One of the ftrongest incitements to excel in fuch arts and accomplishments as are in the highest esteem among men, is the natural paffion which the mind of man has for glory; which, though it may be faulty in the excefs of it, ought by no means to be difcouraged. Perhaps fome moralifts are too fevere in beating down this principle, which feems to be a fpring implanted by nature to give motion to all the latent powers of the foul, and is always obferved to exert itself with the greatest force in the moft generous difpofitions. The men whofe characters have shone the brightest among the ancient Romans, appear to have been ftrongly animated by this paffion. Cicero, whose learning and fervices to his country are fo well known, was inflamed by it to an extravagant degree, and warmly preffes Lucceius, who was compofing a hiftory of thofe times, to be very particular and zealous in relating the story of his confulship: and to execute it fpeedily, that he might have the pleasure of enjoying in his life time fome part of the honour which he forefaw would be paid to his memory. This was the ambition of a great mind; but he is faulty in the degree of it, and cannot refrain from foliciting the hiftorian upon this occafion to neglect the strict laws of hiftory, and, in praise ing him, "even to exceed the bounds of truth.” The younger Pliny appears to have had the same paffion for fame, but accompanied with greater chaftenefs and modefty. His ingenious manner of owning it to a friend, who had prompted him to undertake fome great work, is exquifitely beautiful, and raises him to a certain grandeur above the imputation of vanity. " I "must confefs," fays he, "that nothing em"ploys my thoughts more than the defire I "have of perpetuating my name; which in
my opinion is a defign worthy of a man, at "leaft of fuch a one, who being confcicus of no guile, is not afraid to be remembered by "pofterity."
I think I ought not to conclude, without interefting all my readers in the fubject of this difcourfe I fhall therefore lay it down as a maxim, that though all are not capable of fhining in learning or the politer arts; yet every one is capable of excelling in fomething." The foul has in this refp.& a cer
tain vegetative power which cannot lie wholly idle. If it is not laid out and cultivated into a regular and beautiful garden, it will of itfelf shoot up in weeds or flowers of a wilder growth,
N° 555. SATURDAY, DEC. 6.
After I have put other friends upon importuning him to publish dramatic, as well as other' writings he has by him, I fhall end what I think I am obliged to fay on this head, by giving my reader this hint for the better judging of my productions, that the best comment upon them would be an account when the patron to the Tender husband was in England, or abroad.
The reader will alfo find fome papers which are marked with the letter X, for which he is PERS, Sat. 4. ver. 51. obliged to the ingenious gentleman who diverted the town with the epilogue to the Diftreffed Mother. I might have owned thefe feveral papers with the free confent of thefe gentlemen, who did not write them with a defign of being known for the authors. But as a candid and fincere behaviour ought to be preferred to all other confiderations, I would not let my heart reproach me with a confcioufnefs of having acquired a praise which is not my right.
The other affiftances which I have had, have been conveyed by letter, fometimes by whole papers, and other times by fhort hints from unknown hands. I have not been able to trace favours of this kind, with any certainty, but to the following names, which I place in the order wherein I received the obligation, though the firft I am going to name can hardly be mentioned in a lift wherein he would not deferve the precedence. The perfons to whom I am to make thefe acknowledgements are, Mr. Henry Martin, Mr. Pope, Mr. Hughes, Mr. Carey, of New College in Oxford, Mr. Tickell, of Queen's in the fame Univerfity, Mr. Parnelle, and Mr. Eufden, of Trinity in Cambridge. Thus, to fpeak in the language of my late friend Sir Andrew Freeport, I have balanced my accounts with all my creditors for wit and learning. But as thefe excellent performances would not have feen the light without the means of this paper, I may ftill arrogate to myself the merit of their being communicated to the public.
I have nothing more to add, but having fwelled this work to five hundred and fifty-ave papers, they will be difpofed into feven volumes, four of which are already publifhed, and the three others in the prefs. It will not be demanded of me why I now leave off, though I muft own myfelf obliged to give an account to the town of my time hereafter; fince I retire when their partiality to me is fo great, that an edition of the former volumes of Spectators of above nine thousand each book is already fold off, and the tax on each half theet has brought into the ftamp-office one week with another above twenty pounds a week arifing from this fingle paper, notwithstanding it at first reduced it to lefs than half the number that was ufually printed before this tax was laid.
1 humbly befeech the continuance of this inclination to favour what I may hereafter produce, and hope I have in my occurrences of life tafted fo deeply of pain and forrow, that I am proof against much more profperous circumstances than any advantages to which my own industry can poffibly exalt me. I am,
Lay the fictitious character afide.
LL the members of the imaginary fociety A which were defcribed in my firft papers, having disappeared one after another, it is high time for the Spectator himself to go off the ftage. But, now I am to take my leave, I am under much greater anxiety than I have known for the work of any day fince I undertook this province. It is much more difficult to converse with the world in a real than a perfonated character. That might pafs for humour in the Spectator, which would look like arrogance in a writer who fets his name to his work. The fictitious perfon might contemn thofe who difapproved him, and extol his own performances, without giving offence. He might affume a mock-authority, without being looked upon as vain and conceited. The praifes or cenfures of himfelf fall only upon the creature of his imagination; and if any one finds fault with him, the author may reply with the philofopher of old, "Thou doft but beat the cafe of Anaxar"chus." When I fpeak in my own private fentiments, I cannot but addrefs myfelf to my readers in a more fubmiffive manner, and with a juft gratitude, for the kind reception which they have given to thefe daily papers that have been published for almost the space of two years laft paft.
I hope the apology I have made as to the licence allowable to a feigned character, may excufe any thing which has been faid in thefe difcourfes of the Spectator and his works; but the imputation of the groffeft vanity would ftill dwell upon me, if I did not give fome account by what means I was enabled to keep up the fpirit of fo long and approved a performance. All the papers marked with a C, an L, an I, or an O, that is to fay, all the papers which I have diftinguished by any letter in the name of the mufe CLIO, were given me by the gentleman of whofe affiftance I formerly boated in the preface and concluding leaf of my Tatlers. I am indeed much more proud of his long continued friendship, than I fhould be of the fame of being thought the author of any writings which he himfelf is capable of producing. remember when I finished the Tender Hufband, I told him there was nothing I fo ardently withed, as that we might fome time or other publih a work written by us both, which fhould bear the name of the Monument, in memory of our friendship. I heartily with what I have done here, was as honorary to that facred name, as learning, wit, and humanity render thofe pieces which I have taught the reader how to diftinguish for his. When the play abovementioned was laft a@ed, there were fo many applauded ftrokes in it which I had from the fame hand, that I thought very meanly of, myfelf that I have never publicly acknowledged them
My good-natured reader,
moft obliged humble fervant,
Vos valete & plaudite.