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the department. The original grant of this privilege
Although the act of 1825 expressly declares that
If congress shall deem it inexpedient to limit, or further restrain, this right, an imposition of the same penalty upon him who uses the frank of another, as is imposed upon the person who abuses his privilege, would tend greatly to lessen the evil.
crease of mail matter, I am persuaded, but has arisen from a more systematic and vigilant execution of the law.
The gross expenditures of the department for the year, ending 30th June, 1842 so far as they have been audited and paid, are $4,627,716 62-exceeding the amount derived from postage, during the same year, $81,470 49.
It will be remembered that by the act approved the 9th September, 1841, there was appropriated, "to enable the post office department to meet its engagements and pay its debts," the sum of $482,657.
Of this sum, there has been expended, during the last fiscal year, the sum of $392,661 51, in satisfaction of demands against the department, prior to the month of April, 1841. The report of the chief clerk upon this subject, No. 1, will exhibit more in detail the application of this fund.
There remained unexpended of this appropriation on 30th June, 1842, $89,992 49, to meet such other demands as may be established to be due prior to 31st March, 1841.
This sum of $332,664 51 constitutes no part of the $4,546,246 13, given above as the revenue for the last year derivable from postage and fines. It does, however, constitute a part of the $4,627,716 62, the gross expenditure for that year, and, if deducted, will show the gross expenditure, for ordinary current service, to be $4,235,052 11.
The great question involved is, whether congress should make these contracts, and pay the consideration out of the resources of the government, or whether the department shall levy the amount by continuing the present rates of postage upon letters, and in all time to come, devote so large a portion thereof to the payment for rail road transportation, as to deny even the hope to the more distant and less favored portions of our country of any increased mail Assuming fifteen cents as the average rate of each facilities? The cost of rail road transportation, for the letter if charged with postage, four hundred and fifty last year, stands at $432 568. The whole length of This would present an apparent balance, or an ex-thousand dollars would be the amount received. mail road in the United States is 149,732 miles, costcess of revenue, over expenditure of $311,194 02. Thus it will be seen that nearly one-ninth of all ing $3,087,796. Of this length of mail road, only As it is highly probable that there are yet claims the matter which passes through the mail, passes 3,091 miles is rail road transportation, at a cost of unsatisfied, not having been presented for payment, free of postage. The loss to the department does $432,568. Only one forty-eighth part of the whole and claims which were due prior to that time, and not stop here. Two cents are paid to postmasters number of miles costing one-seventh part of the gross which if presented, would have been audited and on each of these letters, constituting an annual sum. paid within the year, and which have been paid since charge upon the revenue of 60,000 dollars. An evil I repeat the inquiry made on a former occasion. Is 30th June, 1842, and consequently will be charged of this magnitude, I trust, will not fail to arrest the it just that the whole burden of the public corresponin the expenditures for the current year, it is not in- attention of congress, who alone can apply the pro-dence, now nearly equal to half a million of dollars tended to convey the idea that this $311,194 02 is a per corrective. It is wrong to burden the business annually, should be sustained by a tax upon the busisurplus on hand, but it is a fact from which I am au- and friendly correspondence of the community with ness and friendly correspondence of the community? thorised to state that the income of the department this heavy charge. If the government exacts from the citizen no more has been equal to its current expenditures during the The public voice has called for a reduction of the than the cost and expense of transporting his letters, year ending in June, 1842; and it induces me to hope rates of postage upon letters; and whilst I have felt he has no right to complain, but when an additional that. unless the burdens of the service shall be too its force, and am constrained to acknowledge its jus- sum is wanted to defray the expenses of transporting greatly augmented by the additional rates created by tice, I have heretofore been deterred from making any the correspondence of the government and its officers, the act of the last session of congress, the department specific recommendation upon this subject; lest, by that sum, like the tax for every other public service, will, in future, be enabled to sustain itself. I can- a sudden reduction, the only source of income might should be drawn from the common resources of the not anticipate, however, any great extension of the fail to meet the demands of the service. With a pro- country. service, beyond its present limits and amount, unless per regulation of the franking privilege, and a fur- It is proposed that, in lieu of an annual drain from congress shall, in some mode, relieve the department ther protection against the violation of the laws of the treasury to pay the postage upon the public corfrom the heavy annual demands made upon its in- the department, I have no doubt a considerable re- respondence, the United States now secure and pay come by rail road transportation, and protect it by duction in postage might be safely made, and the be- for the perpetual right to transport the mails over appropriate legislation, against the inroads upon it by nefits and advantages of the department extended to rail roads. Can this right be now secured upon fair private expresses and rival mail establishments. many portions of the country which are now, in a and reasonable terms? is a question worthy to be It affords me great satisfaction to report to your great measure, destitute of proper mail accommoda- tested by fair experiment. I am of opinion it can excellency, that every legal demand by the contractions. More especially could this be done, if congress, be secured upon most, if not all of the important tors, properly vouched, upon the department, for ser- by some permanent arrangement with the rail road roads, upon reasonable terms, and with ample guavices rendered since I have had the honor of superin- companies, would relieve the department from the ranties. immense, tending its operations, has been promptly paid. and constantly increasing amount annualJustice to contractors requires that, as soon as they ly paid those companies for transporting the public have performed the service, they should be paid. To mail. enable the department to do this, punctuality on the part of postmasters in the payment of the balance due from them at the end of each quarter, is all important. In every instance where there has been a failure on the part of such postmasters to meet the drafts of the general post office, I have felt it a duty not to be omitted to relieve such from the burden of official
I ventured to recommend, in my former report to you, that congress should then legislate upon this subject. Nothing has occurred since to cause me to doubt the correctness of the opinions then expressed. On the contrary, subsequent developements have strengthened the views then obtruded upon your consideration.
duty. The knowledge of the existence of this rule has banished defalcation from the department.
