he be loft in horror and admiration, when he fhould know that this fet of creatures, who lay out all their endeavours for this life, which fcarce

deferves the name of exiftence, when, I fay, he fhould know that this fet of creatures are to exift to all eternity in another life, for which they make no preparations? Nothing can be a greater difgrace to reafon, than that men who are perfuaded of thefe two different ftates of being, fhould be perpetually employed in providing for a life of threefcore and ten years, and neglecting to make provifion for that, which after many 'myriads of years will be still new and ftill beginning; efpecially when we confider that our endeavours for making ourselves great or rich, or honourable, or whatever elfe we place our happinefs in, may after all prove unfuccefsful; whereas if we contantly and fincerely endeavour to make ourselves happy in the other life, we are fure that our endeavours will fucceed, and that we fhall not be difappointed of our hope.

The following question is started, by one of the fchoolmen. Suppofing the whole body of the earth were a great ball or mafs of the fineft fand, and that a fingle grain or particle of this fand fhould be annihilated every thousand years? Suppofing then that you had it in your choice to be happy all the while this prodigious mafs of fand was confuming by this flow method until there was not a grain of it left, on condition you were to be miferable for ever after? or, fuppofing that you might be happy for ever after, on condition you would be miferable until the whole mafs of fand was thus annihilated at the rate of one fand in a thousand years; which of thefe two cafes Fould you make your choice?

It must be confeffed in this cafe, fo many thoufands of years are to the imagination as a kind of eternity, though in reality they do not bear fo great a proportion to that duration which is to follow them, as an unit does to the greatest number which you can put together in figures, or as one of thofe fands to the fuppofed heap. Reafon therefore tells us, without any manner of hefitation, which would be the better part in this choice. However, as I have before intimated, our reafon might in fuch cafe be fo overfet by the imagination, as to difpofe fome perfons to fink under the confideration of the great distance of that fecond duration, which is to fucceed it. The mind, I fay, might give itfelf up to that happinefs which is at hand, confidering that it is fo very near, and that it would laft fo very long. But when the choice we actually have before us is this, whether we will choose to be happy for the fpace of only threefcore and ten, nay, perhaps only twenty or ten years, I might fay of only a day or an hour, and miferable to all eternity: what words are fufficient to exprefs that folly and want of confideration which in fuch a cafe makes a wrong choice?

I here put the cafe even at the worft, by fuppofing, what feldom happens, that a courfe of virtue makes us miferable in this life; but if we fuppofe as it generally happens, that virtue would makes us more happy even in this life than a contrary courfe of vice; how can we fufficiently admire the ftupidity or madnefs of making fo abfurd a choice?

N° 576. WEDNESDAY, AUG. 4.
Nitor in adverfum; nec me, qui cætera, vincit
Impetus;,& rapido contrarius eveber erbi.
CVID. Met. I. 2. ver. 72.

Every wife man therefore will confider this life only as it may conduce to the happiness of the other, and chearfully facrifice the pleasures of a few years to thofe of an eternity,

Ifteer against their motions, nor am I Born back by all the current of the sky.



Remember a young man of very lively parts, and of a sprightly turn in converfation, who had only one fault, which was an inordinate defire of appearing fashionable. This ran him into many amours, and confequently into many dif tempers. He never went to bed until two o'clock in the morning, because he would not be a queer fellow, and was every now and then knocked down by a conftable, to fignalize his vivacity, He was initiated into half a dozen, clubs before he was one and twenty, and fo improved in them his natural gaiety of temper, that you might frequently trace him to his lodging by a range of broken windows, and other like monuments of wit and gallantry. To be short, after having fully established his reputation of being a very agreeable rake, he died of old age at five and twenty.

There is indeed nothing which betrays a man into fo many errors and inconveniences, as the defire of not appearing fingular; for which reafon it is very neceffary to form a right idea of fingularity, that we may know when it is laudable, and when, it is vicious. In the firft place, every man of fense will agree with me, that fingularity is laudable, when, in contradiction to a multitude, it adheres to the dictates of confcience, morality, and honour. In thefe cafes we ought to confider, that it is not cuftom, but duty, which is the rule of action; and that we fhould be only fo far fociable, as we are reafonable creatures. Truth is never the lefs fo, for not being attended to and it is the nature of actions, not the number of actors, by which we ought to regulate our behaviour. Singularity in concerns of this kind is to be looked upon as heroic bravery, in which a man leaves the fpecies only as he foars above it. What greater inftance can there be of a weak and pufillanimous temper, than for a man to pass his whole life in oppofition to his own fentiments? or not to dare to be what he thinks he ought to be?

