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which he compofes himfelf in his former pofture, until fuch time as fomething new fets him again at work.
It has been obferved, his blow was fo welltimed, that the moft judicious critic could never except against it. As foon as any shining thought is expreffed in the poet or any uncommon grace appears in the actor, he fmites the bench or wainscot. If the audience does not concur with him, he fmites a fecond time, and if the audience is not yet awaked, looks round him with great wrath, and repeats the blow a third time, which never fails to produce the clap. He fometimes lets the audience begin the clap of themfelves, and at the conclufion of their ap plaufe ratifies it with a fingle thwack..
He is of fo great ufe to the play-houfe, that it is faid a former director of it, upon his not being able to pay his attendance by reafon of fickness, kept one in pay to officiate for him until fuch time as he recovered; but the perfon fo employed, though he laid about him with incredible violence, did it in fuch wrong places, that the audience foon found out that it was not their old friend the trunk-maker.
It has been remarked, that he has not yet exerted himself with vigour this feafon. He fometimes plies at the opera; and upon Nicolini's first appearance, was faid to have demolished three benches in the fury of his applaufe. He has broken half a dozen oaken planks upon Dogget, and feldom goes away from a tragedy of Shakespear, without leaving the wainscot extremely shattered.
The players do not only connive at his obftre perous approbation, but very chearfully repair at their own coft whatever damages he makes. They had once a thought of erecting a kind of wooden anvil for his ufe, that thould be made of a very founding plank, in order to render his ftrokes more deep and mellow; but as this might not have been distinguished from the mufic of a kettle-drum, the project was laid aside.
In the mean while, I cannot but take notice of the great ufe it is to an audience, that a perfon fhould thus prefide over their heads like the director of a concert, in order to awaken their attention, and beat time to their applaufes; or, to raise my fimile, I have fometimes fancied the trunk-maker in the upper gallery to be like Virgil's ruler of the winds, feated upon the top of a mountain, who when he ftruck his fceptre upon the fide of it, roufed an hurricane, and fet the whole cavern in an uproar.
It is certain the trunk-maker has faved many a good play, and brought many a graceful actor into reputation, who would not otherwife have been taken notice of. It is very visible, as the audience is not a little abafhed, if they find themfelves betrayed into a clap, when their friend in the upper gallery does not come into it; fo the actors do not value themselves upon the clap, but regard it as a mere brutum fulmen, or empty noife, when it has not the found of the oaken plant in it. I know it has been given out by thofe who are enemies to the trunk-maker, that he has fometime been bribed to be in the interest of a bad poet, or a vicious player; but this is a furmife which has no foundation; his ftrokes are always juít, and his admonitions feasonable; he does not deal about his blows at random, but always hits the right nail upon the head. The inexpreffible force wherewith he lays them on,
fufficiently fhews the evidence and ftrength of his conviction. His zeal for a good author is indeed outrageous, and breaks down every fence and partition, every board and plank, that stands within the expreffion of his applaufe.
As I do not care for terminating my thoughts in barren fpeculations, or in reports of pure matter of fact, without drawing fomething from them for the advantage of my countrymen, I fhall take the liberty to make an humble propofal, that whenever the trunk-maker fhall depart this life, or whenever he shall have lost the spring of his arm by ficknefs, old age, infirmity, or the like, fome able-bodied critic fhould be advanced to this poft, and have a competent falary fettled on him for life, to be furnished with bamboos for operas, crabtree cudgels for comedies, and baken planks for tragedy, at the public expence. And to the end that this place fhould be always difpofed of according to merit, I would have none preferred to it, who has not given convincing proofs both of a found judgment and a strong arm, and who could not, upon occafion, either knock down an ox, or write a comment upon Horace's Art of Poetry. In fhort, I would have him a due composition of Hercules and Apollo, and fo rightly qualified for th s important office, that the trunk-maker may not be miffed by our pofterity. C
No 236. FRIDAY, NOVEMBER 30.
-Dare jura maritis.
• Mr. Spectator,
OU have not spoken in fo direct a manner upon the fubject of Marriage as that 'important cafe deferves. It would not be improper to obferve upon the peculiarity in the youth of Great-Britain, of railing and laugh'ing at that inftitution; and when they fall into it, from a profligate habit of mind, being infenfible of the fatisfaction in that way of life, and treating their wives with the most barbarous difrefpe&t.
