monwealth, and to prevent the escape of persons of almost all sorts reduced in value, and the credit of New York from carrying slaves out of this comof the state and people nearly annihilated. "If we look abroad for a solution of our condi-charged with the commission of any crime," went

came the part of common sense and prudence to protect ourselves as we could. Should the method we have adopted be effectual in bringing back the first offenders to such a share of "common sense and jus-tion, we can find nothing in the history of the past, into operation on the first of May, 1842, in consetice" as the writer of the above prays for, we shall from which we can draw the least aid. Look to quence of the failure on the part of the constituted expect to see it demonstrated in their legislative England, to which, perhaps, we have accustomed authorities of New York to comply with our reasonenactments-by allowing us a reciprocity of "free ourselves to look too much already, and what do we able demands. This law, so far, I doubt not, has trade"-admission for our products in their ports on see? A nation, with mineral and agricultural re-been productive of good, as I have not heard of the reasonable terms, and then we shall be disposed to sources, hardly exceeding Virginia, with a public slightest suspicion being entertained by any one, that reciprocate. Till then we hold on to what we have.debt almost twenty times as large as the debts of the a slave has been carried away by a northern vessel, federal and state governments altogether, borrowing since it went into operation. I regret much the nemoney of any of the nations of the world without cessity for this law or any similar one, but it was THE NAVY. difficulty, at from two to three per cent. interest-forced on us as the only peaceable means of protectwhilst our federal government finds great difficultying our property against the depredations of the foolin borrowing small sums at six per cent., and the ish and mad abolitionists. Unless something speedistate governments cannot even borrow on as goodly be done by the great body of our northern bretheren to arrest the mischievous designs of these fanaThe U. S. ships of the line Delaware, com. Mor-terms as those." tics, it will become a question for the whole south ris; Columbia, capt. Shubrick and schooner Enterprise, capt. Wilson, were in port. The Enterprise to consider, whether they will longer continue in was to sail in two days for Buenos Ayres; the Delaunion with a people who are resorting to every art and device they can to rob them of their property.” The share of Virginia of the proceeds of the pubware and Columbia would soon follow. lic lands, $37,000 48, the governor has declined to receive, leaving the whole matter to the action of $2,600,000 to matters of mere local interest. the legislature. The rest of the message is devoted


Gov. JAMES MCDOWELL, of Rockbridge, has been 1,400,000 elected governor of the state.


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THE BRAZILIAN SQUADRON. The Robin Hood, arrived at Boston, brings Rio de Janeiro dates to 1st


After intimating broadly that the cause of this is owing to political parties, he proceeds to account for it particularly by referring to the internal improvement fever, leading the authorities to authorizing The Columbia had a passage of 98 days from the loans without making adequate provision for payU. States, touching at Fraya, S. Jago, for water.ment of principal or interest. The Virginia state debt he estimates at $7,650,000, From thence she had a passage of four weeks to Rio. Fears had been entertrined for her safety, be-of which, there is due to individuals of the state ing out so long. An officer writes that they had been on short allowance for some time before getting in. Since departing from New York she has lost the following men, viz: Thomas Cook, drowned 9th Oct.; Geo. Baker, of Raymond, Cumberland co. marine, died 11th Sept.; John Homan, of Bos-To ton, a German by birth, died 3d Oct.

The U. S. brig Oregon, lieut. L. M. Powell, commander, sailed from New York on the 9th, for the survey of the Gulf of Mexico, via Charleston. where she arrived on the 15th.


To bank of the state,
To state and state institutions,


citizens of other states and districts, Due to foreigners in G. Britain, France, Germany, Switzerland, about

$7,680,000 The aggregate of items exceeds his estimate by a fraction of $30,000. We presume this occurred by speaking in round numbers.

Congressional districts. The joint committee of the two houses met on the 9th. The project of Albert Rhett for districting the state was by a decisive vote, approved by the house committee. The senate com

Of the resources of the state, he says: the state

U. S. ship Boston, June FAST INDIA SQUADRON. 25th, 1842, Macao Roads. During the last twenty. five days we have been lying at Macao, waiting im-owns bank and other stocks to the amount of $12,-mittee approved of four of the districts, but adopted patiently for the negotiation of our bills on England, 500,000. The internal improvement debt has been Mr. Higgins' project for the other three. which are still in the market, which has not been increased during the last year by $250,000 to the affected for the better by the last news, March 19th. James River and Kanawha company, and $100,000 I have failed to get the letter I expected, and I now to the board of public works. Thus the resources fear that we shall not remain here until another appear to be nearly double the indebtedness of the mail arrives. Last letters are dated Dec. 12th, 1841, state-but, the stocks, except her cash stocks, yield per Lowell. Since the above was written, we have little revenue-whereas the interest of the debt must had nearly one hundred cases on the sick list at be paid. After a severe philippic against repudiation once, and the frigate as many as one hundred and on the part of the states-regretting that congress fifty, but they were colds and fevers of transient du- had not done nothing, instead of passing a bankrupt ration, and our sick list will soon be reduced to its law, which he conceives "has entirely prostrated The best confidence and credit," the governor says: usual limits, without a single fatal case. offer we have had for our bills is 5s. 6d. sterlingrather a heavy discount.

U. S. SENATOR. Col. Hunt, on the 9th, moved a message to the senate proposing to go into the election of U. S. Senator, to succeed Mr. Calhoun, on the 12th inst: Mr. Walker, of Charleston, and Mr. Frost opposed it, and proposed deferring the election until November next, in order to consult their constituents: a motion for an indefinite postponement was negatived, ayes 30, noes 33. The message was then adopted and sent to the senate. That body, however, postponed the subject.

The Louisville, Cincinnati and Charleston rail road company have memorialized the legislature to resume the states' original subscription to that work. A bill favorable to the petition of the L. C. & Charleston rail road company to be incorporated with the S. Carolina rail road company, and to have certain rights to build bridges opposite Augusta and Hamburg, and for other purposes has been reported.

"The receipts into the treasury from taxes are now six hundred and fifty thousand dollars, independent of dividends upon stocks. The regular demands upon the treasury for all purposes, during the present fiscal year, will not be more than about nine hundred and six thousand dollars, exclusive of the sum of three hundred and sixty thousand dollars loan which was made under the authority of a law of the last legislature, to meet the demands upon the treasury. I would suggest the propriety of creating a loan, for a few years, for the sum of four hundred thousand dollars, which will be sufficient to supply the present deficiency in the revenue.


The Miners' Journal comPREVIOUS PARDONS. plains of repeated exercises of this questionable power by Governor Porter. The fac's in one case, are stated by the Huntingdon Journal, as follows:

Col. Hunt from the committee of federal relations, reported a bill favorable to the petition to place the line packets from Georgetown to N. York on the same footing with the lines from Charleston to New York.

