Hill, dale, and fhady woods, and funny plains,
And liquid lapfe of murmuring ftreams; by thefe,
Creatures that liv'd and mov'd, and walk'd,or flew,
Firds on the branches warbling; all things fmil'd
With fragrance, and with joy my heart o'erflow'd.

Adam is afterwards defcribed as surprised at his own existence, and taking a furvey of himself, and of all the works of nature. He likewife is repre. fented as difcovering by the light of reason, that he and every thing about him must have been the effect of fome Being infinitely good and powerful, and that this Being had a right to his worship and adoration. His first addrefs to the fun, and to thofe parts of the creation which made the most diftinguished figure, is very natural and amufing to the imagination.

-Thou Sun, faid I, fair light,
And thou enlighten'd earth, fo fresh and gay
Ye hills, and dales, ye rivers, woods, and plains,
And ye that live and move, fair creatures tell,
Tell, if ye faw, how came I thus, how here?

His next fentiment, when upon his first going to fleep he fancies himself lofing his exiftence,

and falling away into nothing, can never be sufficiently admired. His dream, in which he ftill preferves the consciousness of his existence, together with his removal into the garden which was prepared for his reception, are alfo circumstances finely imagined, and grounded upon what is delivered in facred story.

Thefe and the like wonderful incidents in this

part of the work, have in them all the beauties of
novelty, at the fame time that they have all the
graces of nature. They are fuch as none but a
great genius could have thought of, though, upon
the perufal of them, they feem to rife of them-
felves from the fubje&t of which he treats.
word, though they are natural, they are not ob-
vious, which is the true character of all fine

In a

The impreffion which the interdiction of the tree of life left in the mind of our first parent, is defcribed with great ftrength and judgment; as the image of the feveral beafts and birds paffing in review before him is very beautiful and lively.

fame time that of humility and adoration in the
creaturre as particularly in the following lines.
Thus I prefumptuous; and the vifion bright,
As with a fmile, more brighten'd, thus reply'd,&c.

-I with leave of fpeech implor'd,
And humble deprecation thus reply'd :

Let not my words offend thee, heav'nly Pow'r,
My maker, be propitious while I speak, &c.

-Each bird and beaft behold
Approaching two and two, these cow'ring low
With blandifhment; each bird stoop'd on his
I nam'd them as they pafs'd——

fecond fleep, and of the dream in which he beheld Adam then proceeds to give an account of his the formation of Eve. The new paffion that was awakened in him at the fight of her, is touched very finely:

Under his forming hands a creature grew,
Manlike, but diff'rent fex; fo lovely fair,
That what feem'd fair in all the world, feem'd now
Mean, or in her fum'd up, in her contain'd,
And in her looks, which from that time infus'd

Sweetness into my heart, unfelt before :
And into all things from her air infpir'd
The fpirit of and love amorous delight.

ful phantom, with his exclamations of joy and Adam's diftrefs upon lofing fight of this beaugratitude at the discovery of a real creature who refembled the apparition which had been prefented to him in his dream; the approaches he makes to her, and his manner of courtship, are all laid together in a moft exquifite propriety of fentiment.

Though this part of the poem is worked up with great warmth and fpirit, the love which is defcribed in it is every way fuitable to a state of innocence. If the reader compares the defcription which Adam here gives of his leading Eve to the nuptial bower, with that which Mr. Dryden

has made on the fame occafion in a scene of his Fall of man, he will be fenfible of the great care which Milton took to avoid all thoughts on fo delicate a fubject, that might be offenfive to religion or good-manners. The fentiments are chafte, but not cold; and convey to the mind ideas of the moft tranfporting paffion and of the greatest purity. What a noble mixture of rapture and innocence has the author joined together, in the reflexion which Adam makes on the pleasures of love, compared to thofe of fenfe!