It is a fact worthy of notice, that although the aggregate amount received from postage during the past year has been greater by the sum stated, the receipts at the large offices for 1842, have been less than in 1841. The aggregate increase has been at the medium and smaller offices.
The whole number of free letters sent through the post office annually, so far as the returns of postmasters exhibit, is about three millions.
The plan which I proposed was that congress should a thorise the department to purchase this right; enter into the stipulation of a contract with the companies and report those contracts, as made, from time to time, to congress, to be binding only when ratified by congress. Nothing dangerous can arise from thus treating with the companies. No enlargement of executive power is asked. On the contrary, it is proposed to subject executive power directly to the controlling influence of congress. As the law now stands the department has the power to contract with these companies for four years, with a nominal limitation as to the amount to be paid them per mile. Surely no danger can arise to public liberty or legislative authority, by authorising the department to make a provisional permanent contract, subject to the approval of both houses of congress.
It is no part of the business of this department to speak of the effects which such contracts with the rail road companies would produce upon public credit, both at home and abroad. The effects, whatever they may be for good, are but incidental to the great object to be attained in reference to the mail service of the United States.
Entertaining these opinions upon this subject, I pray you to allow me most respectfully to press them upon your consideration.
This is accounted for by the fact that the means of intercommunication between the great commercial points have been such as to invite constant and increasing infractions and violations of the laws of congress regulating the general post office.
Without the right in the department to control the Public opinion seemed so strong in favor of a rearrival and departure of the mails, regularity and duction of postage upon letters, that it could be redespatch cannot be expected. This is a right which garded in no other light than a demand upon those the rail road companies. in their periodical con- having the power over this subject, I have felt its intracts, will not yield willingly; and, when they do fluence, but have been unwilling to act unadvisedly yield it, make it a ground to increase their demands in any recommendation I might make upon the subupon the department for transporting the mail.ject. It will be remembered that England recently For the service of rail road transportation there reduced her rates of postage. The effect upon the never can be competition. Why then subject the revenue, and upon the amount of mail matter, I was department to the useless ceremony of advertising anxious to know. For this, and other objects con periodically for bids to carry the mail on rail roads, nected with the operations of this department, I requiring it to take the lowest bid, when there will availed myself of the services of General Green, in be but one bid for the same route? Each letting has November last, who was about to visit England and heretofore been, and will hereafter be, but an invi- France upon private business, and instructed him to make certain investigations and inquiries. The result of his investigations may be seen by a reference It is in vain to disguise the fact that the United to his report to ine, a copy of which accompanies States are compelled to employ these roads as car- this. riers of the mail. Justice and policy alike require The dissimilarity in the government of the two of the government to send the mail by the most ex-countries, as well as the difference in the extent of peditious means of conveyance, and it cannot em- territory, induce me to doubt whether the same sysploy any of its own creation equal to the rail roads. tem of mail service and rates of postage could be As a government, it cannot, by legislation, control safely adopted in the United States. those companies which have their corporate exis- One fact, however, is clearly developed by the re Upon most of the rail roads in the United States, tence by state enactments. The United States must port of Gen. Green, that, since the reduction of pos over which the mail is transported at an immense therefore purchase the right, and the question pre-tage in England, the number of letters mailed ha! expense, there are to be found individuals engaged sented is, whether it is best to purchase this right greatly increased. I forbear to trouble you with any in the transportation of mal matter, in violation every four years, or for the period of the charter of particular suggestions upon this subject, because i of the laws of the land-laws which prohibit the the road. has been a duty devolved upon me by a resolution o offence, but do not punish it by adequate sanctions. It is more a question of ability at this time, on the the senate, to make to that body a specific repor A modification of the laws regulating the franking part of the government, than policy, to my humble upon an alteration of the rates of postage, which privilege is essential to the continued prosperity of opinion. purpose to do at as early a day as practicable.
I took occasion to invite your attention to this sub-tation to the companies to increase the prices previject in my report of last year, under the hope that some legislation, in aid of the present laws, would take place, to enable the department more effectually to protect itself.
It is made the exclusive duty of the general government to establish post offices and post roads. The state governments have no right to interfere with the subject; neither has any individual, or company of individuals such right.
to rescind the expunging resolution of January 16,
The senate then adjourned till Monday next.
The President announced the committees as follows:
It will be seen by reference to a part of the report of Mr. Green, that the French government is auxious to make a treaty with the United States for an interchange of mail service by the agency of packet and steamships of the two countries.
You will remember, this subject was brought to your attention by the minister of France during the Last session of congress, it was submitted by you to congress, as one worthy of their consideration, and requiring specific legislation, if, in the opinion of that body, such an arrangement would prove advantageous to the United States. The committee on foreign relations made a report favorable to the measure, and the house of representatives adopted the following resolution:
"That the President of the United States be requested to cause to be prepared and reported to this house, by the secretaries of state and of the navy, at the commencement of the next session of congress, a plan for the establishment, in concert with the government of France, of a line of weekly steamers between the ports of Havre and New York, together with estimates of the expense which may be required to carry said plan into effect."
That portion of Mr. Green's report, and the accompanying documents are submitted under the belief that it may be serviceable to place before con-liams, Barrow, and Graham. gress the outlines of the plan contemplated by the French government.
Any estimates of the income from postage during the present year, must, of course, be altogether conjectural, founded upon the amounts received for the year, ending in June, 1842.
The amount received, the quarter ending 30th September last, is less than the amount of the corresponding quarter of 1841; and I therefore conclude the income of the department for the current year will fall considerably short of that for the year end ing 30th June. It is, however, my intention to put these routes in operation by the time specified in the And as there is no discretion vested in the department by the act, if I find its means will not be otherwise equal to the additional expense, it will become my unpleasant duty to curtail the expense upon routes already in existence equal to the costs of the new ones peremptorily ordered by congress.