Particular circumstances and caft of temper, muft teach a man the probability of mighty uneafineffes in that ftate, for unquestionably fome there are whofe very difpofitions are ftrangely averfe to conjugal friendship; but no one, I believe, is by his own natural com'plexion prompted to teaze and torment another for no reafon but being nearly allied to him and can there be any thing more base, or ferve to fink a man fo much below his own diftinguishing characteristic, I mean reason, than returning evil for good in fo open a manner, as that of treating an helplefs creature with unkindnefs, who has had fo good an opi nion of him as to believe what he faid relating to one of the greateft concerns of life, by delivering her happiness in this world to his care and protection? Muft not that man be aban'doned even to all manner of humanity, who can deceive a woman with appearances of af'fection and kindness, for no other end but to torment her with more eafe and authority? Is any thing more unlike a gentleman, than when his honour is engaged for the performing his promifes, becaufe nothing but that can oblige him to it, to become afterwards falfe
C to his word, and be alone the occafion of mifery " to one whofe happiness he but lately pretended < was dearer to him than his own? Ought fuch
a one to be trusted in his common affairs, or treated but as one whofe honefty confifted only in his incapacity of being otherwife?
There is one caufe of this ufage no lefs abfurd than common, which takes place among the more unthinking men; and that is the defire to appear to their friends free and at liberty, without thofe trammels they have so much ridiculed. To avoid this they fly into the other extreme, and grow tyrants that they may fecm mafters. Bec ufe an uncontroulable command of their own actions is a certain fign of intire dominion, they will not fo much as recede ⚫ from the government even in one muscle of their faces. A kind look they believe would be fawning, and a civil anfwer yielding' the fuperiority. To this must we attribute an aufterity they betray in every action: what but this can put a man out of humour in his wife's < company, though he is so distinguishingly plea'fant every where elfe? The bitterness of his replies, and the feverity of his frowns to the tendereft of wives, clearly demonftrate, that an ill-grounded fear of being thought too fubmiffive, is at the bottom of this, as I am willing to call it, affected morofenefs; but if it be fuch only, put on to convince his acquaintance of his intire dominion, let him take care of the confequence, which will be certain, and worfe than the prefent evil; his feeming indifference will by degrees grow into real contempt, and, if it doth not wholly alienate the affections of his wife for ever from him, make both him and her more miferable than if it 'really did fo.
However inconfiftent it may appcar, to be thought a well-bred perfon, has no fmall fhare in this clownish behaviour: a difcourfe there'fore relating to good-breeding towards a loving and a tender wife, would be of great use to this fort of gentlemen. Could you but once convince them, that to be civil at leaft is not beneath the character of a gentlemen, nor even tender affection towards one who would make it recipro'cal, betrays any foftnefs or effeminacy that the moft mafculine difpofition need be afhamed of; could you fatisfy them of the generofity of voluntary civility, and the greatnefs of foul that is confpicuous in benevolence without ⚫ immediate obligations; could you recommend T to people's practice the faying of the gentleman quoted in one of your fpeculations, "That "he thought it incumbent upon him to make "the inclinations of a woman of merit go along "with her duty:" could you, 1 fay, perfuade thefe men of the beauty and reasonableness of this fort of behaviour, have fo much charity for fome of them at leaft, to believe you would <convince them of a thing they are only afhamed to allow befides, you would recommend that state in its trueft, and confequently its moft agreeable colours; and the gentlemen who have for any time been fuch profeffed enemies to it, when occafion should serve, would return you their thanks for affifting their intereft in prevailing over their prejudices. Marriage in general would by this means be a more eafy ⚫ and comfortable condition; the husband would be no where fo well fatisfied as in his ewn parlour, nor the wife fo pleasant as in the
company of her husband: a defire of being agreeable in the lover would be incrcafed in 'the husband, and the miftrefs be more amiable
by becoming the wife. Befides all which, I
am apt to believe we should find the race of men grow wifer as their progenitors grew kinder, and the affection of their parents would be confpicuous in the wisdom of their children; in fhort, men would in general be much better 'humoured than they are, did not they fo frequently exercife the worft turns of their temper 'where they ought to exert the best.'