UNITED STATES SENATORS. We heretofore notiIn November, 1841, it seems that the grand jury of Huntingdon county presented three men named In order to pay off the debts of the state, I would ced the election of Mr. McDuffie, to fill the vacancy Couts, Leas and McVitty, for conspiring to influence The resignation of J. C. Calhoun, esq. to take effect electors to vote for John Shaver, candidate for she-recommend that the dividends, to be received from occasioned by the resignation of Mr. Preston. riff. The bill was sent up and the parties indicted. all stocks, be first appropriated to the payment of the The trial was put off from time to time, on various four hundred thousand dollars, which may be bor- from the 4th of March next, being accepted, the le grounds, until the 15th ult. when the accused were rowed to supply the present deficiency in the reve- gislature proceeded on the 15th inst. to the election 1st ballot. 2d ballot. 3d ballot. brought up for trial. They appeared; but instead of without any greatly increased burden upon the peo- on the third ballot. The following shows the result 56 submitting the case to a jury, they produced a full nue, and then set apart as a sinking fund, by which, of a senator in his place. Mr. Huger was elected 46 and unconditional pardon from governor Porter, in off. I deem it a matter of paramount importance the bar of the indictment. They were at once dis-le, the debt of the state, as it falls due, can be paid of each ballot: for the state to show her determination to fulfil all




D. E. Huger,
R. B. Rhett,
F. W. Pickens,
F. W. Davie,
Another case is mentioned in the Erie Chronicle, her engagements-by doing so she will regain credit
and is that of two men, Moody and Quiggle, who and confidence, which will, at once inure to the be-
The Baltimore Patriot says of Mr. Huger, "He is,
were tried and convicted of having passed counter-nefit of the people.'
As the sum of $350,000 is due on the 15th of De-
feit money, knowing it to be such. The evidence was
conclusive and the trial fair. They were sentenced cember, the message urges that the temporary loan of course, acting with the dominant party in the
The proposed stay law, which state, but was not, we believe, supported by the espe
to three years' imprisonment, and after an incarcera- be made at once.
tion of three or four hours, a pardon was received, has been pressed in Virginia, receives but little favor cial and peculiar friends of Mr. Caihoun. He was
of nullification, when Mr. Calhoun led on his party
and they are now set loose upon society. So much for at the hands of bis excellency. His reasons, how-one of the most decided opponents of the rank heresy
to the point of dissolving the union, and is, altogether,
the pardoning power in Pennsylvania.
about the best man that could have been chosen
from South Carolina, under the present rulers of that



610,000 GOVERNOR RICHARDSON retired from the executive duties, and Gov. Hammond was inaugurated on the 2,300,000 12th inst. both of them making appropriate remarks upon the occasion. Isaac Dunham Witherspoon was elected lieutenant governor.

"In a time of profound peace, which has continued for many years, with abundant crops, a daily development of new sources of wealth, and a plethoric condition of the money market of the world, we find ourselves greatly involved in debt, and property









ever, we quote:


"What benefit can result to a community from a stay law? None, literally none; unless it be purchaThe legislature of this state assembled at Rich-'sed at the sacrifice of justice. If a stay law be passINDIANA. mond on the 5th inst. Mr. HUNTER was elected ed merely to defer the payment of debts, it can do speaker of the senate without opposition. In the no good; on the contrary, I think it would be proThe LEGISLATURE met on the 5th inst. Thomas house JOEL HOLLMAN, was elected speaker, and Mr. ductive of harm. If the payment of debts be deferred, the amount will most certainly be increased by Mumford, clerk. The message of the acting Gov. J. M. GREGORY, interest, and probably costs, also. I hold that there D. Walpole was elected president of the senate, was communicated the same day. Much of it is oc- is not more than one man in fifty engaged in busi-over J. Collins, whig. In the house, Thomas J. He cupied in relation to the condition of the finances,-ness, who can afford to pay six per cent. interest for ley was clected speaker, on the first ballot, over Dr.


of which he remarks:

money, and hence it seems to me, that the sure effect Bradley, whig.
The majority in the house, by giving a contested
of such a law would be the ruin of the debtor class.
the whig majority in the senate, on joint ballot.
Of the "Right of Search" law, passed by the le-seat to a Van Buren claimant, have thereby balanced
gislature of 1841, he observes:
This may prevent the choice of a United States sena-
tor during the session.

"The act passed by the legislature, March the
13th, 1841, entitled, “an act to prevent the citizens




The state finances are in a wretched, hopeless con- law imposing a tax upon money loaned at interest, in a broken voice, "poor old Joe! he's gone at las dition. Gov. Bigger's message says nearly the en- and upon money invested in the purchase of notes Well, well, God bless him!" There was an elegy fit tire revenue of the state, for the past year, will be and bonds, and to which I have before alluded. The for a mitred head, or a prince in his jewelled shroud. paid in treasury notes on the state treasury. This deficiency has been met by the bank, out of the reveleaves the treasury nearly destitute of means to pay nue deposited with it, to cover which there should be but there is one little incident connected with it that We hate to advert to the horrid scene of his death; the members of the legislature, the various public a special appropriation. we must mention. His watch chain was found meltofficers, and the current expenses of the government. The faith of the state, which should forever re-ed on his bosom, and links of the pure metal run into The state's share of the land money is $26,877 66. main untarnished, requires that the interest upon the his breast, as though Death, cold and callous as he The general government has withheld of this sum, bonds should be promptly met, and I am well satis-is, had tried to encase the brave old man's heart in a $13,975, to back interest due on the bonds of the fied that this can be done, if my recommendations in casket of gold. His memory is enshrined still more state, purchased by the general government, and in- relation to the assessment and collection of the revevested in the Chickasaw and Choctaw annuities, leav-nue, and to cost in criminal cases, shall receive the has left behind him. preciously in the friendship of the many friends he ing a balance to the credit of the state of $12,902 66, favorable consideration of the legislature. which is all the money the state has to pay the exThere is a considerable sum due the bank for in- the Washington Battalion, under the command of Yesterday afternoon between four and five o'clock, penses of the year! terest upon money advanced to the state for the erec-captain Tracy, formed in front of Royal street. tion of the capitol, the pay of the troops, and for in- solemn music of the dead was played, and the coffin ternal improvement. Although these loans were not of the old man, covered with the glorious flag of our made in accordance with law, yet as the state re-native land-the symbol he had perilled his life to ceived and applied the money, it seems to be due to honor-borne in front of the line. There, save the the bank that the interest, at least, should be promptly paid, and it is hoped that suitable provision will be music, all noise was hushed, and all hearts like made for this purpose."



The message says nearly the whole of the suspended debt of the state will prove a total loss! not more than half a million of the collateral securities are good for anything. Concerning repudiation, he "It is the future which must determine whether we are a faith-keeping people. As for myself, I have a deep and abiding confidence in the integrity and enterprise of the people of Indiana, in the extent to which her resources may be developed, and in the realization of those means which can and will be applied to discharge those obligations, the avoidance of which will bring upon us merited and lasting infamy."