There are other matters more of detail, requiring, in my judgment, the legislation of congress, which I forbear to obtrude upon your attention, but will seek the opportunity to submit to the committees to whom the affairs of the department may be referred.
On Finance-Messrs. Evans, Graham, Woodbury,
I have the honour to be, with great respect, your excellency's obedient servant.
C. A. WICKLIFFE.
On Commerce-Messrs. Huntington; Woodbridge,
On Manufactures-Messrs. Simmons, Archer,
In the month of August last, I caused to be estab-
On Post Office and Post Roads-Messrs. Merrick,
On Roads and Canals-Messrs. Porter, White,
On Pensions-Messrs. Bates, Phelps, Allen, Bagby,
On the District of Columbia-Messrs. Miller, Ba-
On Patents and the Patent Office-Messrs. Kerr,
On Retrenchment-Messrs. Morehead, Graham,
The amount of expenditure for the current fiscal
On Engrossed Bills-Messrs. Conrad, Bagby, and
On the Library of Congress-Messrs Woodbridge,
On Enrolled Bills-Messrs. Sprague and Williams.
Mr. Benton gave notice of a substitute which he should offer for Mr. Bayard's resolution for rescinding the expunging resolution when it should be taken
On Military Affairs-Messrs. Crittenden, Merrick,
Mr. Benton's resolution calling for information in Mil-reference to the African squadron was taken up and adopted.
The bill for the repeal of the bankrupt law, offered by Mr. Benton was taken up. Mr. Berrien moved its reference to the judiciary committee and his motion was carried by yeas 17, nays 13, and the senate adjourned.
On Militia-Messrs. Barrow, Fulton, Smith, of In-
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES.
On Private Land Claims-Messrs. Henderson, Linn,
On Indian Affairs-Messrs. White, Morehead, Se-
On Claims-Messrs. Graham, Wright, Woodbury,
formation from the president, of various matters as
The senate adjourned.
Mr. Wright presented a memorial from the chamber of commerce of New York praying the establishment of the warehousing system.
Mr. Bayard submitted a resolution to authorise the secretary of the senate to employ a corps of five reporters or less, to report the proceedings of the sennte.
DECEMBER 14. The president presented a letter from the president of the United States, covering a communication from the secretary of the navy, accompanied by a letter from commodore Morgan, showing that the information transmitted to the department in relation to the settlement of our differences with the emperor of Morocco, was premature.
TWENTY SEVENTH CONGRESS OF THE
Resolved, That the secretary of state communicate
Mr. Tallmadge submitted a resolution in respect to information on the operation of the bankrupt law. Mr. Bayard introduced a resolution, in pursuance to his notice before adjournment at the last session,
of the judges as to any amendments or modifications
Mr. Graham presented a bill for the relief of the claimants to indemnities recovered from the British government for loss of slaves from on board the brigs Comet and Encomium, at Nassau, Bahamas.
Mr. Linn presented a bill to indemnify major gen. Andrew Jackson for damages sustained in the discharge of his official duty. On motion of Mr. L. it was made the order of the day for this day week.
Mr. Tallmadge's resolution respecting the bankrupt law was modified to read as follows:
The resolution offered by Mr. Adams for repeal of the 21st rule was taken up, and the question being "shall the main question be now taken? Mr. Jones, of Virginia, moved to lay the whole subject on the table; decided yeas 92, nays 95, in the negative.The question then recurred, shall the main question be now taken, and was decided, yeas 95, nays 100, in the negative.
Mr. W. C. Johnson offered a resolution to rescind the one hour rule. He did not think that space of time would be sufficient for him to present his views in relation to the assumption of state debts. Mr. McKennan moved to lay the resolution on the table and by yeas 116, nays 70, his motion was carried. The house adjourned till Monday next. MONDAY, DEC. 12. The following members, in addition to those heretofore noticed, appeared this day and took their seats, viz:
Seth M. Gates and John Young, of New York; Isaac D. Jones and Augustus R. Sollers, of Maryland; George B. Cary, of Virginia; Thos. D. Sumter and John Campbell, of South Carolina; Edward J. Black, of Georgia; Landaff W. Andrews and T. F. Marshall, of Kentucky; Thomas D. Arnold, Milton Brown, W. B. Campbell, Robert L. Caruthers, Meredith P. Gentry, and Christopher H. Williams, of Tennessee, Wm. Doan, of Ohio; James H. Cravens, Andrew Kennedy, Henry S. Lane, and David Wallace, of Indiana; Jacob Thompson, of Miss. The speaker announced the following committees: Elections-Messrs. Halstead, Blair, Barton, Borden, Cravens, Gamble, Turney, Houston, and Rey
District of Columbia-Messrs. Underwood, Summers, Alexander Randall, Powell, Rich. W. Thomp son, John Campbell, Hunter, McKeon, and Dawson.
Judiciary-Messrs. Barnard, Trumbull, Pearce,
Revolutionary claims-Messrs. Hall, Patrick G.
Public expenditures-Messrs. Linn, Hudson, Mor-
Private land claims-Messrs. Moore, John Young,
Manufactures-Messrs. Saltonstall, Tillinghast,
Agriculture-Messrs. Deberry, Ridgaway, Simon- he would promise not to dismiss any member of his vote, had already agreed to terminate the session by ton, Gustine, Doig, Shaw, John Edwards, Patridge, then cabinet. This Mr. B. denounced as a vile ca- adjournment at two o'clock on that day; that is to and Hastings. lumny on the majority of the members of the house. say, within three quarters of an hour from the time Indian affairs-Messrs. James Cooper, Chittenden, After some discussion Mr. B. reduced his proposi- the bill was placed in my hands. It was a bill conButler, Rencher, Joseph L. White, Watterson, Wel-tion to writing in the shape of a resolution, demand- taining twenty-seven sections, and, I need not say, of ler, John C. Edwards, and Gwin. ing the appointment of a committee to enquire into an important nature. the truth of the allegation. Mr. Wise contended that no question of privilege was involved.