Thus have I told thee all my ftate, and brought
My story to the fum of earthly blifs
Which I enjoy; and muft confess to find
In all things elfe delight indeed, but fuch
As us'd or not, works in the mind no change
Nor vehement defires; thefe delicacies
I mean of tafte, fight, fmell, herbs, fruits, and

Adam, in the next place, defcribes a conference which he held with his maker upon the fubject of folitude. The poet here reprefents the Supreme Being, as making an essay of his own work, and putting to the trial that reafoning faculty with which he had endued his creature. Adam urges, in this divine colloquy, the impoffibility of his being happy, though he was the inhabitant of Paradife, and Lord of the whole creation, without the conversation and fociety of fome rational creature, who fhould partake thofe bleffings with . This dialogue, which is fupported chiefly by the beauty of the thoughts, without other poetical ornament, is as fine a part as any in the whole poem: the more the reader examines the juftnefs and delicacy of its fentiments, the more he will find himfelf pleafed with it. The poet has wonderfully preferved the character of majefty and condefcenfion in the Creator, and at the


Walks, and the melody of birds: but here
Far otherwife, transported 1 behold,
Tranfported touch; here paffion first I felt,
Commotion ftrange! in all enjoyments elfe
Superior and unmov'd, here only weak
Against the charms of beauty's pow'rful glance.
Or nature fail'd in me, and left fome part
Not proof enough fuch object to fuftain;
Or from my fide fubdu&ing, took perhaps
More than enough; at least on her bestow'd
Too much of ornament, in outward shew
Elaborate, of inward lefs exact.
-When I approach
Her lovelinefs, fo abfolute the feems,
And in herself compleat, fo well to know


Her own, that what she wills to do or fay,
Seems wifeft, virtuoufeft, difcreetest, best;
All higher knowledge in her prefence falls
Degraded, wifdom in difcourfe with her
Lofes difcountenanc'd, and like folly fhews;
Authority and reafon on her wait,
As ons intended firft, not after made
Occafionally; and to confummate all,
Greatnefs of mind and noblenefs their feat
Build in her lovelieft, and create an awe
About her, as a guard angelic plac'd.

These fentiments of love in our firft parent, gave the angel fuch an infight into human nature, that he feems apprehenfive of the evils which might beal the fpecies in general, as well as Adam in particular, from the exprefs of his paffion. He therfore fortifies him against it by timely admonitions; which very artfully prepare the mind of the reader for the occurrences of the next book, where the weaknefs, of which Adam here gives fuch diftant difcoveries, brings about the fatal event which is the subject of this poem. His difcourfe which follows the gentle rebuke he received from the angel, fhews that his love, however violent it might appear, was ftill founded in reafon, and confequently not improper for Paradife.

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HEN we confider the offices of human life, there is, methinks, fomething in what we ordinarily call generofity, which, when carefully examined, feems to flow rather from a loofe and unguarded temper, than an honeft and liberal mind. For this reafon it is abfolutely neceffary that all liberality fhould have for its bafis and fupport, frugality. By this means the beneficent fpirit works in a man from the convictions of reason, not from the impulfes of paffion. The generous man in the ordinary acceptation, without refpect of the demands of his family, will foon find upon the foot of his account, that he has facrificed to fools, kpayes, flatterers, or the de

fervedly unhappy, all the opportunities of affording any future affiftance where it ought to be. Let him therefore reflect, that if to beftow be in itfelf laudable, fhould not a man take care to secure an ability to do things praife-worthy as long as he lives? Or could there be a more cruel piece of raillery upon a man who should have reduced his fortune below the capacity of acting according to his natural temper, than to fay of him, That gentleman was generous? My beloved author therefore has, in the fentence on the top of my paper, turned his eye with a certain fatiety from beholding the addreffes to the people by largeffes and public entertainments, which he afferts to be in general vicious, and are always to be regulated according to the circumftances of time, and a man's own fortune. A conftant benignity in commerce with the rest of the world, which ought to run through all a man's actions, has effects more useful to thofe whom you oblige, and lefs oftentatious in yourfelf. He turns his recommendation of this virtue in commercial life and according to him, a citizen who is frank in his kindneffes, and abhors feverity in his demands; he who in buying, felling, lending, doing acts of good neighbourhood, is juft and eafy; he who appears naturally averfe to difputes, and above the fenfe of little fufferings; bears a nobler character, and does much more good to mankind than any other man's fortune without commerce can poffibly fupport. For the citizen above all other men has opportunities of arriving at that