"Muffled drums were beating
Funeral marches to the grave."


"The worst is death, and death will have his day." Poor "old Joe"-"Portuguese Joe," long and well The condition of the state bank, on the 31st of Oc-life through means of a fearful and terrible casualty, known among us all, has made his final exit from And is there not a moral in all this? Ay, there is, tober, is stated. Its discounts were $2,867,917; its He was a man of many excellent natural parts, and and a beautiful one, although when drawn from the specie $799,047. The circulation was $1,732,518; there is not one who ever knew him that does not present subject, it is like the smile that we see restthe deposits $1,811,248. cherish kindly remembrance of the man, as well as ing on the pale brow of the dead. The moral teaches profound regret for his frightful and melancholy end. us that the bold, brave hearts of our countrymen look He was burned to death by the fire Exchange not upon the station, but the services of our adopted Place yesterday morning, and from the position in citizens. He was a man, in an humble sphere of life, which his blackened corpse was found, it would seem knighted by his own patriotism and respected for his that he had rushed from his bed and found his escape own virtues. No quartered shield was his, nor did cut off by flames upon the staircase. In the mean-his blood flow from a "noble" channel-genius never time the raging element shut off his retreat to the flitted over him with her lightning wings-nor window, and he was found crouched in a corner of did the yellow gold swell his coffers, yet the Templar the staircase, blackened and scorched by the fire and of the olden time was not honored more than he. with his lower extremities crisped into a cinder. A The banner of the proudest land on earth, wrapped more terrible death has not been recorded among his coffin, and a phalanx of the bravest men followed us in many months. To be startled from the calm him to his grave. slumber of midnight into the greatest terror that can affright humanity, is perhaps a degree of horror that living beings may only partially conceive.


THE MESSAGE OF GOVERNOR REYNOLDS is very long, and a large portion of it is devoted to national subjects. Banks and bank notes are in bad odor with his excellency. The single district system for electing representatives to congress, is denounced and he strenuously urges the legislature to protest "against this first and alarming attempt on the part of the federal government to control, by its mandate, the legislation of the state."


[New Orleans Tropic.



vulgar, and our rewards as miserly; but let them reOur praise has been sneered at by foreigners, as is our all-the "widow's ite." We long since heard an anecdote of poor old Joe, that obtained somewhat of local knowledge by ver- brave man and a patriot, and from one end of this Louis D'Jose was humble and poor, but he was a The distribution of the proceeds of the public bal communication from one to the other. He was lands is attacked with all energy. The passage, by captain of the main-top on board of commodore and his gallantry embalmed in a nobler sarcophagus mighty land of ours, his memory will be cherished, the house of representatives, of the bill to declare McDonough's ship "Saratoga," at the famous battle than that which held the Egyptian king-the annals the boundary between Missouri and Iowa, is object-of Lake Champlain, at the time that the American of a free republic. And such is the reward given ed to. The bankrupt law is denounced-the proprie-flag was shot from the mast. In the very heat of the ty of abolishing imprisonment for debt during its ex-action, when shot were flying thick as hail, he stuck by Americans to the patriot. istence being suggested. The penitentiary for life a hammer in his belt, a dozen nails in his pocket, the is recommended as fit punishment for the abolition-flag in his mouth, and mounted to the mast head.ists, who seize every opportunity to seduce slaves All means of fastening the flag in any other manner from their masters, and aid them in making their had vanished long before in progress of the engageescape; and the importance of protecting the wes-ment. Joe nailed the flag to the topmast and detern frontier from the Indians asssembed there, is scended safely to the deck amid the enthusiastic urged both upon congress and the legislature. cheers of his This anecdote we had often The rest of the message is devoted to state affairs. intended to tell before, but, among many other mat- history of our country, has startled the sensibilities Of its financial condition this account is given: "There has been paid into the treasury, from the ters well worthy of type, it has remained in neglect. of the whole people. Moralizing, on a case like this, ordinary sources of revenue, for the two last fiscal sublunary; and frightful, harrowing to all human human nature is at once called into place and re"Portuguese Joe" is now unconscious of all things would be superfluous. Every feeling and faculty of years, exclusive of the balance in the treasury on sensation as his sufferings must have been, we at least the 30th September, 1840, $266,518 81, and the know that they were brief. The bar of the Mer-sponds to the simple detail of facts, which it is our the disbursements for the same period amount to chants' exchange was closed entirely from business painful duty to record. $233,930 16, leaving a balance in the treasury of yesterday, and a gloom pervaded the place painful to The arrival on Thursday, the 15th instant, of the $33,599 65. all who were accustomed to visit it. who ever knew Joc liked him, and his abrupt but honest U. S. brig Somers, commander Slidell Mackenzie, in manner of treating guests was understood by all. New York harbor, from a cruise on the coast of AfPoor fellow! He did "his country some service," rica, via St. Thomas, was announced in the papers and for that alone he deserved a better fate. At of that city. From those announcements, which least let us accord to him, as far as newspaper record

An incident of which we have no parallel in the


On the 22d ult., Col. Sevier was re-elected U. S. senator by the legislature of this state, having received 71 votes, in opposition to Pike, the whig candidate, who received 10 votes.

This excess, produced, in part, by the collector of the county of St. Louis depositing monthly the amount of revenue collected, instead of reserving the whole amount, as heretofore, until his annual settle

ment on the first of December.


tled "An act to issue state bonds to pay the state
debt," approved, February 15, 1841, were disposed of
at par after being made to bear ten per cent interest
per annum. This was the lowest rate of interest at
which the bonds could be sold.
The most of these bonds, having been sold in the
city of New York, and payment for them made there,
the amount of premium upon the exchange, $5,219
66, was passed, by the bank of the state of Missouri,
to the credit of the state, and has been applied to the
payment of the interest upon the bonds.

He was followed to his last resting place by the military, and a large concourse of our citizens, and poor, good old Joe, who three days ago was in the Cypress grove. Light be the turf upon the old man's full flush of health, now lies in his narrow bed in head, and green his resting place.

board the Saratoga.

The bonds authorised to be issued by the act enti- may go, some remembrance of his gallant act on reached us just as our last number was preparing for press, nothing of the tragedy which had occurred could have been imagined. Their tenor was to the following effect, we extract from the New York Express:

Known here by almost everybody only as "Portuguese Joe," few were aware of his right name, which we found some trouble in ascertaining yesterday. He and he will be consigned to the tomb to-day. We was called, when addressed properly, Louis D'Jose, know not when we have been pained in noticing the demise of a braver or an honester man.-New Or|leans Picayune, Nov. 30th.