Military affairs-Messrs. Stanly, Pendleton, Goggin, Wm. B. Campbell, Stokely, Wm. O. Butler, Sollers, Miller, and John Thompson Mason.
Militia-Messrs. Keim, Coles, Ward, Boyd, Mark A. Cooper, Reding, Alfred Marshall, Sweney, and Snyder.
On its presentment to me, its reading was immediately commenced, but was interrupted by so many communications from the senate, and so many other causes operating at the last hour of the session, that it was impossible to read the bill understandingly, and with proper deliberation, before the hour fixed for the adjournment of the two houses; and this, I presume, is a sufficient reason for neither signing the bill nor returning it with my objections.
Naval affairs-Messrs. Wise, Calhoun, John C. Clark, Burnell, Fessenden, Rhett, Mallory, Clifford,
The 17th joint rule of the two houses of congress declares that "no bill or resolution that shall have shall be presented to the president of the United passed the house of representatives and the senate States for his approbation on the last day of the ses
Foreign affairs-Messrs. Adams, Cushing, Everett, Granger, Shepperd, Alexander H. H. Stuart, Caruthers, Meriwether, and Holmes.
Territories-Messrs. Pope, Christopher H. Williams, Gates, Isaac D. Jones, Green W. Caldwell, Hays, Dean, Charles A. Floyd, and Black.
Revolutionary pensions-Messrs. Taliaferro, Rodney, Staley N. Clarke, Mathiot, Landaff W. Andrews, Babcock, Mathews, Fornance, and William
Invalid pensions-Messrs. Morris, Ayerigg, Baker, Gordon, Stratton, Read, Doan, Sanford, and Augustus Young.
Roads and canals-Messrs. McKennan, Lane, John
Revisal and unfinished business-Messrs. Eastman, Beeson, Charles A. Floyd, Jack, and Mattocks. Accounts-Messrs. Marchand, Yorke, Cary, Staley N. Clarke, and Joseph Williams.
Mileage-Messrs. Thomas W. Williams, John C. Edwards, Westbrook, Egbert, and Black.
The six standing committees on expenditures, which here follow, were heretofore appointed, and, by the rules of the house, remain through the congress, viz:
Expenditures in the state department-Messrs. Van
Buren, Hudson, Oliver, Brockway, and one vacancy.
D. Jones, and James Irvin.
Expenditures in the war department-Messrs. McKay, Newhard, Gamble, Reynolds, and Birdseye. Expenditures in the navy department-Messrs. York, Simonton, Borden, Alexander, H. H. Stuart, and
Expenditures in the post office department-Messrs. Lowell, Morgan, Washington, Boyd, and Lane. Expenditures on the public buildings-Messrs. Cave Johnson, Gates, Bidlack, Stokely, and Houck.
Committee on the library of congress on the part of the
Mr. Tiffany, Episcopalian, was nominated by Mr.
The motion of Mr. Adams to rescind the 21st rule was taken up. Mr. W. C. Johnson moved to lay the whole subject on the table. Decided in the affirmative; ayes 106, noes 102.
Mr. Fessenden moved to lay the whole matter on the table. Negatived, yeas 86, nays 99.
The question was then, "will the house receive
Mr. Underwood said he had voted against the re-
This rule was evidently designed to give to the president a reasonable opportunity of perusing important acts of congress, and giving them some degree of consideration, before signing or returning the same.
It is true that the two houses have been in the habit Mr. Underwood moved a suspension of the rules to sion, in relation to particular bills; and it appears by of suspending this rule, towards the close of the sesenable Mr. Everett to introduce a bill for the repeal the printed journal, that, by concurrent votes of the of the bankrupt law. The motion prevailed and the two houses, passed on the last day of the session, the bill was introduced, read twice, and made the spe-rule was agreed to be suspended so far as the same cial order for Tuesday next.
should relate to all such bills as should have been
[It is in the following terms, and the action of both branches of congress indicates the probability that the bankrupt law will be repealed:]
passed by the two houses at one o'clock on that day. it is exceedingly to be regretted that a necessity should ever exist for such suspension, in the case of bills of great importance, and therefore demanding
A bill to repeal the bankrupt act. Be it enacted, &c., That an act entitled "An act to establish a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout the United As the bill has failed under the provisions of the States," approved on the 19th August, 1841, be repealed: Provided, That this act shall not affect any constitution to become a law, I abstain from expresscase or proceeding in bankruptcy commenced before ing any opinions upon its several provisions, keeping the 5th of December, 1842, or any pains, penalties, myself wholly uncommitted as to my ultimate action or forfeitures incurred under said act. on any similar measure, should the house think proNumerous communications from the departments, per to originate it de novo, except so far as my opinion in answer to resolutions of the last session, were pre-of the unqualified power of each house to decide for sented and referred, and the house then adjourned. its own members, has been expressed by me in a paitself upon the election returns and qualifications of
per lodged in the department of state at the time of signing an act entitled "an act for the apportionment of representatives among the several states according to the sixth census, approved June the twenty-second, eighteen hundred and forty-two," a copy of which is in possession of the house. JOHN TYLER. The message having been read
Mr. Fillmore rose and said that, as he presumed the message did not require commitment, he would move that it be laid on the table and printed. Which motion was agreed to.
WEDNESDAY, DEC. 14. The speaker announced the following members as composing the committee on enrolled bills: Mr. James Irvin, of Ohio, Mr. Burke, of New Hampshire; M. Goode, of Ohio.
Mr. Fillmore, on leave given, reported from the committee on ways and means, a bill of the follow ing title: "A bill making appropriations for the civil and diplomatic expenses of the government for the half calendar year, ending the 30th day of June, 1843."-Committed to the committee of the whole on the state of the union, and ordered to be printed. On motion of Mr. Briggs, the house proceeded to the election of chaplain.