higheft fruit of wealth, to be liberal without the leaft expence of a man's own fortune.' It is not to be denied but fuch a practice is liable to hazard; but this therefore adds to the obliga tion, that, among traders, he who obliges is as much concerned to keep the favour a fecret, as he who receives it. The unhappy diftinctions among us in England are fo great, that to celebrate the intercourfe of commercial friendship (with which I am daily made acquainted) would be to raife the virtuous man fo many enemies of the contrary party. I am obliged to conceal all I know of Tom the Bounteous, who lends at the ordinary intereft, to give men of lefs fortune opportunities of making greater advantages. He conceals under a rough air and distant behaviour, a bleeding compaffion and wornanish tenderness. This is governed by the most exact circumfpection, that there is no induftry wanting in the perfon whom he is to serve, and that he is guilty of no improper expences. This I know of Tom, but who dare fay it of so known a Tory? The fame care I was forced to use fome time ago in the report of another's virtue, and faid fifty inftead of an hundred, because the man I pointed at was a Whig. A&tions of this kind are popular without being invidious: for every man of ordinary circumstances looks upon a man who has this known benignity in his nature, as a perfon ready to be his friend upon fuch terms as he ought to expect it; and the wealthy, who may envy fuch a character, can do no injury to its interests but by the imitation of it, in which the good citizen will rejoice to be rivalled. I know not how to form to myself a greater idea of human life, than in what is the practice of fome wealthy men whom I could name, that make no ftep to the improvement of their own fortunes, wherein they do not alfo advance thofe of other men who would languish in poverty without that munificence. In a nation where there are fo many public funds E

to be fupported, I know not whether he can be
called a good fubject, who does not embark fome
part of his fortune with the ftate, to whose vi-
gilance he owes the fecurity of the whole. This
certainly is an immediate way of laying an obli-
gation upon many, and extending his benignity
the fartheft a man can poffibly, who is not en.
gaged in commerce, But he who trades, befides
giving the ftate fome part of this fort of credit he
gives his banker, may in all the occurrences of
his life have his eye upon the removing want from
the door of the industrious, and defending the
unhappy upright man from bankruptcy. With-
out this benignity, pride or vengeance will pre-
cipitate a man to choose the receipt of one half
his demands from one he has undone, rather than
the whole from one to whom he has fhewn mercy.
This benignity is effential to the character of a
fair trader, and any man who defigns to enjoy
his wealth with honour and felf-fatisfaction:
nay, it would not be hard to maintain, that the
practice of fupporting good and induftrious men
would carry a man farther even to his profit, than
indulging the propenfity of ferving and obliging
the fortunate. My author argues on this fubject,
in order to incline men's minds to those who
want them moft, after this manner: We must
always confider the nature of things, and
< vern ourselves accordingly. The wealthy man,
when he has repaid you, is upon a balance with
E you; but the perfon whom you favoured with
a loan, if he be a good man, will think him-
felf in your debt after he has paid you. The
wealthy and the confpicuous are not obliged
by the benefits you do them; they think they
conferred a beneft when they received one.
Your good offices are always fufpected, and it
is with them the fame thing to expect their fa-
vour as to receive it. But the man below you,
who knows, in the good you have done him,
you refpected himfelf more than his circum-
itances, does not act like an obliged man only
to him from whom he has received a benefit,
but alfo to all who are capable of doing him
And whatever little offices he can do for
you, he is fo far from magnifying it, that he





will labour to extenuate it in all his actions and


expreffions. Moreover, the regard to what do to a great man, at beft is taken notice of no further than by himfelf or his family; but what you do to a man of an humble fortune, (provided always that he is a good and a modest man) raifes the affections towards you of all men of that character (of which there are many) in the whole city."

There is nothing gains a reputation to a preacher fo much as his own practice; I am therefore cafting about what act of benignity is in the power of a Spectator. Alas, that lies but in a very narrow compafs, and I think the roft immediately under my patronage, are either players, or fuch whofe circumftances beat an affinity with theirs all therefore I am able to do at this time of this kind, is to tell the town that on Friday the 11th of this inftant April, there will be performed in York Buildings, a concert of vocal and inftrumental mufic, for the benefit of Mr Edward Keen, the father of twenty children; and this day the haughty George Powell hopes all the good-natured part of the town will favour him, whom they applauded in Alexander, Timep, Lear, and Oreftes, with their company his night, when he hazards all his hergic glory

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for their approbation in the humbler condition of honeft Jack Falstaff.