"The Somers sailed from Monrovia, Liberia, on the night of the 11th November. There were no American vessels at Monrovia. The colony was in a flourishing condition, bidding fair to realize eventuThe Tropic of the 1st inst. makes the following ally the hopes of its enlightened and benevolent notice of "poor old Joe's funeral:" founders. The colonists are being more disposed From an early hour yesterday morning, until the than heretofore to devote themselves to agricultural procession started, thousands stopped to take a last pursuits-barter with the natives, buying as cheap as

The seven per cent bonds, issued under the authori ty of the act supplementary to the previously recited act, were purchased by the contractors upon the Ca-view of the brave old man's blackened form. The possible and selling as dear, having hitherto been pitol, there being no other persons proposing to pur- room in which he lay was neatly decorated with their almost exclusive pursuit. Sugar and coffee, crape, and it was a thrilling sight to mark how death said to equal the first Mocha and of most abund

chase them.

I regret to inform you that the fund, set apart and had usurped the place of life. Where business, the ant yield, promise to become valuable staples.pledged for the payment of the interest upon the cheerful rattle of the glasses, the smile, and the The colonists recently arrived in the Maripoza bonds, authorised to be issued at the last session of pledge of friendship once was heard,now was changed are doing well. There had been comparatively few the legislature, has fallen far short of the amount to a place crowded with men with gloomy faces-a deaths among them. Their previous pursuits had anticipated. This failure has resulted in part, from smothered murmur filled the room-the visiters been chiefly agricultural, and they were expected to the neglect of many of the assessors to execute the shook their heads, and looked to the floor, muttering prove a valuable accession to the colony.


The Somers arrived at St. Thomas on the evening headed by an officer, to murder the captain and constitution and laws of the country. Various pubpers, and been copied into a paper of extensive circuof the 4th December, after a passage of 23 days; principal officers, except the surgeon, and turn pi-lications have however appeared in the New York palation at the seat of government, giving versions of the procured water and necessary supplies, and sailed The most enérgetic measures became necessary.-— thence in the night of the 5th December, and has performed her passage from St. Thomas in 8 days Midshipman Spencer and two of the petty officers transaction, the materials for which, if not the verand 16 hours, and from Liberia in less than 31 days. were immediately arrested, and enquiries set on foot sions themselves, were obviously furnished by some The chief news at St. Thomas, was that war had to ascertain the extent of the mutiny. Investiga- officers who had a hand in the bloody deed. This is broken out between Spain and the republic of Hayti. tion proved it to be to a most alarming extent. The evident from their containing some facts which could Port au Prince was blockaded by a squadron from captain called upon the officers to express their opi- be known only to those officers-but so perverted, so Havana and Porto Rico. Several English men-of-nion as to what measures the exigencies of the case exaggerated, and interspersed with so much surmise, war had gone thither to look after British interests. required. After a formal investigation, they gave and so much downright falsehood, as to evince the Four or five mail steamers were expected to meet at it, as their unanimous opinion, that the safety of the deep anxiety felt to make sure of the first impression St. Thomas, now the general rendezvous of their ship and crew required that the ringleaders should on the public mind. An awful responsibility rests packets in the West Indies, on the 8th inst., for the be put to death; and, after giving them a short time on those officers, and above all on their commander. distribution of the mails, thence to separate for their for preparation, they were swung up at the yard Without the least desire to render that responsibility arm. Confessions of guilt were made by Spencer more hazardous than it now is, it is still deemed an respective destinations. and one of the men, and the justice of their sen- act of simple and bare justice to the memory of the tence acknowledged with their dying breath. In slain, to say that an examination of the papers transSpencer's neckcloth was found a paper written in mitted by Com. Mackenzie show these facts: cipher detailing the whole plan.

The Somers has been absent 3 months and a day, has made the Azores, touched at Madeira, Teneriffe, Port Baya, Cape Messurado and St. Thomas, and was at anchor 107 hours. The officers and crew are in excellent health."

at least semi-official sources.

1st. That acting midshipman Spencer was put in The crew was to rise at night in his watch, and double irons on the 25th of November, and the boatthe mutiny to commence by a sham fight on the fore-swain's mate Samuel Cromwell, and seaman Elisha castle-he was to conduct them aft as if to report Small, on the day following, on a charge of intended 2d. That no disorder of a mutinous character apthem to the officer of the deck. They, in turn, mutiny. were to appear greatly excited; and, as if eagar, each one to tell his own story, were to crowd around peared among the crew for the four succeeding days; the officer, and clapping their hands on his mouth, that the vessel was going with good breezes and in throw him overboard. In the mean time, others good weather towards the island of St. Thomas, were to go down, as if for the purpose of calling where she actually arrived and took in supplies on the captain and first lieutenant, and stab them in 3d. That on the 30th of November, the opinion of thousands of rumors, many of them of course ex-grape, were then to be pointed down the hatches, ceedingly erroneous, had found their way into the and those who had not joined, shot down or brought the officers was required by commander Mackenzie for packet ships, supplying themselves with wives pear to have examined thirteen seamen as witnesses daily papers. We refrain from inserting any of to terms. They were then to cruise off N. York as to the disposition of the prisoners; that they apIt is supposed innocent of any participation in it), which them, except such as appear to have emanated from from the passengers, murder the rest, and rob and to prove the alleged mutiny, (and who are therefore sink the prizes, that no traces might be left. impossible to conceive a more trying and awfully examination was had, so far as the papers show, Immediately on receiving commander Macken-responsible situation than that in which the officers in the absence of the prisoners, and without giving zie's report of his voyage, the government ordered, of this ship were placed. Alone upon the wide them any opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses and it is presumed that officer asked, a court of en- ocean, with no marines, and but one lieutenant to or to make any explanation or defence, or to proofficers and seamen, among 70 odd boys-and two of ficers, without even the form of a court, without quiry. Without naming those detailed, the Madiso- support the captain; with a crew of only 15 petty cure any testimony in their own behalf. These of nian states that the court will consist of officers of the most influential of these 15 ringleaders of the even the obligation of an oath, and upon this ex parte the first grade in the navy. Their investigation will mutiny, and others giving it their countenance; with secret information, united in the opinion that the no doubt be radical, and the truth will be as fully reason to believe that a majority of the youths were safety of the vessel required that the prisoners should extended among the officers themselves, the case influenced by the acts or fears of Mr. Mackenzie, developed as it is now possible it ever can be. For implicated; and not knowing how far the plot had be put to death! How far this recommendation was that development the public and all concerned should was one which called for the utmost decision and does not appear. wait with composure. The investigation belongs in energy; these circumstances, the staading of comthe first place to the executive department, and it is mander Mackenzie and his officers in the service; the fact that lieut. Gansevoort, the oldest officer on to be hoped will be confided to them without inter- board except the captain, was an acquaintance and ference. The respectability of the navy and that of friend of young Spencer and his family; all comits officers are deeply at stake-and must be redeem- bine to show the strongest and most urgent necessity ed. Justice must be awarded, let judgment fall for the course pursued. wherever it may, upon high or low. The occasion nerves every citizen to demand of the authorities

4th. That on the 1st of December, when every thing and person on board the vessel were perfectly quiet, after four days of entire security, the three persons were, by order of Mackenzie, hung at the yard arm at mid-day.

so far as these

The allegation, in some of the papers, that it was proved to have been the infention of the mutineers to pi-execute their project on arriving at St. Thomas, is wholly destitute of any evidence. And had it been their design, it was effectually justified prisoners were concerned, by their confinement. At who have the case in charge, to fulfil their obliga- ticulars of the whole case have not yet transpired; St. Thomas, any of the crew might have been left, tions and measure out to every one whatever his and the power of the officers of the vessel strengthconduct may have merited. Meantime, a respectful ened to any extent that was necessary. forbearance even in forming an opinion of those who, at all events, have had an awful responsibility to encounter on one hand, and towards the friends of those who have awfully suffered on the other; to refrain from judging until the facts are fully ascertained, is the duty of every one-dictated alike by reason and by humanity.