TUESDAY, DEC. 13. Mr. Betts rose to a privileged question. He said he held in his hand a copy of the Albany Argus, of October 25th, which contained a letter signed by the hon. J. C. Spencer, a distinguished member of another branch of the government, viz. the secretary of war. This letter was, he believed, furnished mainly as a general defence of the administration, but particularly as a justification of the somersets he, the secretary, had recently turned, and which had gained him an envious distinction among the harlequins of the political stage. Mr. B. referred to the paragraphs of the letter to which he desired to call the attention of the house. It was in substance an allegation that after the veto of the first bank bill at the extra session, the whig majority of the house proposed to the president that they would consent to postpone the consideration of the second bank bill till the next session, provided
On the suggestion of Mr. Fillmore, the speaker laid before the house the following message from the president of the United States:
Mr. Briggs moved that the house proceed to the consideration of the resolution heretofore submitted by him to amend the joint rule of the two houses by striking out the word "spirituous" and insert the word "intoxicating."
The rule as it now stands is in the following words: "19. No spirituous liquors shall be offered for sale, or exhibited within the capitol, or on the public grounds adjacent thereto.
Mr. Weller objected.
The house proceeded to vote viva voce, and on the second ballot, Rev. Mr. Tiffany having received 119 Mr. Briggs moved that the rules of the house be votes, being a majority of the whole number (198) suspended for the purpose of considering the said repolled, was declared to have been duly elected chap-solution, and the yeas and nays being taken, were yeas lain to this house. 125, nays 52.
So two thirds voting in the affirmative, the rules were suspended. And the resolution of Mr. Briggs, being now before the house
Mr. Fillmore submitted a resolution referring the various snbjects of the President's message to apWASHINGTON, December 14, 1842. propriate committees. Mr. Cushing made an inef- To the house of representatives: fectual effort (100 yeas to 105 nays,) to have so much Two bills were presented to me at the last session thereof as related to the exchequer, to be referred of congress, which originated in the house of repreto the committee of the whole. Mr. Fillmore's reso-sentatives, neither of which was signed by me, and lution was then adopted, and the house adjourned. both having been presented within ten days of the close of the session, neither has become a law.
The first of these was a bill entitled An act to re
peal the proviso of the sixth section of the act enti-
Resolved, That the President of the United States be requested to communicate to this house, as soon as conveniently may be if not incompatible with the public interest, the communications to him from our ministers at Berlin and Vienna, subsequent to the last communication sent to this house, on the subject of the trade and commerce between their respective countries and the United States.
This bill was presented to me on Tuesday, the 30th August, at twenty-four minutes after four o'clock in the afternoon. For my opinions relative to the proVarious private petitions were presented. visions contained in this bill, it is only necessary that On motion of Mr. Cushing, submitted on leave, a I should refer to previous communications made by resolution of Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland, providing me to the house of representatives. for the appointment of a select committee on the subThe other bill was entitled "An act regulating the ject of international copyright, was so modified as to taking of testimony in cases of contested elections, extend the jurisdiction of the committee to an inquiand for other purposes." This bill was presented to ry into the propriety of amendments generally to me at a quarter past one o'clock on Wednesday, the the existing law of copyright. 31st day of August. The two houses, by concurrent | The house adjourned.
Mr. Ayerigg moved to amend it by adding thereto the words and that the restaurateurs be forthwith removed from the capitol." The amendment was assented to, and the resolution as amended, after some consideration was adopted.
Mr. Triplett offered a resolution which was adopted in the following form:
Mr. Watson was a native of Massachusetts, and is widely
ATMOSPHERIC RAILWAYS. Sano nary engines at a d tance of about three miles apart, there is reason to behieve, by means of a line of pipe placed upon the frame work which supports the iron rails, may be made by atmospheric pressure to communicate adequate power to propel cars, so as to substitute the present st am locomotives. Clogg and Samunda, the inventors, have had a model of such a construction in operation, publicly exhi bited at Wormwood Shrubs, West London rail way, for eighteen months past, and so satisfactory has been the result that it is beginning to attract serious attention. An able article written by Mr. Pim, treasurer of the Dublin and Kingston railway, addressed to the board of trade, was on motion of the earl of Ripon, referred to lieutenant colonel Smith, of the royal engineers, and Professor Barlow, who proceeded to examine and report thereon.They declare that they consider "the principle of atmos pheric propulsion as established: the economy of working increases with the length and diameter of the tube."The expense of construction will be httle less-but stationary engines much greater than the present methodthe expense of working will be less than with locomotives! where many trains are to be moved, but more, if but few trains. For safety they will be preferable.
Any desirable speed seems attainable by this means. According to our notion, this method may be applied with great advantage instead of horses, for passing cars through cities, where locomotives are not admitted.
A main tube of eighteen inches internal diameter will receive a piston of two hundred and forty-four super ficial inches area. It is proposed to produce an atmospheric pressure equal to eight pound per square inch 2,032 pounds tractive force--capable of propelling a train weighing forty-five tons at a rate of thirty miles an hour, up an acclivity of one in one hundred, or fifty-three feet per mile.
Suppose a common pencil case to be the tube-the apparatus which slides up and down to move the pene represents the operation by which the cars are propelled;
valves of course are used.
BANKRUPTS. The number of bankrupts in Illinois as given in the Law Reporter of December, is 1,077.
A CONVENTION of merchants, ship owners, ship builders, and others, in New England, interested in American mercantile navigation, will be held in Boston on the 27th of December, to take into consideration the prospects of mercantile navigation, with especial reference to the commercial trea y between this and foreign governments. All persons in Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut, interested in American mercantile navigation, are invited to attend.