• Mr. Spectator,
AM a woman who left the admiration of this whole town, to throw myself, for love of wealth, into the arms of a fool. When I married him, I could have had any one of feveral men of fenfe who languished for me; but my cafe is juft. I believed my fuperior understanding would form him into a tracta'ble creature. But, alas, my spouse has cunning and fufpicion, the infeparable companions of little minds; and every attempt I make to divert, by putting on an agreeable air, a fud'den chearfulness, or kind behaviour, he looks
• Mr. Spectator,
St. Martin's, Nov. 25.
HIS is to complain of an evil practice which I think very well deferves a redrefs, tho' you have not yet taken any notice of it: if you mention it in your paper, it may perhaps have a very good effect. What I mean is the disturbance fome people give to others at church, by their repetition of the prayers after the minifter, and that not only in the " prayers, but alfo the abfolution and the commandments fare no better, which are in a par'ticular manner the priest's office: this I have known done in so audible a manner, that fometimes their voices have been as loud as his. As little as you would think it, this is fre· quently done by people feemingly devout. This irreligious inadvertency is a thing extremely offenfive; but I do not recommend it as a thing I give you liberty to ridicule, but hope ' it may be amended by the bare mention. Sir, your very humble fervant, 'T. S.'
upon as the first acts towards an infurrection against his undeferved dominion over me. Let every one who is still to choose, and hopes to govern a fool, remember
N° 237. SATURDAY: DECEMBER 1.
Seneca in Oedip. Truth is in a great measure concealed from the
is very reasonable to believe, that part of the I a future ftate, will arife from an enlarged contemplation of the divine wifdom in the government of the world, and a difcovery of the fecret and amazing steps of Providence, from the beginning to the end of time. Nothing feems to be an entertainment more adapted to the nature of man, if we confider that curiofity is one of the strongest and most lafting appetites implanted in us, and that admiration is one of our most pleafing paffions; and what a perpetual fucceflion of enjoy
ments will be afforded to both these, in a scene so❝ adds, "that it must be a pleasure to Jupiter large and various as fhall then be laid open to "himself to look down from heaven, and fec our view in the fociety of fuperior fpirits, who "Cato amidst the ruins of his country, prefervperhaps will join with us in fo delightful a prof- "ing his integrity." pect!
It is not impoffible, on the contrary, that part of the punishment of fuch as are excluded from blifs, may confift, not only in their being denied this privilege, but in having their appetites at the fame time vaftly increased, without any fatisfaction afforded to them. In thefe, the vain purfuit of knowledge fhall, perhaps, add to their infelicity, and bewilder them into labyrinths of error, darkness, distraction and uncertainty of every thing but their own evil ftate. Milton has thus reprefented the fallen angels reasoning together in a kind of refpite from their torments, and creating to themfelves a new difquiet amidst their very amufements; he could not properly have defcribed the fports of condemned fpirits, without that caft of horror and melancholy he has fo judiciously mingled with them.
"Others apart fat on a hill retired, "In thoughts more elevate, and reafon'd high "Of Providence, foreknowledge, will, and fate, "Fixt fate, free will, foreknowledge abfolute,
And found no end in wandering mazes loft.',
In our prefent condition, which is a middle ftate, our minds are, as it were, chequered with truth and falfhood; and as our faculties are narrow, and our views imperfect, it is impoffible but our curiofity must meet with many repulfes. The bufinefs of mankind in this life being rather to act than to know, their portion of knowledge is dealt to them acccordingly.
From hence it is, that the reafon of the inquifitive has fo long been exercifed with difficulties, in accounting for the promiscuous diftribution of good and evil to the virtuous and the wicked in this world. From hence come all thofe pathetic complaints of fo many tragical events, which happen to the wife and the good; and of fuch fur prifing profperity, which is often the reward of the guilty and the foolish; that reafon is fometimes puzzled, and at a lofs what to pronounce upon fo myfterious a dispensation.
Piato expreffes his abhorrence of fome fables of the poets, which feem to reflect on the gods as the authors of injuftice; and lays it down as a principle, that whatever is permitted to befal a just man, whether poverty, fickness, or any of thofe things which feem to be evils, fhall either in life or death conduce to his good. My reader will obferve how agreeable this maxim is to what we find delivered by a greater authority. Seneca has written a difcourfe purpofely on this fubject, in which he takes pains, after the doctrine of the Stoics, to fhew that adverfity is not in itself an evil; and mentions a noble faying of Demetrius, "That nothing would be more unhappy than a "man who had never known affliction." He compares profperity to the indulgence of a fond mother to a child, which often proves his ruin; but the affection of the divine being to that of a wife father who would have his fons exercised with-labour, difappointment, and pain, that they may gather ftrength and improve their fortitude. On this occafion the philofopher rifes into that celebrated fentiment, "That there is not on
earth a fpectacle more worthy the regard of "a Creator intent on his works than a brave
man fuperior to his fufferings;" to which he
This thought will appear yet more reafonable, if we confider human life as a state of probation, and adverfity as the poft of honour in it, affigned often to the beft and most select spirits.