Singularity, therefore, is only vicious when it makes men act contrary to reafon, or when it puts them upon diftinguishing themselves by trifles. As for the first of thefe, who are fingular in any thing that is irreligious, immoral, or dishonourable, I believe every one will give them up. I fhall therefore only fpeak of thofe only who are remarkable for their fingularity in things of no importance, as in drefs, behaviour, converfation, and all the little intercourfes of life. In these cafes there is a certain deference due to custom; and notwithstanding there may be a colour of rea fon to deviate from the multitude in fome particulars, a man ought to facrifice his private inclinations and opinions to the practice of the public. It must be confeffed that good fenfe often makes a humourift; but then it unqualifies him for any moment in the world, and renders him ridiculous to perfons of a much inferior underftanding.

I have heard of a gentleman in the north of England, who was a remarkable inftance of this foolish fingularity, He had laid it down as a rule


of making themselves the fubjects of their writings and converfation, that I had fome difficulty to perfuade myself to give you this trouble, until I had confidered that though I fhould fpeak in the first perfon, yet I could not be juftly charged with vanity, fince I shall not add my name; as alfo, becaufe what I shall write will not, to fay the best, redound to my praise; but is only defigned to remove a prejudice conceived against me, as I hope, with very little foundation. My fhort history is this.

I have lived for fome years laft paft altogether in London, until about a month ago an ac



within himself, to act in the most indifferent parts of life according to the most abftracted notions of reafon and good fenfe, without any regard to fashion or example. This humour broke out at first in many little oddneffes: he had never any ftated hours for his dinner, fupper or fleep; hecaufe, faid he, we ought to attend the calls of nature, and not fet our meals, but bring our meals to our appetites. In his converfation with country gentlemen, he would not make ufe of a phrafe that was not ftri&tly true: he never told any of them, that he was his humble fervant, but that he was his well-wisher, and would be rather thought a malecontent, than drink the king'squaintance of mine, for whom I have done fome health when he was not dry. He would thrust 'fmall fervices in town, invited me to pafs part his head out at the chamber-window every mornof the fummer with him at his houfe in the ing, and after having gaped for fresh air about half country. I accepted his invitation, and found an hour, repeat fifty verfes as loud as he could a very hearty welcome. My friend, an honeft bawl them for the benefit of his lungs; to which plain man, not being qualified to pass away his end he generally took them out of Homer; the time without the reliefs of business, has grafted Greek tongue, especially in that author being the farmer upon the gentleman, and brought more deep and fonorous, and more conducive to himself to fubmit even to the fervile parts of expectoration, than any other. He had many that employment, fuch as infpecting his plough, other particularities, for which he gave found and the like. This neceffarily takes up fome and philofophical reasons. As this humour ftill of his hours every day; and as I have no relifh grew upon him, he chofe to wear a turban instead for fuch diverfion, I used at these times to reof a perriwig; concluding very justly, that a bantire either to my chamber, or a fhady walk near dage of clean linen about his head was much more the house, and entertain myself with some agreewholefome, as well as cleanly, than the caul of a able author. Now you must know, Mr. Spectator, wig, which is foiled with frequent perfpirations. that when I read, efpecially if it be poetry, it He afterwards judiciously observed, that the many is very ufual with me, when I meet with any ligatures in the English drefs, muft naturally paffage or expreffion which ftrikes me much, to check the circulation of the blood; for which pronounce it aloud, with that tone of the voice, reafon, he made his breeches and his doublet of which I think agreeable to the fentiments there one continued piece of cloth, after the manner of expreffed; and to this I generally add fome the Huffars. In fhort, by following the pure dicmotion or action of the body. It was not long tates of reafon, he at length departed fo much before I was obferved by fome of the family in one from the rest of his countrymen, and indeed from of these heroic fits, who thereupon received imhis whole fpecies, that his friends would have preffions very much to my difadvantage. This clapped him into Bedlam, and have begged his however I did not foon difcover, nor fhould have eftate; but the judge being informed that he did 'done probably, had it not been for the followno harm, contented himself with iffuing out a commiffion of lunacy against him, and putting his eftate into the hands of proper guardians.