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No 347. TUESDAY, APRIL. 8.
Quis furor, ô cives! quæ tanta licentia ferri!
LUCAN, lib. 1. v. 8.
What blind detefted madness, could afford
Such horrid licence to the murd'ring fword?



DO not queftion but my country readers have been very much furprised at the feveral accounts they have met with in our public papers, of that species of men among us, lately nions of the learned, as to their origin and deknown by the name of Mohocs. I find the opifigns, are altogether various, infomuch that very many begin to doubt whether indeed there were fpread itfelf over the whole nation foine years ever any fuch fociety of men. The terror which fince on account of the Irish,, is ftill fresh in appeared there was not the leait ground for that moft people's memories, though it afterwards general confternation.

The late panic fear was, in the opinion of many deep and penetrating perfons, of the fame nature. Thefe will have it, that the Mohocs are feveral towns and villages in her Majefty's dolike thofe fpcctres and apparitions which frighten minions, though they were never feen by any of the inhabitants. Others are apt to think that invented by prudent married men, and mafters thefe Mohocs are a kind of bull-beggars, first of families, in order to deter their wives and daughters from taking the air at unfeafonable hours; and that when they tell them "the Mo, hocs will catch them," it is a caution of the fame bid their children have a care of Raw-head and nature with that of our forefathers, when they Bloody bones,

For my own part, I am afraid there was too much reafon for the great alarm the whole city has been in upon this occafion; though at the fame time I muft own that I am in fome doubt whether the following pieces are genuine and authentic: the more fo, because I am not fully certified that the name, by which the emperor fubfcribes himself, is altogether conformable to the Indian orthography.

I fhall only further inform my readers, that it was fome time fince I received the following letter and manifefto, though for particular reasons I did not think fit to publish them till now.

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The Manifefto of Taw Waw Eben Zan Kaladar. fpeakable fatisfaction we have in fome measure 'Emperor of the Mohocs.


already effected, we do hereby earnestly pray ' and exhort all hufbands, fathers, houfe-keepC ers, and mafters of families, in either of the 'aforefaid cities, not only to repair themfelves to their respective habitations at early and feafonable hours; but alfo to keep their wives and ' daughters, fons, fervants, and apprentices, from appearing in the streets at those times and feafons which may expofe them to a military difcipline, as it is practifed by our good subjects the MoHocs: and we do further promife, on our imperial word, that as foon as the reformation aforefaid fhall be brought about, we will forthwith caufe all hoftilities to ce afe. "Given from our Court at the DevilTavern, March 15, 1712.'




HEREAS we have received information from fundry quarters of this great and populous city, of feveral outrages committed on the legs, arms, nofes, and other parts of the good people of England, by fuch as have stiled themselves our fubjects; in order to vindicate our imperial dignity from the false afperfions which have been caft on it, as if we ourfelves might have encouraged or abetted any fuch practices; we have, by thefe prefents, thought fit to fignify our utmost abhorrence and deteftation of all fuch tumultuous and irregular proceedings; and do hereby further • give notice, that if any perfon or persons has or have suffered any wound, hurt, damage, or detriment in his or their limb or limbs, other



wife than shall be hereafter fpecified, the faid perfon or perfons, upon applying themselves to fuch as we fhall appoint for the infpection and redrefs of the grievances aforefaid, fhall be forthwith committed to the care of our principal furgeon, and be cured at our own expence, in fome one or other of thofe hofpitals which we are now erecting for that purpose.


And to the end that no one may, either thro' ignorance or inadvertency, incur thofe penalties which we have thought fit to inflict on perfons of loofe and diffolute lives, we do hereby notify to the public, that if any man be knocked down or affaulted while he is employed in his lawful business, at proper hours, that it is not done by our order: and we do hereby permit and allow any fuch perfon fo knocked down or affaulted, to rife again, and defend himfelf in the best manner that he is able,

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Invidiam placare paras virtuté relicta ?
HOR. Sat. 3.