Cromwell, one of the men hung, had been a
rate, and the other a slaver; doubtless, it was the in-
fluence of these men, who were in Spencer's watch,
that led this youth to such an extremity. Full par-
the foregoing are derived from an authentic source,
but, until the case be fully before the public, we
would request a suspension of public opinion.

The statement in the Intelligencer, copied apparently from the New York American, that Spencer violated an engagement formerly made to resign, seems to have been deemed necessary to prejudice the public mind against him, that those who slew him might have a more favorable hearing. It is untrue; he did resign, and the secretary of the navy, on the recommendation of his commanding officer, considering the nature and circumstances of the of fence (inebriation,) restored his warrant, with a strong admonition; and this was done without the sented in the same paper to have been over twenty. solicitation of any of his friends. His age is repreHad he lived, he would have been nineteen the 28th of January next.


On Sunday, however, intimations reached us from New York on one hand, and at the same time from Washington on the other, to which it had been conveyed by an officer of the Somers, who reached that city on Saturday by express, of a solemn tragedy having occurred on board that vessel during her voyage. As the officers would authorise no publications, their sleep. The quarter deck guns, loaded with some day between the 1st and 5th of December.

The responsibility of commander Mackenzie was the more delicate and individual, as he had no authority of law to convene a court martial, and if he had, he had neither officers to constitute it or to maintain authority during its formalities. Which of the crew or officers were then to be trusted, was

doubtful. The storm appeared to be still brewing, and it was obvious that a rescue was meditated, in all probability, with a view to consummate the mutiny. It was truly a position of fearful responsibili


The Madisonian of the 20th contains the following notice in reference to the subject:

We are authorised to say that a full account of the circumstances of this distressing case, has not yet been received at the navy department. The sccretary of the navy has expressed no opinion upon the subject, and has taken no official action in regard to it. He is waiting for further accounts, which he expects to receive by the next mail. An official statement will be given as soon as the necessary materials for forming it shall be furnished.

On the same day the same paper contained the following communication, which we see the public papers generally attribute to the pen of the father of the deceased midshipman-the secretary of war.The Madisonian, without having guarded the reader from such an inference, premises its insertion in the following language:

In consideration of the source whence the commu

As to the probability that such a mere boy-utterly unacquainted with navigation-brought up in the interior would seriously endeavor to seduce to mutiny

an old seaman who had arrived at the rank of boatswain's mate, and who is represented to have been employed heretofore on board a slaver, or to have been a pirate-an impartial tribunal before which both sides will be heard, will determine.

The idea of the mutineers cruising off Sandy Hook

The Madisonian of the 19th inst. contains the fol-nication signed "S" emanated, we placed it in the to intercept the packets, seems to have been thrown
lowing apparently semi-official, as a communication: hands of the printers without reading it. Although in for the special benefit of the merchants of New
THE TRAGEDY. On Saturday last an officer ar-
we give the writer an opportunity to be heard through York. The papers, such as they are, contain no such
rived, express, from the U. S. brig Somers, com- our columns, yet we desire to hold ourselves entirely
mander Slidell Mackenzie, New York, with des- uncommitted on the subject for the present.
patches relating to a most awful occurrence which
The friends of young Spencer, who was executed,
has taken place on board that vessel. The Somers,
it will be recollected, was manned chiefly with ap- together with two seamen, on the 1st inst. would
prentice boys, and sailed about three months ago for have been content to abide the investigation which
the coast of África.
While on her return to the U. the laws of the country require in such cases, and
States, it became known to the commander that would have trusted to that justice which our tribu-
there was a conspiracy on foot among the crew,nals award to all entitled to the protection of the



The only account we have, given by Spencer himself, is, that it was all a joke. If it shall appear to have been the mere romance of a heedless boy, amusing himself, it is true, in a dangerous manner, still devoid of such murderous designs as are imputed, and if the execution of him and two seamen (against one of whom at least, there is not yet a par ticle of evidence) should prove to have been the re


sult of unmanly fear, or of a despotic temper, and They were then to cruise in search of merchant ves-
wholly unnecessary at the time to repress or prevent sels, trading between this port and Europe; which
a munity-if all this can appear, it cannot be doubted after being plundered, and the males on board killed,
that the laws will be vindicated. The laws of con- were to be indiscriminately sunk; and if there chanc-
gress prescribing the navy regulations, forbid the tak-ed to be any females, they were to be taken on board
ing of human life, even by the sentence of a court the Somers, violated, and retained so long as the piing
martial, before which all parties are heard, without rates might desire, when they also were to be com-
the sanction of the president of the United States, or. mitted to the deep! The arrangement for the divi-
if without the United States, of the commander of sion of the spoils, the allotment of the females, the va-
the fleet or squadron. This is believed to be the first rious officers on board, &c., were all completed, and
instance in our history in which the law has been drawn up in detail in SPENCER'S HAND-WRITING; and
violated--the first in which prisoners-not of the he assured Mr. Wales that he had twenty of the
enemy, but of our own citizens-have been been put crew with him sure.
to death in cold blood.

suspected to be concerned, were permitted to go t
duty until they reached this port, when they were also
ironed and sent on board the North Carolina.
The following are the names of the men and boys
now confined on board the receiving ship, and await-
the action of the navy department:
Charles A. Wilson, sail maker's mate.
Daniel McKinley landsman.

From the moment Spencer made the above cir-
cumstances known to Mr. Wales, he was watched
with Argus eyes by Samuel Cromwell, boatswain's
mate, and Elisha Small, seaman, who were the prin-
cipal ringleaders with Spencer, and who threatened
to throw him overboard, the moment they saw the
least signs of defection in him, or had the least
cause to suspect that he had made or intended to
make any disclosures to any person.

alone can a

lar attempt.