ing accident. I had one day fhut myself up in my chamber, and was very deeply engaged in the fecond book of Milton's Paradife Loft, I 'walked to and fro with the book in my hand,

and to fpeak the truth, I fear I made no little noife; when presently coming to the following lines,

The fate of this philofopher puts me in mind of a remark in Monfieur Fontenelle's dialogues of the dead. "The ambitious and the covetous," fays he," are madmen to all intents and purpofes, "as much as thofe who are fhut up in dark roons; but they have the good luck to have "numbers on their fide; whereas the frenzy of "one who is given up for a lunatic, is a frenzy "bors d'œuvre;" that is, in other words, fomething which is fingular in its kind, and does not fall in with the madness of the multitude.


The fubject of this effay was occafioned by a letter which I received not long fince, and which, for want of room at prefent, I fhall infert in my next paper.


-Hoc tolerabile, fi non Et furere incipias.

Juv. Sat. 6. ver. 613. This might be borne with, if you did not rave.


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I in great tranfport threw open the door of my chamber, and found the greatest part of the fa⚫mily ftanding on the outfide in a very great confternation. I was in no lefs confufion, and begged pardon for having disturbed them; addreffing myfelf particularly to comfort one of the children, who received an unlucky fall in this action, while he was too intently furveying my meditations through the key-hole. To be fhort, after this adventure I easily obferved that great part of the family, especially the women and children, looked upon me with fome apprehenfions of fears and my friend himfelf, though he still continues his civilities to me, did not feem altogether eafy: I took notice, that the butler was never after this accident ordered to leave the bottle upon the table after dinner. Add to this, that I frequently ⚫ beard

HE letter mentioned in my laft paper is as



OU have fo lately decried that custom,
too much in use amongst most people

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On a fudden open fly,

"With impetuous recoil and jarring found,
"Th'infernal doors, and on their hinges grate
"Harsh thunder, &c."

ing our refolution to live hereafter as it be⚫ cometh men of peaceable difpofitions.

heard the fervants mention me by the name of the crazed gentleman, the gentleman a little touched, the mad Londoner, and the like. This made me think it high time for me to fhift my quarters, which I refolved to do the first handfome opportunity; and was confirmed in my refolution by a young lady in the neighbour


hood who frequently vifited us, and who one N° 578. MONDAY, AUGUST 9.
'day, after having heard all the fine things I was
able to fay, was pleafed with a fcornful file to
bid me go to fleep.

The first minute I got to my lodgings in town I fet pen to paper to defire your opinion, whether, · upon the evidence before you, I am mad or not, I can bring certificates that I behave myfelf foberly before company, and I hope there is at leaft fome merit in withdrawing to be mad. Look you, Sir, I am contented to be efteemed a little touched, as they phrafe it, but fhould be forry to be madder than my neighbours; therefore, pray let me be as much in my fenfes as you can afford. I know I could bring your felf as an inftance of a man who has confeffed


talking to himself; but yours is a particular cafe and cannot juftify me, who have not kept filence any part of my life. What if I fhould own myfelf in love? you know lovers are al⚫ ways allowed the comfort of foliliquy. 'I will fay no more upon this fubject, because I have long fince obferved, the ready way to be thought mad is to contend that you are not fo; as we generally conclude that man drunk, who takes pains to be thought fober. I will therefore leave myself to your determination; but am the more defirous to be thought in my fenfes, that it may be no difcredit to you when I affure you that I have always been very • much Your admirer.'


-Eque feris bumana in corpora tranfit,
Inque feras nofter- OVID. Met. 1. 15. v. 167.
-Th' unbodied fpirit flies-

And lodges where it lights in man or beast.

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"And your petitioners, as in duty bound, "fhall ever pray, &c."