GENERAL CASS, is warmly greeted by his countrymen. A large number of the citizens of N. York, waited upon him on the 14th inst. at the governor's room, politely ten. dered to him for the occasion. On entering the
It appears that the indictments against Marshall and Webb, have been ignored by the grand juries of boh Delaware county, Pa, and Newcastle co. Del., neither jury being able to decide that the duel was fought in "said" county-it having been fought across the line.
vitation to meet his fellow citizens of Boston, at Fanueil hall was tendered, but courteously declined as he had made arrangements precluding delay.
HENRY CLAY is on his way to visit some of his personal friends in Louisiana. Every demonstration of respect is accorded to him on his route. At Natchez, for instance, he was received and welcomed by the whole community without respect to party.
The Boston municipal election came off on the 12th inst. The vote for mayor stood Brimmer, (whig) 5,081; Sumner, (V. B.) 2,235; scattering 732. Thirty-two whigs and nine Van Buren elected to the common council.
U. S. SENATOR. Dr. Lynn has been re-elected with out opposition, senator of the U. States by the legislature of Missouri, for six years from the 4th March next. He received 119 out of 129 votes.
The legislature of North Carolina, at the last dates
ELECTIONS. Writs of election have been issued by the
STOCKS. On the 10th instant $480,000 Massachusetts state fives sold at auction at from 813 to 87.
Bedford Brown, (V. B) R. M. Saunders, (Calhoun,) 36 70 W. A. Graham, (whig) EXPRESSES. The progressive velocity acquired in transportation in this country, is annually tested by timeing the transmission of the president's message. The last message was 1b. 2n. in passing from the capitol to Baltimore; 2h. 27mm to Havre de Grace; 3h. 50. to Wilmington; 4h. 57m. to Philadelphia; 7h. 57m. to N. Brunswick, 8h. 57m. to Jersey City, and 9h. 12m. to the N. York post office. It reached Boston on Thursday night. New York state sevens 103; city fives, 105; state Going westward, it passed on the rail road to Cun-sixes 961; Kentucky bonds 75; Ohio sixes 75; Illinois berland, 210 miles from Washington, in 6h. 27m. or, sixes 19, Indiana bonds 20; United States bank of Pennfrom the Relay House to Harper's Ferry in 2h 47m. and sylvania 1. thence to Cumberland in 3h. 3n., including 24 minutes at the anal stopping places,-reducing the running time to 5h. 26m. being an average of about one minute and 53 seconds per mile. From Cumberland it went on to Wheeling by an express from Stockton's mail line, CONFLAGRATION IN ARKANSAS. On the 14th ult. there reaching Wheeling in 23h. 15m. from Washington. was a great fire of rags in Little Rock, Arkansas. The From Wheeling it reached Cincinnati in 29 hours. amount destroyed was as follows: FLOUR, in consequence of the close of the canals, Redeemed bills, Columbia branch real estate bank had advanced in the city of N. York, caught as it was of Arkansas, $133 835 supposed without an adequate supply to $4 75. In PhiHelena, 40 150 ladelphia it got up to $4 50,-and in Baltimore to Principal bank, 16,235 84 37; has somewhat subsided since, though not deci 2,296,380 sively. The inspections of last week in Baltimore amounted to 11,545 bbls. and 949 half bbls. $2,486,600
COTTON. The crops in the Washita district, Arkansas, are said to be of excellent quality.
ment he was received with three hearty cheers. A(aged 12 or 14 years) of Mr. Beal.
FIRES. Mooresville, Indiana, having 50 houses and a population of 600, was almost destroyed by fire on the night of the 29. ult.
Dallas, Alabama, has been fined 3500 for having issued
SACS AND FOXES. A deputation from those tribes of Indians have reached Washington.
SCATTERATION PARTY. The Massachusetts people_falk of forming a third party, in hopes of electing Mr. Scat tering, Governor. In one of the towns at their late elec⚫ tions, the vote stood whig 10; Van Buren 10; Scattering 15.
NO GOVERNMENT AND WOMAN'S RIGHTS PARTY.-A convention of men and women a few days ago, in Boston, passed the following resolutions:
Resolved, That the assumption of authority by man over man, in the form of human governments, is a usurpa tion of the prerogative of our creator, and a gross imposition upon the human family, which far transcends in wickedness any of the acts of violence and wrong which such governments are instituted to punish.
STEAM BOAT ITEMS. The dangers of the deep broad sea, as fearfully illustrated in accounts whereby we have had of recent shipwrecks and distress, have parallel disasters in our inland navigation. Every week furnits melancholy list of steamboats lost in various ways. The following casualties have been ascertained since our last
PHILADELPHIA. Sheriff. Governor Porter has apElkanah Watson, Esq. died on Monday, the 7th at pointed his son Win. A. Porter, sheriff of the city, in his residence in Port Kent, Essex Co., N. Y. aged 86.-place of H. Morris, esq., deceased.
The steamboat Saratoga was sunk in the Mississippi last week. Passengers and baggage saved-boat and
equally apply at present-better descriptions of Mary TOBACCO. Our last remarks and quotations would land are in request at fair prices; other qualities dullThe inspections of last week in Baltimore consisted of 320 hhd. Maryland, and 46 of Ohio.
Twenty or thirty hogsheads of Missouri tobacco, quite a new article in the Baltimore market, is quoted at $5 50 INDIANA. The legislature assembled on the 12th inst. a $6 50. It is possible that considerable quantities will T. D. Walpole, was elected president of the se- take this direction in future; via, the Baltimore and Ohio nate, by a majority of 6 votes; and T. Z. Henry (V. rail road, instead of going to New Orleans. It is deB.) speaker of the house by a majority of 9 votes. Go-scribed as a dark heavy, fat tobacco, precisely like Va. vernor Bigger in his message scouts the idea of repudia- tobacco and weighing 1,500 pounds to the hogshead.