Mr. Wales, not daring to communicate with capt. Mackenzie, made all the circumstances as detailed by midshipman Spencer, known to the purser, who promptly conveyed the intelligence to capt. MackenThe New York Courier of Monday has the fol-zie, when measures were immediately taken to aslowing circumstantial narrative of the late mutiny certain the truth of the case. Spencer's papers and execution on board the U. S. brig Somers: were thereupon examined, and all the details of Now that the matter is before the public, we feel their plans as narrated by Wales, were fully confirm fully authorised to give the facts of this extraordi- ed. Spencer, Cromwell and Small, were then senary, yet entirely justifiable proceeding, in the full cured, and all hands being mustered on deck, capt. conviction that the truth and the whole truth, is what Mackenzie addressed them on the subject of the the public are entitled to know, and upon which proposed mutiny, apprising them that all the plans correct judgment in the premises be of the mutineers had been discovered and frustrated, formed. We would merely premise, that although and warning them of the consequences of any simiour account is not official, and although it may not comport with Mr. Mackenzie's notions of naval Capt. MACKENZIE then addressed a circular letter etiquette to approve of such a detailed statement as to each of the officers on board the vessel, except the we are prepared to give, yet it may be relied upon as acting midshipmen, requesting their opinion as to the actually embracing most of the particulars of that course of conduct which should be pursued towards gentleman's report to the secretary of the navy; and SPENCER and the two men who had been arrested as we do not hold ourselves responsible to the distin- with him. Each one returned for answer that they guished naval officers now on this station for what deserved immediate death, and Captain MACKENZIE'S we may deem proper to make public under existing opinion coinciding with that of his officers, it was decircumstances, we hope that they will agree with us, termined to carry the punishment into immediate exethat the sooner the truth reaches the public the bet-cution. All hands were accordingly called to witter it will be for all parties as well as for the char- ness punishment. Whips were then rove into each acter of the navy; and in consequence, not give end of the fore yard arm, and one on the inner part themselves any unnecessary trouble to ascertain our of the yard. The prisoners were then brought on source of information. deck and informed of the punishment about to be The Somers sailed from this port about three executed upon them. SMALL at once fully confessed months since, with a crew of eighty apprentices, his fault, and asked most penitently the forgiveness eighteen ordinary seamen, and an orderly sergeant of his commander and the officers, which was at once of marines, who acted as master at arms. She was accorded to him. He then obtained permission to commanded by master commandant Siidell Macken- address the crew, which he did, warning them against zie, well known to the navy as one of our most ex-permitting themselves ever to be seduced as he had emplary officers, and to the literary world as the au- been, into the committal of the crime for which he thor of a "Year in Spain." Her officers consisted was about to suffer death. of lieut. Gansevoort, of Albany, and five or six midshipmen among whom was Philip Spencer, son of the secretary of war, and two sons of commodore Perry. Having delivered the despatches with which he was charged, to the commanding officer on the coast of Africa, capt. Mackenzie sailed for this port with the publicly avowed intention of touching at St. Thomas for provisions previous to coming on our coast at this season of the year. A day or two previous to December 1st, and when the vessel was within five or six hundred miles from St. Thomas, midshipman Spencer hinted a part of his plans to Mr. Wales, the purser's steward, who affected a hearty co-operation, took an oath of secrecy, &c. which Spencer administered to him, when he was made more fully acquainted with the plan of the mutineers. They had arranged to raise a scuffle on The effect of the execution was instantaneous, and the forecastle some night after leaving St. Thomas, Every thing being in readiness, the noose was proved the correctness of the commander's decision. while the deck was in charge of midshipman Rodg-placed around the neck of each of the culprits, and From a state of almost open mutiny the crew were ers, a nephew of the late commodore John Rodgers; the officers were stationed about the deck to see that subdued to their former discipline, and every thing and when the men engaged in it would of course be every man had both hands on the ropes. ordered aft to account for the cause of the distur- o'clock, (sea time) on the 1st of December, the sig ficers kept their watches completely armed, and on bance, and when Mr. Rodgers was thus engaged, they nal for execution was given by firing a gun to lee- the arrival of the brig here, four of the crew (who were to seize, gag, and throw him overboard, with as ward, and the guilty men were run up. were the only ones brought here in irons) were imlittle noise as possible. Spencer was then to enter After hanging about an hour the bodies were low-mediately transferred to the North Carolina, and the cabin and kill capt. Mackenzie; and others were ered down and delivered to their several messmates shortly after nine more, making in all thirteen-of appointed to be stationed at the main hatch, through to be laid out and sewed up; and in the evening they whom eleven were apprentics-were added to the which the crew must pass to get on deck, and at the were committed to the deep, Captain MACKENZIE number confined. steerage hatch, through which all the officers except reading the service usual on the occasion of burials at sea.. the captain, must pass. All the officers, except the SMALL's last words were to invoke a blessing on surgeon, were to be murdered and thrown over- the American flag, and to ask forgiveness for having board; and the crew, who were below, were to be so dishonored it; but the others died without any mustered on deck. The two after guns were to be marks of penitence. Immediately after the execupointed forward, to secure the mutineers from an tion all hands were called to cheer ship; and three attack, and such of the crew who had not yet join- hearty cheers were given for the American flag, ed, but who then elected to come in with them, which was then waving at the gaff; after which all were to be admitted, while the others were to be hands were piped down, and the usual duties of the

About one

went on without the least cause for alarm. The of

thrown overboard.

vessel were resumed.

These remarks are made, not to excite prejudice, but to repel the attempt to create it, and to enable the American people to see what mighty principles are involved in this unheard-of proceeding. Let justice be done; let it not be denied, because one of the victims was connected with a high functionary of government, nor because another is unknown, and has not a friend or relation on the face of the earth. And let not wanton opprobrium be heaped upon the memory of the dead, to justify the bloody deeds of the living.


They were then to get out all the boats and lighten the vessel; after which they were to make for the Isle of Pines, where they were to meet a confederate.

SPENCER asked a respite of TEN MINUTES for himself and companions in guilt, in order that they might prepare to die. This was granted, and he was asked if he wished to write to his father or mother; but he replied that HE DID NOT. He then acknowledged his guilt and the justice of his punishment, and remarked that he would rather meet such a death there (at sea) than to be subjected to the infamy of exposure on shore. The ten minutes asked for by SPENCER was extended to upwards of one hour, nearly the whole of which time was employed by him in endeavoring to obtain forgiveness of SMALL, having seduced him into the committal of a crime for which he was so soon to expiate with his life. SMALL withheld his forgiveness for a length of time; but at last in reply to SPENCER'S oft reiterated request of "Do forgive me SMALL," he said that he fully pardoned him.