• Sheweth,


HAT your petitioners have caufes depending in Westminster hall above five hundred years, and that we defpair of 'ever bringing them to an iffue: that your petiti· oners have not been involved in thefe law-fuits · out of any litigious temper of their own, but • by the inftigation of contentious perfons; that the young lawyers in our inns of court are continually fetting us together by the ears, and and think they do us no hurt, because they plead for us without a fee; that many of the gentlemen of the robe have no other clients in the world befides us two; that when they have nothing elfe to do, they make us plaintiffs and defendants, though they were never retained by any of us that they traduce, condemn or acquit as, without any man'ner of regard to our reputations and good names in the world. Your petitioners therefore, being thereunto encouraged by the favourable reception which you lately gave to our kinfman Blank, do, humbly pray that you will put an end to the controverfies which have been fo long depending between us your faid petitioners, and that our enmity may not edure from generation to generation; it be



HERE has been very great reason, on feveral accounts, for the learned world to endeavour at fettling what it was that might be faid to compofe perfonal identity.

Mr. Locke, after having premifed that the word perfon properly fignifies a thinking intelligent being that has reafon and reflexion, and can confider itself as itself, concludes, that it is confcioufnefs alone, and not an identity of fubftance, which makes this perfonal identity of famenefs. "Had I the fame confcioufnefs,' fays that author, "that I faw the ark and Noah's

flood, as that I faw an overflowing of the "Thames laft winter; or as that I now write; "I could no more doubt that I who write this 66 now, that faw the Thames overflow laft win"ter, and that viewed the flood at the general "deluge, was the fame felf, place that felf in "what fubftance you please, than that I who "write this am the fame myself now while I "write, whether I confift of all the fame fub"stance material or immaterial or no, that I

P. S. "If I must be mad, I defire the young «ftances." "lady may believe it is for her."

I was mightily pleafed with a story in fome measure applicable to this piece e philofophy, The humble Petition of John a Nokes and John which I read the other day in the Perfian Tales, a Stiles.

as they are lately very well tranflated by Mr. Philips; and with an abridgment whereof I fhall here prefent my readers.

I fhall only premife that these stories are writ after the eastern manner, but fomewhat more correct.


was yesterday; for as to this point of being "the fame felf, it matters not whether this pre"fent felf be made up of the fame or other sub

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as he was every day more and more fatisfied "of the abilities of this ftranger, cffered him "the firft pofts in his kingdom. The young "Dervis, after having thanked him with a very " fingular modefty, defired to be excufed, as

having made a vow never to accept of any employment, and preferrring a free and in"dependent ftate of life to all other conditions. "The king was infinitely charmed with fo great an example of moderation; and though "he could not get him to engage in a life of ❝ business, made him however his chief com"panion and first favourite.

"As they were one day hunting together, " and happened to be feparated from the reft of "the company, the Dervis entertained Fadlallah "with an account of his travels and adventures. "After having related to him feveral curiofities "which he had feen in the Indies,

It was in this place,' fays he, that I contracted an acquaintance with an old Brachman, who was skilled in the most hidden powers of nature : ⚫ he died within my arms, and with his parting breath communicated to me one of the most ' valuable fecrets, on condition I should never reveal it to any man.' "The king imme❝diately reflecting on his young favourite's "having refufed the late offers of greatness he

had made him, told him he prefumed it was "the power of making gold. 'No, Sir,' fays the Dervis, it is fomewhat more wonderful than that; it is the power of re-animating a ⚫ dead body, by flinging my own foul into it.'

"While he was yet fpeaking a doe came "bounding by them, and the king, who had "his bow ready, fhot her through the heart; telling the Dervis, that a fair opportunity now "offered for him to fhew his art. The young "man immediately left his own body breath"lefs on the ground, while at the fame inftant "that of the doe was re-animated: fhe came to "the king, fawned upon him, and after having "played feveral wanton tricks, fell again upon "the grafs; at the fame inftant the body of the "Dervis recovered its life. The king was in"finitely pleafed at fo uncommon an operation,

and conjured his friend by every thing that "was facred to communicate it to him. The

"fafety to the palace, where perching on a tree "which ftood near his queen's apartment, he