But what I would chiefly infift on here, is, that we are not at prefent in a proper fituation to judge of the counfels by which providence acts, fince but little arrives at our knowledge, and even that little we difcern imperfectly; or according to the elegant figure in holy writ, "We fee but "in part, and as in a glafs darkly." It is to be confidered, that providence in its œconomy regards the whole fyftem of time, and things together, fo that we cannot difcover the beautiful connexion between incidents which lie widely feparated in time, and by lofing fo many links of the chain, our reasonings become broken and imperfect. Thus thofe parts of the moral world which have not an abfolute, may yet have a relative beauty, in refpect of fome other parts concealed from us, but open to his eye before whom "paft, "prefent, and to come," are fet together in one point of view: and thofe events, the permiffion of which feems now to accufe his goodness, may in the confummation of things both magnify his goodness, and exalt his wisdom. And this is enough to check our prefumption, fince it is in vain to apply our measures of regularity to matters of which we know neither the antecedents nor the confequents, the beginning nor the end,
I fhall relieve my readers from this abftracted thought, by relating here a Jewish tradition concerning Mofes, which feems to be a kind of parable, illuftrating what I have last mentioned. That great prophet, it is faid, was called up by a voice from heaven to the top of a mountain; where, in a conference with the Supreme Being, he was permitted to propofe to him fome queftions concerning his adminiftration of the univerfe. In the midft of this divine colloquy he was commanded to look down on the plain below. At the foot of the mountain there iffed out a clear fpring of water, at which a foldier alighted from his horfe to drink. He was no fooner gone than a little boy came to the fame place, and finding a purfe of gold which the foldier had dropped, took it up and went away with it. Immediately after this came an infirm old man, weary with age and travelling, and having quenched his thirst, fat down to reft himfelf by the fide of the fpring. The foldier miffing his purfe returns to fearch for it, and demands it of the old man, who affirms he had not seen it, and appeals to heaven in witness of his innocence. The foldier not believing his proteftations, kills him. Mofes fell on his face with horror and amazement, when the divine voice thus prevented his expoftulation; Be not furprifed, Mofes, nor afk why the judge of the whole earth has fuffered this thing to come to pafs: the child is the occafion that the blood of the old man is fpilt; but know, that the old man whom thou faweft, was the murderer of that child's father." с
whilft he receives the recompence of merit, the other whilft he fhews he knows how to difcern it; but above all, that man is happy in this art, who, like a fkilful painter, retains the features and complexion, but ftill foftens the picture into the most agreeable likeness.
There can hardly, I believe, be imagined a more defirable pleasure, than that of praise unmixed with any poffibility of flattery. Such was that which Germanicus enjoyed, when, the night before a battle, defirous of fome fincere mark of
all the difeafes of the mind, there is the esteem of his legions for he not one more epidemical or more perni- by Tacitus listening in a difguife to the difcourfe cious than the love of Aattery. For as where the of a foldier, and wrapt up in the fruition of his juices of the body are prepared to receive a maglory, whilft with an undefigned fincerity they lignant influence, there the difeafe rages with praised his noble and majeftic mien, his affability, moft violence; fo in this diftemper of the mind, his valour, conduct, and fuccefs in war. where there is ever a propenfity and inclination muft a man have his heart full blown with joy in to fuck in the poifon, it cannot be but that the fuch an article of glory as this? What a spur and whole order of reasonable action must be overencouragement ftill to proceed in thofe fteps turned, for, like mufic, it which had already brought him to fo pure a tafte of the greatest of mortal enjoyments?