Four of the men who appeared to be most deeply implicated, were placed in irons immediately upon the discovery of the projected mutiny; but the others

Benjamin F. Green, ordinary seaman (apprentice.)
Alexander McKee, 2d class apprentice.
George W. Warner, ordinary seaman (apprentice.)
Chas. G. Golderman, landsman (apprentice.)
Eugene Sullivan, 1st class apprentice.
George Kneavah, landsman (apprentice.)
Richard Hamilton, 1st class apprentice.
Charles Van Velsor, ordinary seaman (apprentice.)
Henry Waltham, (mulatto) wardroom steward.
Edward Gallia, (mulatto) steerage cook.

tending this attempt to seize upon a national ship These are unquestionably the material facts atand convert her into a PIRATE, and the consequent What adds greatly to the disgraceful character of prompt and just punishment of the ringleaders.this dangerons and daring attempt to obtain possession of a national vessel, is the fact that one of the officers of the ship devised and was at the head of the projected mutiny; and when we bear in mind that SPENCER informed WALES that he had a confederate at the Isle of Pines where the Somers had not been, and that his chief confederates, CROMWELL and SMALL, shipped on board after SPENCER had joined, there can be no reasonable doubt that the mutiny was arranged in this port.

What confirms this supposition is the fact now ascertained, that SPENCER declared before his departure that he would never return to this city, and on the passage out assumed to be able to tell men's fortunes, and assured his fellow midshipmen in the steerage that they had not long to live! words which at the time were treated as badinage, but which were doubtless based upon a knowledge of his desperate schemes.

All the petty officers who remained true to their flag, have behaved in the most exemplary manner; and the serjeant of marines, whose name has escaped us, left the sick report on the day the mutiny was discovered, and performed his duty daily until his arrival in port, when he was conveyed to the hospital seriously and dangerously ill.

P. S. The mutiny we believe, was discovered to capt. MACKENZIE on the 29th of November, and the culprits executed on the 1st December. This sad alternative, we have reason to suppose, was expedited by a movement among the disaffected which looked like an attempt at rescue.

The following is a list of the officers of the Somers
when she sailed from this port:
Commander-*Alexander S. Mackenzie.
Lieutenant-*Guert Gansevoort.
Acting master-M. C. Perry.
Purser H. M. Heiskell.

Assistant surgeon-R. W. Lincock.
Midshipmen-Henry Rogers, Egbert Thompson,
Charles W. Hayes.

Acting midshipmen-A. Deslande, Ph. Spencer,* *Jno. Tillotson.

Clerk-O. H. Perry.

Purser's steward-J. W. Wales.

The N. York American republishes the foregoing account, and adds the following:

It is said that Spencer asked to be permitted to fire the gun, which was the signal for execution--but when the trying moment came, another was obliged to fire the gun.

These thirteen with the three executed, are all against whom complete and satisfactory proof could be found, but that the great majority of the crew were also implicated, there is no shadow of doubt, though it cannot be so clearly established as with the sixteen. Of this, however, we shall hear more when the details which have been sent to Washington are made public. Sufficient is known already to establish beyond a question the necessity, imperative and immediate, however dreadful, of th'

*Natives of New York.

1. The extent of the western coast of Africa, along which the slave trade is supposed to be carried on; with the rivers, creeks, inlets, bays, harbors, or parts of the coast to which it is understood slave ships most frequently resort.

course pursued by commander Mackenzie, than
whom, a more humane, conscientious and gallant
officer does not hold a commission in the navy of the
United States. For three days, it seems to have been
his hope to be spared taking the lives of the three
prisoners, but when it became clear as light that a
2. The space or belt along the shore within which
rescue was in agitation, and that the mutiny was still cruisers may be usefully employed for the purpose of
unsubdued, it was his duty to order them to be exe-detecting vessels engaged in the traffic.
cuted, and he did it.

It is impossible not to feel deep sympathy with the 3. The general course of proceeding of a slave friends and connections of those executed-so sud-ship, after leaving Brazil or the West Indies on a den and so dreadful, and so dishonoring was their voyage to the coast of Africa for slaves; including her manner of approach to the shore, her previous taking off-but sympathy not certainly unmingled bargain or arrangement for the purchase of slaves; with admiration is due to commander Mackenzie the time of her usual stay on or near the coast, and and his officers, who were compelled to assume so the means by which she has communication with perfearful a responsibility, and steel their hearts against all the natural pleadings in favor of mercy or at least delay.

sons on land.

4. The nature of the stations or barracoons in which slaves are collected on shore to be sold to the traders; whether usually in rivers, creeks, or inlets, or on or near the open shore.

It was a noble act of patriotic self-devotion. Capt. Mackenzie, accompanied by all his officers and crew, attended divine service yesterday at Brooklyn, to return thanks to an all-wise providence for their escape from the dangers to which they have been exposed.

Another portion of the coast, from the limits of the Sierra Leone colony to Cape Mount, (a space includ ing the mouths of six or more rivers,) the slave trade Here commences the 5. The usual articles of equipment and prepara- is extensively prosecuted. tion, and the manner of fitting up, by which a vessel jurisdiction of the American colonization society, is known to be a slaver, though not caught with slaves which extends to Grand Bassa. There are several It seems not without connection with the fact that on board. slave stations between Grand Bassa and Cape Pal a confederate off the Isle of Pines was referred to by 6. The utility of employing vessels of different na-situated near the meridian of Greenwich, we believe mas. From thence eastwardly to Cape Coast castle, the mutineers, to notice that a rumor was circulated tions to cruise together, so that one or the other there are no slave stations; but eastward of this, and some week or two ago here, of the shipwreck of the might have a right to visit and search every vessel in the bights of Benin and Biafra, along the whole Somers. This may have been designed to account which might be met with under suspicious circum-coast, (which includes the mouths of the great rivers for her non-appearance in case the mutineers had stances, either as belonging to the country of the Benin, Formosa, Nun, old and new Calabar, Bonny, We understand writs of habeas corpus have been vessels visiting and searching, or to some other coun-Camerons, Gaboon, and Congo,) with few exceptions, sued out in favor of some of the men in confinement try which has, by treaty, conceded such right of visi- down to Benguela, in latitude 13 deg. south, the slave

been successful.

tation and search.

7. To what places slaves from slave ships could be most conveniently taken.

8. Finally, what number of vessels, and of what size and description, it would be necessary to employ on the western coast of Africa, in order to put an entire end to the traffic in slaves, and for what number of years it would probably be necessary to maintain such force to accomplish that purpose?

on board the North Carolina.

The New York Herald says that the following are the names of the persons confined as prisoners belonging to the brig Somers, now on board the North Carolina:

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[N. York American, Dec. 20. COURT OF INQUIRY. It is understood that a court of inquiry, composed of high officers of the navy, has been already ordered by the navy department, to investigate the conduct of commander A. Slidell Mackenzie, commanding the United States brig Somers, in the very trying emergency in which he was placed by the mutiny on board that vessel on her late cruise.

The court consists of the following gentlemenCommodores STEWART, JACOB JONES, and DALLASwith judge advocate OGDEN HOFFMAN, Esq. of New York.

You will please to add such observations as the state of your knowledge may allow, relative to the slave trade on the eastern coast of Africa. I have the honor to be &c. DANIEL WEBSTER. Caplains Bell and Paine, U. S. navy.