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filled the whole place with fo many melodious "and melancholy notes as drew her to the win"dow. He had the mortification to fee that "instead of being pitied, he only moved the "mirth of his princefs; and of a young female "flave who was with her. He continued how


ever to fenerade her every morning, until at "laft the queen, charmed with his harmony, "fent for the bird-catchers, and ordered them "to employ their utmost skill to put that little "creature in her poffeffion. The king, pleased "with an opportunity of being once more near "his beloved confort, eafily fuffered himself to "be taken; and when he was prefented to her, "though he fhewed a fearfulness to be touched "by any of the other ladies, flew of his own "accord, and hid himself in the queen's bofom. "Zemroude was highly pleased at the unexpect"ed fondness of her new favourite, and ordered "him to be kept in an open cage in her own "apartment. He had there an opportunity of "making his court to her every morning, by a "thoufand little actions, which his fhape al"lowed him. The queen paffed away whole " hours every day in hearing and playing with

him. Fadlallah could even have thought him"felf happy in this ftate of life, had he not fre"quently endured the inexpreffible torment of "feeing the Dervis enter the apartment and "carefs his queen even in his prefence.

"The ufurper, amidst his toying with his princefs, would often endeavour to ingratiate "himfelf with her nightingale; and while the "enraged Fadlallah pecked at him with his "bill, beat his wings, and fhewed all the marks "of an impotent rage, it only afforded his "rival and the queen new matter for their di

❝ verfion.

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Dervis at first made fome fcruple of violating "his promife to the dying Brachman; but told "him at laft that he found he could conceal" "nothing from fo excellent a prince; after

having obliged him therefore by an oath to fe"crecy, he taught him to repeat two cabaliftic "words, in pronouncing of which the whole "fecret confifted. The king impatient to try "the experiment, immediately repeated them

"Zemroude was likewife fond of a little lap "dog, which he kept in her apartment, and "which one night happened to die.

"The king immediately found himself in "clined to quit the fhape of the nightingale,

and enliven this new body. He did fo, and "the next morning Zemroude faw her favourite "bird lie dead in the cage. It is impoffible to "exprefs her grief on this occafion, and when "the called to mind all its little actions, which " even appeared to have somewhat in them like "reafon fhe was inconfolable for her lofs.


"Her women immediately fent for the Dervis to come and comfort her, who after having in "vain reprefented to her the weakness of being "grieved at fuch an accident, touched at last by "her repeated complaints; Well, Madam," fays he, I will exert the utmoft of my art to please you. Your nightingale shall again revive every morning and ferenade you as before." "The queen beheld him with a look which eafily, "fhewed fhe did not believe him, when laying "himself down on a fofa, he shot his foul into "the nightingale, and Zemroude was amazed "to fee her bird revive.

"The Dervis, now triumphing in his villainy, returned to Moufel, and filled the throne and "bed of the unhappy Fadlallah.

"The first thing he took care of, in order to "fecure himself in the poffeffion of his new ac"quired kingdom, was to iffue out a procla"mation, ordering his fubjects to destroy all "the deer in the realm. The king had perished" " among the reft, had he not avoided his pur"fuers by re-animating the body of a nigh-" "tingale which he faw lie dead at the foot of a “ tree. In this new shape he winged his way in


"The king, who was a fpectator of all that " paffed, lying under the shape of a lap dog, in "" one corner of the room, immediately recovered his own body, and running to the cage with "the utmoft indignation, twifted off the neck of the false nightingale, "Zemroude was more than ever amazed and « concerned at this fecond accident, until the



king intreating her to hear him, related to her his whole adventure.