To fhun detraction, would thou virtue fly?
Mr. Spectator,
I I am you

HAVE not seen you lately at any of the




are wholly unacquainted with what paffes among my part of the world, who are, tho' I fay it, without controverfy, the most accomplified and beft bred of the town. Give me leave to tell you that I am extremely difcompofed when I hear fcandal, and am an utter enemy to all manner of detraction, and think it the greatest meannefs that people of diftinction can be guilty of: however it is hardly poffible to come into company, where you do not find them pulling one another to pieces, and that from no other provocation but that of hearing any one commended. Merit, both as to wit and beauty, is become no other than the poffeffion of a few trifling people's favour, which you cannot poffibly arrive at, if you have really any thing in you that is deferving. What they would bring to pafs, is, to make all good and evil confift in report, and with whifpers, calumnies, and impertinencies, to have the conduct of thefe reports. By this means innocents are blafted upon their first appearance in town; and there is nothing more required to make a young woman the object of envy and hatred, than to deferve love and ad'miration. This abominable endeavour to fup.

We do alfo command all and every our good fubjects, that they do not prefume, upon any pretext whatfoever, to iffue and fally forth from their refpetive quarters till between the hours of eleven and twelve. That they never tip the lion upon man, woman, or child, till the clock at St. Dunstan's fhall have ftruck one,

That the fweat be never given but between the hours of one and two; always provided, that our hunters may begin to hunt a little after the close of the evening, any thing to the contrary herein notwithstanding. Provided alfo, that if ever they are reduced to the neceffity of pinking, it shall always be in the most fleshy < parts, and fuch as are leaft exposed to view.


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It is alfo our imperial will and pleasure, that our good fubjects the fweaters do eftablish their hummums in fuch close places, alleys, nooks, and corners, that the patient or patients may < not be in danger of catching cold.

That the tumblers, to whofe care we chiefly commit the female fex, confine themselves to Drury-lane, and the purlieus of the Temple, and that every other party and divifion of our fubjects, do each of them keep within their refpective quarters we have allotted to them. Provided nevertheless, that nothing herein contained fhall in any wife be conftrued to extend to the hunters, who have our full licence and permiffion to enter any part of the town wherever their game fhall lead them.



And whereas we have nothing more at our imperial heart than the reformation of the cities ⚫ of London and Westminster, which to our un

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prefs or leffen every thing that is praife-worthy, is as frequent among the men as the women. If I can remember what paffed at a visit last night, it will ferve as an inftance that the fexes are equally inclined to defamation, with equal malice with equal impotence. Jack Triplet came into my Lady Airy's about eight of the clock. You know the manner we fit at a vifit, and I 'need not defcribe the circle; but Mr. Triplet came in, introduced by two tapers fupported by



a fpruce fervant, whofe hair is under a cap till my lady's candles are all lighted up,and the hour of ceremony begins: I fay, Jack Triplet came in, and finging, (for he is really good company) "Every feature, charming creature"-he went "It is a moft unreasonable thing that peo"ple cannot go peaceably to fee their friends, but thofe murderers are let loofe. Such a «fhape! fuch an air! what a glance was that " as her chariot paffed by mine"-My lady her




1. 2 V. 13.



felf interrupted him; "Pray who is this fine thing I warrant, fays another, It is the creature I was telling your ladyship of just now.' You were telling of? fays Jack; I wish I had been fo happy as to have come in and heard you, for I have not words to fay what the is: but if an agreeable height, a modest air, a virgin fhame, an impatience of being beheld "amidít a blaze of ten thoufand charms"The ⚫ whole room flew out-"Oh Mr. Triplet !"— When Mrs, Lofty, a known prude, faid the believed the knew whom the gentleman mcant; but he was indeed, as he civilly reprefented her 6 impatient of being beheld-Then turning to the lady next to her" The most unbred crea"ture you ever faw." Another purfued the "difcourfe; "As unbred, Madam, as you may "think her, he is extremely belied if he is the "novice the appears; he was laft week at a