How long
Where in ser-
Age. born. vice. Rate.
Daniel McKinley, 20 Boston Landsman
Benjamin F. Green, 19 Portland 5 ys. apprentice
Charles A. Wilson, 22 N. York 6 m. sail m. mate
Alexander McRea, 17 Ireland 6 m. apprentice
The above four were brought home in irons. After
the brig was moored off the navy yard, Brooklyn, all
hands were called on deck, and from among them the
following persons were also put in irons:
Chas. J. Goldenham, 18 Boston 4y. 3m. apprentice
George W. Warner, 21 N. York 5y.
17 N. Haven 3y. 8m. do.
22 Malta
6m. old seaman

18 do. 4y. 9m.
17 Phila. ly.

Chas. Van Velzer,
Richard Hamilton,
George Kneavels,
Edmund Gallia,
Eugene Sullivan, 17 Providence 15m. apprentice
Heary Waltham, 23 N. York 5y. old seaman
The following are the names of those who were
hung at the yard-arm of the Somers:
Philip Spencer, midshipman, born in New York;

Vessels bound from the coast of Brazil, or the West Indies, to the coast of Africa, are obliged, in consequence of the trade winds, to run north as far as the latitude of thirty or thirty-five, to get into the variable winds; thence to the eastward, until they reach the longitude of Cape Verd Islands; then steer The slave trade from the Western Africa to Ame-bound as far to the eastward as the Gulf of Guinea, to the southward to their port of destination; and, if

and who received his warrant as midshipman on Norica is carried on wholly between Senegal, latitude usually make the land near Cape Mount or Cape Palvember 20, 1841. Samuel Cromwell, boatswain's mate, aged 35, of N. York; Elijah H. Small, seaman, aged 24, native of Boston.

mas. Vessels from Brazil bound to the southern

part of the coast of Africa run south as far as the latitude of thirty-five degrees south, and make up their easting in the southern variables.

ISLE OF PINES. The navy department, it is said, immediately on receipt of commander McKenzie's despatches, ordered a vessel of war to proceed with all despatch from Norfolk to this Island-which lies off Cape Antonio, (Cuba) in latitude 21 31. The Island has but few houses on it, which are concealed in bushes-is of considerable extent, and has good wells of water.

degrees west, and Cape Frio, in latitude eighteen
sixteen degrees north, longitude sixteen and a half
degrees south, longitude twelve degrees east, a space
(following the windings of the coast at the distance
of three or four miles) of more than 3,600 miles.-
There are scattered along the coast five English, four
French, five American, six Portuguese, six or eight
Dutch, and four or five Danish settlements besides
many which have been abandoned by their respective

Commanders Bell and Paine to the secretary of state.
Washington city, May 10, 1842.

SIR: In accordance with the wishes expressed in
your communication of the 30th ultimo, we have the
honor to submit the following statement:

In reply to the first particular, viz: "The extent of the western coast of Africa, along which the slave trade is supposed to be carried on with the rivers, creeks, inlets, bays, harbors, or parts of the coast to which it is understood slave ships most frequently



These settlements are generally isolated; many of
them only a fortress without any town; while a few
are a cluster of villages and farins.

settlements, exercise an important influence in sup-
The British, French, and particularly the American
pressing the slave trade.

The influence of the Danes and Dutch is not ma-

The Portuguese influence is supposed to favor the continuance of the trade, except the counter influence of the British, through treaty stipula


sometimes more or less perfectly associated for a greater distance.

Of these factories and tribes, a few have never been directly engaged in the slave trade, and are opposed to it; but the great preponderance is of the slave trading interest.

To enumerate the rivers and inlets of this coast would not convey a just idea of the slave country or practices, as the embarkation often takes place from the beach where there is no inlet; but we will state

a few of the most noted.

North of the Portuguese cluster of settlements, of which Bissao is the capital, and south of BenCORRESPONDENCE ON THE AFRICAN guela, (also Portuguese,) there is believed to be no probability of a revival of the slave trade to any ex




This leaves about 3,000 miles of coast to which the trade (principally with Cuba, Porto Rico, and Brazil) is limited.

Mr. Webster to Captains Bell and Paine. Department of state, Washington, April 30, 1842. There are hundreds of trading places on the coast, GENTLEMEN: Your experience in the service on calling themselves "factories," and each claiming the coast of Africa has probably enabled you to give the protection of some civilized power. Some of information to the government on some points con- these were the sites of abandoned colonies; others nected with the slave trade on that coast, in respect have been established by trading companies or indito which it is desirable that the most accurate know-viduals. ledge attainable should be possessed. These parti- The actual jurisdiction of a tribe on the coast seldom exceeds ten miles, though these small tribes are

culars are:

Commencing at Cape Roxo, in latitude twelve degrees thirty min. north, and running down the coast as far as the river Mellacorce, in latitude nine degrees north, the slave trade is more or less carried on; but (in consequence of the vigilance of cruisers) not to the same extent it was a few years ago.

trade is carried on to a very great extent.

2d. "The space or belt along the shore, within which cruisers may be usefully employed for the purpose of detecting vessels engaged in the traffic?"

Men of war should always cruise as near the shore as the safety of the vessel will admit, in order to take advantage of the land and sea breezes. Twenty or thirty miles from the coast there are continual calms, where vessels are subject to vexatious delays; besides which, ships engaged in the slave trade keep close in with the land, in order to reach their places of destination.

3d. "The general course of proceeding of a slave ship, after leaving Brazil or the West Indies, on a voyage to the coast of Africa, for slaves, including her manner of approach to the shore, her previous bargain or arrangements for the purchase of slaves, the means by which she has communication with per the time of her usual stay on or near the coast, and sons on land?"

Slave vessels are generally owned or chartered by those persons who have an interest in the slave estab lishments on the coast of Africa, where the slaves are collected and confined in barracoons or slave prisons, ready for transhipment the moment the vessel arrives. They are therefore detained but a short time after arriving at their place of destination. In

stances have come to our notice of vessels arriving at
the slave station in the evening, landing their cargo,
land breeze the following morning.
taking on board all their slaves, and sailing with the

It is not unusual, however, for vessels unconnected with any particular slave establishment to make their purchases after their arrival. If any delay is likely to occur, an agent is landed, and the vessel stands to sea, and remains absent for as long a time as may be thought necessary to complete their arrangements. The slavers communicate with the shore either with their own boats or boats and canoes belonging to the Kroomen in the employment of those on shore.

4th. "The nature of the stations or barracoons in which slaves are collected on shore to be sold to the traders, whether usually on rivers, creeks, or inlets, or on or near the open shore?"

The slave stations are variously situated; some near the mouth, others a considerable distance up the rivers, and many directly on the sea shore. The barracoons are thatched buildings, made sufficiently strong to secure the slaves, and enough of them to contain, in soine instances, several thousands. The slaves are collected by the negro chiefs in the vici nity, and sold to the persons in charge of the stations, where they are kept confined until an opportunity of

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