"The body of the Dervis which was found "dead in the wood, and his edict for killing all "the deer, left her no room to doubt of the truth of it: but the story adds, that out of an "extreme delicacy, peculiar to the oriental

My manufcript gives the following account of thefe dogs, and was probably defigned as a comment upon this story.

ladies, he was fo highly afflicted at the in"nocent adultery in which he had for fome "time lived with the Dervis, that no arguments " even from Fadlallah himself could compofe herral inftinct and fagacity. It was thought she

Thefe dogs were given to Vulcan by his 'fifter Diana, the goddess of hunting and chaftity, having bred them out of fome of her hounds, in which he had obferved this natu

mind. She shortly after died with grief, beg"ging his pardon with her laft breath for what the most rigid jufticę could not have interpreted as a crime.


did it in fpite to Venus, who, upon her return home, always found her husband in a good or bad humour, according to the reception which fhe met with from his dogs. They lived in the temple feveral years, but were fuch fnappish curs that they frighted away most of the vo taries. The women of Sicily made a folemn deputation to the priest, by which they acquainted him, that they would not come up to the temple with their annual offerings unlefs he muzzled his mastiffs, and at laft compromised the matter with him, that the offering fhould always be brought by a chorus of young girls, who were none of them above feven years old. It was wonderful, fays the author, to fee how different the treatment was which the dogs gave to thefe little miffes, from that which they had fhewn to their mothers. It is faid that the prince of Syracufe, having married a young lady, and being naturally of a jealous temper, made fuch an interest with the priests of this temple that he procured



a whelp from them of this famous breed. The young puppy was very troublesome to the fair lady at firft, infomuch that the folicited her husband to fend him away; but the good man cut her fhort with the old Sicilian proverb, "Love me, love my dog." From which time he lived very peaceably with both of them. The ladies of Syracufe were very much annoyed with him, and feveral of very good re'putation refused to come to court until he was difcarded. There were indeed fome of them 'that defied his fagacity; but it was obferved,

though he did not actually bite them, he would 'growl at them moft confoundedly. To return 'to the dogs of the temple: after they had lived

here in great repute for feveral years, it fo hap'pened, that as one of the priests, who had been 'making a charitable vifit to a widow who lived on the promontory of Lilybeum, re. turned home pretty late in the evening, the dogs flew at him with fo much fury, that they' would have worried him if his brethren had not come in to his affiftance: upon which, fays my author, the dogs were all of them hanged, as having loft their original in'ftinct.'


"The king was fo afflicted with her death, "that he left his kingdom to one of his nearest "relations, and paffed the rest of his days in "folitude and retirement."

N° 579. WEDNESDAY, AUG. 11.

Odora canum vis. VIRG, n. 4. ver, 132.
Sagacious hounds.

N the reign of King Charles the first, the com

printing of the Bible is committed by patent, made a very remarkable Erratum or blunder, in one of the editions: for instead of "Thou shalt not commit adultery," they printed off feveral thousands of copies with "Thou shalt commit "adultery." Archbishop Laud, to punish this their negligence, laid a confiderable fine upon that company in the Star-Chamber.

By the practice of the world, which prevails in this degenerate age, I am afraid that very many young profligates, of both fexes, are poffeffed of this fpurious edition of the Bible, and observe the commandment according to that faulty reading.

at thofe who were polluted, and never ceased barking at them till they had driven them from the temple.

Adulterers, in the firft ages of the church, were excommunicated for ever, and unqualified all their lives for bearing a part in Chriftian affemblies, notwithstanding they might feek it with tears, and all the appearances of the most unfeigned repentance.

I might here mention fome ancient laws among the heathens which punished this crime with death; and others of the fame kind, which are now in force among feveral governments that have embraced the reformed religion. But becaufe a fubject of this nature may be too ferious for my ordinary readers, who are very apt to throw by my papers, when they are not enlivened with fomething that is diverting or uncommon, I thall here publish the contents of a little manufcript lately fallen into my hands, and which pretends to great antiquity, though by reafon of fome modern phrafes and other particulars in it, I can by no means allow it to be genuine, but rather the production of a modern fophift.

It is well known by the learned, that there was a temple upon mount Etna dedicated to Vulcan, which was guarded by dogs of fo exquifite a fiell, fay the hiftorians, that they could difcern whether the perfons who came thither were chafte or otherwife. They used to meet and fawn upon fuch as were chafte, careffing them as the friends of their mafter Vulcan, but few

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ing, that we had fome of this breed of dogs in I cannot conclude this paper without withGreat-Britain, which would certainly do justice, fhould fay honour, to the ladies of our country, and fhew the world the difference between pagan women and those who are instructed in founder principles of virtue and religion,



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