ball till two in the morning; Mr. Triplet "knows whether he was the happy man that "took care of her home; but"-This was followed by fome particular exception that each woman in the room made to fome peculiar grace or advantage; fo that Mr. Triplet was beaten from one limb and feature to another, till he was forced to refign the whole woman. In the end, I took notice Triplet recorded all his malice in his heart; and faw in his countenance, and a certain waggifh fhrug, that he defigned to repeat the converfation: I there 'fore let the difcourfe die, and foon after took an occafion to recommend a certain gentleman of my acquaintance for a perfon of fingular modcfty, courage, integrity, and withal as a $ man of an entertaining converfation, to which advantages he had a thape and manner peculiarly graceful. Mr. Triplett, who is a woman's man, feemed to hear me with patience enough commend the qualities of his mind: he never heard indeed but that he was a very honest man and no fool; but for a fine gentleman, he must afk pardon. Upon no other foundation than this, Mr. Triplett took occafion to give the gentleman's pedigree, by what methods fome part of the eftate was acquired, how much it was beholden to a marriage for the present circumftances of it: after all he could fee nothing but a common man in his perfon, his breeding, or underftanding.

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Thus, Mr. Spectator, this impertinent humour of diminishing every one who is produced in converfation to their advantage, runs through the world; and I am, 1 confefs, fo fearful of the force of ill tongues, that I have begged of all thofe who are my well-wishers, ⚫ never to commend me, for it will but bring my frailties intò examination, and I had rather be unobferved, than confpicuous for difputed perfections. I am confident a thousand young people, who would have been ornaments to fociety, have, from fear of scandal, never dared to exert themfelves in the polite arts of life. Their lives have patted away in an odious rufticity, in fpite of great advantages of perfon, genius, and fortune. There is a vicious, terFor of being blamed in fomne well-inclined people, and a wicked pleasure in fuppreffing them in others; both which I recommend to your fpectatorical wisdom to animadvert upon: and if you can be fuccesful in it, I need not fay




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how much you will deferve of the town; but new tqafts will owe to you their beauty, and new wits their fane.

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Thrice happy they beneath their northern fkies,
Who that worst fear, the fear of death, defpife!
Hence they no cares for this frail being feel,
But ruh undaunted on the pointed steel,
Provoke approaching fate, and bravely fcorn
To spare that life, which must too foon return.



AM very much pleafed with a confolatory letter of Phalaris, to one who had loft a fon that was a young man of great merit. The thought with which he comforts the afflicted father, is, to the beit of my memory, as follows; that he should confider death had fet a kind of feal upon his fon's character, and placed him out of the reach of vice and infamy: that while he lived he was fill within the poffibility of falling away from virtue, and lofing the fame of which he was poffefled. Death only clofes a man's icputation, and determines it as good or bad.

This among other motives, may be one reason why we are naturally averse to the launching out into a man's praife until his head is laid in the duft. Whilft he is capable of changing, we may be forced to retract our opinions. He may forfeit the efleem we have conceived of him, and fome time or other appear to us under a different light from what he does at prefent. In fhort, as the life of any man cannot be called happy or WIhappy, fo neither can it be pronounced vicious or virtuous, before the conclufion of it.

It was upon this confideration, that Epaminondas, being asked whether Chabrias, Iphicrates, or he himfelf, deferved mott to be efteemed? You must first fee us die, faith he, before that question can be antwered.

As there is not a more melancholy confideration to a good man than his being obnoxious to fuch a change, fo there is nothing more glorious than to keep up an uniformity in his actions and prefeive the beauty of his character to the last.

The end of a man's life is often compared to the winding up of a well-written play, where the principal perfons ftill act in character, whatever the fate is which they undergo. There is fcarce a great perfon in the Grecian or Roman Hiftory, whofe death has not been remarked upon by fonie writer or other, and cenfured or applauded ccording to the genius or principles of the perfon who has defcanted on it. Monfieur de St. Evrea mond is very particular in fetting forth the confancy and courage of Petronius Arbiter during his laft moments, and thinks he difcovers in them a greater firmness of mind and refolution than in the death of Seneca, Cato, or Socrates. There' is no queftion but this polite author's affectation of appearing fingular in his remarks, and making difcoveries which had efcaped the obfervation of others, threw him into this courte of reflection.

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