It fometimes happens, that even enemies and envious perfons beftow the fincereft marks of efteem when they leaft defign it. Such afford a greater pleasure, as extorted by merit, and freed from all fufpicion of favour or flattery. Thus it is with Malvolie; he has wit, learning, and difcernment, but tempered with an allay of envy, felf-love, and detraction. Malvolio turns pale at the mirth and good-humour of the company, if it center not in his perfon; he grows jealous and difpleafed when he ceafes to be the only perfon admired, and locks upon the commendation paid to another as a detraction from his merit, and an attempt to leffen the fuperiority he affects; but by this very method, he beftows fuch praife as can never be fufpected of flattery. His uneafinefs and diftaftes are fo many fure and certain figns of another's title to that glory he defires, and has the mortification to find himself not possessed of,
No 238. MONDAY, DECEMBER 3.
Perfius, Sat. 4. ver 50.
-So foftens and difarms the mind, "That not one arrow can refiftance find."
Firft we flatter ourfelves, and then the flattery of others is fure of fuccefs. It awakens our felflove within, a party which is ever ready to revolt from our better judgment, and join the enemy without. Hence it is, that the profufion of favours we fo often fee poured upon the parafite, are reprefented to us, by our self-love, as justice done to the man, who fo agreeably reconciles us to ourfelves. When we are overcome by fuch foft infinuations and enfnaring compliances, we gladly recompenfe the artifices that are made ufe of to blind our reafon, and which triumph over the weakneffes of our temper and inclinations.
But were every man perfuaded from how mean and low a principle this paffion is derived, there can be no doubt but that the perfon who should attempt to gratify it, would then be as contemptible as he is now fuccefsful. It is the defire of fome quality we are not poffeffed of, or inclination to be fomething we are not, which are the caufes of our giving ourfelves up to that man, who bestows upon us the characters and qualities of others; which perhaps fuit us as ill, and were as little defigned for our wearing, as their clothes. Instead of going out of our own complexional nature into that of others, it were a better and more laudable induftry to improve our own, and instead of a miserable copy become a good original; for there is no temper, no difpofition fo rude and untractable, but may in its own peculiar caft and turn be brought to fome agreeable use in converfation, or in the affairs of life. A perfon of a rougher deportment, and lefs tied up to the ufual ceremonies of behaviour, will, like Manly in the play, please by the grace which nature gives to every action wherein the is complied with; the brifk and lively will not want their admirers, and even a more referved and melancholy temper may at fome times be." agreeable.
When there is not vanity enough awake in a man to undo him, the flatterer ftirs up that dormant weakness, and infpires him with merit enough to be a coxcomb. But if flattery be the moft fordid act that can be complied with, the art of praifing justly is as commendable; for it is laudable to praife well; as poets at one and the fame time give immortality, and receive it themfelves for a reward: both are pleafed, the one
A good name is fitly compared to a precious ointment, and when we are praised with skill and decency, it is indeed the most agreeable perfume; but if too ftrongly admitted into a brain of a less vigorous and happy texture, it will, like too strong an odour, overcome the fense, and prove pernicious to thofe nerves it was intended to refresh. A generous mind is of all others the most fenfible of praife and difpraife; and a noble spirit is as much invigorated with its due proportion of honour and applause, as it is depreffed by neglect and contempt: but it is only perfons far above the common level who are thus affected with either of thefe extremes; as in a thermometer, it is only the pureft and moft fublimated spirit that is either contracted or dilated by the benignity or inclemency of the feason.
HE tranflations which you have lately given us from the Greek, in fome of your laft papers, have been the occafion of my looking into fome of thofe authors; among whom I chanced on a collection of letters which pafs under the name of Ariftanctus. Of all the remains of antiquity, I believe there can be nothing produced of an air fo gallant and polite; each letter contains a little novel or adventure, which is told with all the beauties of language, and heightened with a luxuriance of wit. There are feveral of them tranflated, but with fuch Qq
wide deviations from the original, and in a ⚫ftile fo far differing from the author's, that the tranflator feems rather to have taken hints for the expreffing his own fenfe and thoughts, than to have endeavoured to render thofe of Ariftanetus. In the following tranflation, I have kept as near the meaning of the Greek as I could, and have only added a few words to make the fentences in English fit together a little better than they would otherwife have done. The ftory feems to be taken from that of Pigmalion and the ftatue in Ovid: fome of the thoughts are of the fame turn, and the ⚫ whole is written in a kind of poetical profe.
Philopinax to Chromation.