THE MASSACHUSETTS WESTERN RAIL ROAD, have advertised for sale £100,000 of Massachusetts state stocks, bearing five per cent interest, payable semi-annually,and redeemable in London in 1871. The certificates are in the form of bonds, coupons attached. The western rail road has cost $7,500,000 already, of which $3,000,000 was individual and $4,500,000 the proceeds of state stocks, similar to that now offered for sale, which forms the balance of the whole loan of $5,000,000 of state credit, and will raise the cost of the rail road to $5,000,000.
THANKSGIVING IN MASSACHUSETTS. This day was a two hundred mariages took place between sunrise and great day in Massachusetts. It is estimated that at least sunset. In the single town of Ware, nine weddings
There were 188,052 lbs.. or about 94 tons of turkies,
chickens, &c. brought from Rhode Island to Boston,
on the Boston and
TRANSPORTATION. Steerage passengers in the packets from New York to New Orleans, are carried for three dollars-distance 1600 miles.
THE YELLOW FEVER was prevailing severely in se veral of the West Indies Islands at the latest dates from thence. Barbadoes, Trinidad, St. Lucia, and Antigua were suffering from this scourge.
Resolved. That the use of the elective franchise, under the constitution of the United States, involves the sacrifice of our common humanity, and the rejection of the gospel of peace.
DE LA PUISSANCE AMERICAINE. Major Poussin, we
In Washington, D. C., twenty-one deaths only are re-city of money on the other, prices of produce in the
The Arkansas Intelligencer of the 11th ultimo, men-
In the Baltimore market pork brings $3 75a84 00.
Massac was selected by the French, at a very early period. as a place for a fortification, and was occupied as such until the capture of Kaskaskia by Gen. George Rogers Clarke. Afterwards, a new and larger fort was erected by the United States, which was occupied until some time after the late war. It has ever been deemed a most eligible and commanding point. As early as 1795, congress passed an act (sill in force, making it a port of delivery for the whole Wabash and Mississippi country. Massac is as healthy, we believe, as any point on the ri ver. It is accessible at all times, and is situated immedi ately at the foot of the iron ore regions of Kentucky, Tennessee and Illinois.
WHEAT felt the influence of the advance of flour of course. In the Baltimore market good Maryland red went off at 85 to 92. Some 3,200 bushels of Pennsylva nia red brought 93.
FIFTH SERIES.No. 17.-VOL. XIII.]
BALTIMORE, DECEMBER 24, 1842.
[VOL. LXIII.-WHOLE NO. 1,630.
STATES OF THE UNION-Pennsylvania, Virginia, South Carolina, Indiana, Arkansas, Missouri.
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED, EVERY SATURDAY, BY JEREMIAH HUGHES, EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR, AT FIVE DOLLARS PER ANNUM, PAYABLE IN ADVANCE.
CONTENTS OF NO. 17, VOL. 13.
Chicago; and that wheat, flour, pork, &c. of Ohio,
THE PUBLIC REVENUE AND FINANCES. We have been disappointed in the expectation of obtaining a copy of the treasurer's annual report in time for insertion in this number. The report of the secretary of the navy is inserted.
U STATES BRIG SOMERS.
state and naval officers on.
ANDREW JACKSON'S LETTER ON BANKING.
By the ship Cincinnati, at New York, Canton pa- The condition of the finances as given in the abAFRICAN SLAVE TRADE-correspondence of Sec'y of pers to the 9th August are received, being 12 days stracts from the report which have been published, later than our previous intelligence. Canton was and which we inserted the substance of in our last, more tranquil than at any period since May 1841. is truly gratifying. Instead of the deplorable defiTranslations from an imperial edict, Pekin, 4th ciencies which the opponents of the tariff bill had moon, 17th, evinces that the celestial chief is in great so confidently predicted,-instead of having to reconsternation. The following are extracts from it: sort to further loans and additional taxes upon such "Yoking and his colleagues have reported con- articles as tea, coffee, &c.—we have now it seems, cerning the imminent danger of the provincial city of the official report from the government, stating, that, the province of Chekean (Hangchowfoo) and the for the present, and for the eighteen months ensuing city of Keahing; and on reading the report, my grief from the first of January next, the estimated reand indignation are extreme. According to the receipts into the treasury under existing laws, will be port, Chapoo is already lost; and the barbarians are adequate to meet the authorised expenses of the goapproaching the provincial capital; the domain of the vernment within an inconsiderable fraction, which city is very extensive, and the rebellious barbarians fraction the balance in the treasury will more than have built small vessels which enter every where cover. among the shallows.
"The two Heen districts of Pinghoo and Haeshang,
RAIL ROADS AND CANALS.
REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF NAVY.
THE PAST-THE PRESENT--FOR THE FUTURE.
THE CIVIL APPROPRIATION BILL, for the half year ending 30th June next, after being modified by striking out the clause which made an appropriation for the coast survey, finally passed the house of representatives, and was the same day referred by the senate to their financial committee.
The bankrupt repealing bill was debated warmly on Thursday, and the debate will no doubt be resumed next week. It is generally supposed that the bill will pass both houses.
"This important and pressing despatch has been brought at the rate of 600 le a day. Now the said general and his colleagues have consulted and determined that one of their number shall remain to keep Tapoukeang, while all the rest of the troops should minister and his colleagues must turn their thoughts be sent to protect the other places. The said great -dismiss their fears-to ensure peace, and so tranFrom Asia however there is important intelligence-quilize the people's minds; and they should sternly The information which we insert under our foreign head and strictly order the officers and soldiers to exert direct from China, was to the 6th September. The close their utmost strength in defending the country. investment of Nankin alarmed the emperor, and propositions of peace were made and acceded to. On the 26th of August Sir Henry Pottinger announced the terms of the treaty by proclamation.