EVER was man more overcome with fo fantastical a paflion as mine. I have "painted a beautiful woman, and am defpairing, dying for the picture. My own fkill has "undone me; it is not the dart of Venus, but my own pencil has thus wounded me. Ah "me! with what anxiety am I neceffitated to adore my own idol! How miférable am I, "whilft every one must as much pity the pain86 ter as he praifes the picture, and own my " torment more than equal to my art! But why
do I thus complain? Have there not been "more unhappy and unnatural paffions than "mine? Yes, I have feen the reprefentations "of Phædra, Narciffus, and Pafiphae. Phædra was unhappy in her love; that of Pafi"phae was monftrous; and whilft the other caught at his beloved likeness, he deftroyed "the watery image, which ever eluded his em" braces. The fountain reprefented Narciffus "to himself, and the picture both that and him, thirsting after his adored image. But I am yet lefs unhappy, I enjoy her prefence continually, and if I touch her, I deftroy not the beauteous form, but the looks pleased, and a fweet fmile fits in the charming fpace which divides her lips. One would fwear that voice "and fpeech were iffuing out, and that one's ears felt the melodious found. How often have Ì, deceived by a lover's credulity, heark"ened if he had not fomething to whifper me? and when fruftrated of my hopes, how often * have I taken my revenge in kiffes from her cheeks and eyes, and foftly wooed her to my embrace, whilft the, as to me it feemed, only withheld her tongue the more to inflame me? But, madman that I am, fhall I be thus taken with the reprefentation only of a beauteous face, and flowing hair, and thus wafte myfelf, and melt to tears for a fhadow? Ah, fure it is fomething more, it is a reality! for fee her beauties thine out with new luftre, * and she seems to upbraid me with fuch unkind reproaches. Oh may I have a living miftrefs "of this form, that when I fhall compare the 6 werk of nature with that of art, I may be ftill es at a lofs which to choose, and be long perplexed with the pleasing uncertainty !”
N° 239. TUESDAY, DECEMBER 4. Bella, borrida bella! Virg. Æn. 6. ver. 86❤ DRYDEN Wars, horrid wars!
HAVE fometimes amufed with con
Ifidering the feveral methods of managing a
debate which have obtained in the world.
The first races of mankind ufed to difpute, as our ordinary people do now-a-days, in a kind of wild logic, uncultivated by rules of art.
Socrates introduced a catechetical method of arguing. He would afk his adversary question upon question, until he had convinced him out of his own mouth that his opinions were wrong, This way of debating drives an enemy up into a corner, feizes all the paffes through which he can make an escape, and forces him to furrender as difcretion.
Ariftotle changed this method of attack, and invented a great variety of little weapons, called fyllogifms. As in the Socratic way of dispute you agree to every thing which your opponent advances, in the Ariftotelic you are ftill denying and contradicting fome part or other of what he fays. Socrates conquers you by ftratagem, Aristotle by force: the one takes the town by fap, the other fword in hand.
The univerfities of Europe, for many years carried on their debates by fyllogifm, infomuch that we fee the knowledge of feveral centuries Jaid out into objections and anfwers, and all the good fenfe of the age cut and minced into almoft an infinitude of distinctions.
When our univerfities found that there was no end of wrangling this way, they invented a kind of argument, which is not reducible to any mood or figure of Ariftotle. It was called the Argumentum Bafilinum, ethers write it Bacilinum or Baculinum, which is pretty well expreffed in our English word, club-law. When they were not able to confute their antagonist, they knocked him down. It was their method in thefe polemical debates, first to discharge their fyllogifms, and afterwards to betake themfelves to their clubs, until fuch time as they had one way or other confounded their gain fayers. There is in Oxford a narrow defile, to make ufe of a military term, where the partifans ufed to encounter, for which reason it still retains the name of Logic-lane. I have heard an old gentleman, a physician, make his boafts, that when he was a young fellow, he marched feveral times at the head of a troop of Scotifts, and cudgelled a body of Smiglefians half the length of High-street, until they had difperfed themfelves for fhelter into their refpective garrifons.
This humour, I find, went very far in Erafmus's time. For that author tells us, that upon the revival of Greek letters, most of the univerfities of Europe were divided into Greeks and Trojans. The latter were thofe who bere a mortal enmity to the language of the Grecians, infomuch that if they met with any who underftood it, they did not fail to treat him as a foe. Erafmus himself had, it feems, the misfortune to fall into the hands of a party of Trojans, who laid on him with fo many blows and buffets that he never forgot their hoftilities to his dying day.
There is a way of managing an argument nor much unlike the former, which is made ufe of