This, it will be remembered includes the very worst and most unproductive period of the operation of the tariff for the treasury, according to every view of the subject. The law is yet new to those engaged in commerce, and their operations have been for that cause, as well as in the hopes, widely entertained, of a speedy repeal of the tariff, very dis-limited, and only predicated upon present demands. For another and more prevailing cause, the general want of confidence and the unusual scarcity of money, trading operations have been, since the enactment of the tariff, and will remain for some time yet, very limited. If under those disadvantageous circumstances, the revenue derived from the customs ment, we may reasonably expect that when the sysare adequate to meet the expenses of the governtem shall have been recognized as the settled policy of the country,-when operations shall grow from mere adventures into regular dimensions, and when a wholesome condition of credit and currency shall have been resumed over the country, and a consequent regular trade-a day we fervently hope, now not very distant,-when this wholesome condition
"As to the adjutant-general, Ahlakeihno, who has been wounded, how is he at present? Let a clear examination be made into all these matters, and a duly prepared report sent up. Respect this."
of circumstances returns, no one we think can reaOn the 17th day of the 6th moon, (July 24,) a des- sonably doubt of the sufficiency of the existing tapatch arrived at Canton from the privy council, riff with our other sources of revenue to meet an which when opened by the general, was found to con-economical and honest administration of government tain the following imperial edict: expenditures. "An individual has reported that the rebellious) Not only have the receipts exceeded what was anbarbarians have usurped possession of the dependen- ticipated, but it seems that after the report was precy of the Heen district of Kwangtung, Heangkeang pared and before sending it to congress, the secreta(Hongkong-the "fragrant streams,") and have built ry had ascertained that the favorable effect of the houses, &c., with intention of retaining constant pos- retrenchments directed by the laws of the last sessession; why has not this affair been clearly looked sion would leave a still larger balance in the treasury into and taken care of?" than he had set down in his estimates. This looks LATER. The Helena, arrived at New York, brings well. It will be remembered that congress had but FROM INDIA the news is scarcely less decisive. The Macao dates to the 6th September. The Canton Re- very partially effected these retrenchments, which it British obtained possession of Cabul again, released their gister says, the United States squadron had left the is admitted on all hands, ought to be carried into allong imprisoned officers--and completely beat the Aff- coast of China. The British had for a fortnight cur- most every department of expenditures, and it is ghanistans. The official announcement of the victory, rent reports of the capture of Nankin, which alarm- from thence, that the people have a right to look for dated 30th September, is accompanied with the an-ed the Chinese exceedingly, as they have great reli- yet immense diminutions of charges upon them.nouncement also, that the British forces will abandon gious reverence for particular places, of which Nan- Strict accountability and a tight rein is wanting. kin is one. Arrivals from Chusan with dates as late Governments should never be trusted with much the whole of that inhospitable region, and return as the 9th August, however, prove that the reported more revenue than their emergency requires. We their former possessions in India-finding nothing worth capture was at least premature. It seems that there had rather see the tariff producing only enough, than the expense of maintaining possession of Affghanistan. had been some severe fighting. At an engagement too much. Extravagance inevitably grows out of Humanity is consoled by the restoration of peace. near Nankin seven British officers, including one abundance. CANADA. colonel and near 200 privates, were killed, besides A gentleman, who is at this time many wounded. The Chinese fought and maintained a contractor on the Erie enlargement, has returned their ground in a manner that astonished their oppofrom a visit to Canada, where he went for the purpose nents, heretofore accustomed to meet and vanquish of making a proposition for some of the public works tion from the Chinese, the troops have encountered at the same moment. Besides meeting with opposiat this time being put under contract. He states that the canal and locks at the Long Sault on the St. either side of the Yangtsi Kiang. Some seven huna terrible enemy in the low and marshy grounds on Lawrence are completed, and that the water had been let in. These locks are 40 feet wide, 220 feet dred were reported as on the sick list.
long, and sufficiently deep for sea vessels. The remainder of the work necessary to complete the free communication with Lake Ontario, consisting of locks at Les Cedres and Coteau du Lac Rapids; and a canal 220 feet wide at top, and 80 feet at bottom, with 10 feet water, will be put under contract the present season, to be completed in two years; by which time it is also expected that the Welland canal enlargement will be finished. It is therefore to be anticipated that in the fall of the year 1844, or at most in the spring of 1845, vessels clearing from Liverpool, Bristol, and London, will discharge their cargoes at the wharves of Cleveland, Detroit, and Vol.XII-SIG. 17.
POSTSCRIPT. Late and important news. The steamer Britannia, arrived at Boston, brings London papers to the 5th instant. The Great Western which left New York on the 17th reached Liverpool on the
There is little European news. An insurrection at Barcelona against Espartero was likely to be suppres
The Chinese are to pay $21,000,000 in the course of this and the three next years. The ports of Canton, Amoy, Foo-chow foo, Niugpo, and Shanghai, are to be opened to the British merchants-consuls to reside and tariff established in them-the Island of Hong Kong is ceded to Britain-correspondence to be conducted on perfect terms of equality hereafter-the British to retire from Nankin on receiving the first instalment-6 mil
THE TARIFF. The following is an extract of letter from one of the largest spinners of Sea Island cotton in Manchester, dated Nov. 16th, 1842.
"Fine yarns and goods remain as low in price as Our distress has been increased by the unwise, un ever, and as producers we have a miserable trade. generous and self-robbing tariff of the United States, and which, though professing to be passed for revenue and protection, is really passed for manufactur ing plunder, in contradistinction to our own agricul tural plunder. We hope that common sense and Jack-justice may prevail in your, as well as in our legislature."
To this we reply, that our legislature for many, many years, sustained the course which the writer of the above would desire them to return to, undergoing during the whole period the "plunder" which he admits that the laws of England were inflicting upon us. Finding that we were becoming miserably impoverished by an endurance of such wrongs, it be
APPOINTMENTS BY THE PRESIDENT.