« VorigeDoorgaan »
in a broken voice, "poor old Joe! he's gone at las Well, well, God bless him!" There was an elegy fit for a mitred head, or a prince in his jewelled shroud.
We hate to advert to the horrid scene of his death; but there is one little incident connected with it that
The state finances are in a wretched, hopeless con- law imposing a tax upon money loaned at interest, dition. Gov. Bigger's message says nearly the en- and upon money invested in the purchase of notes tire revenue of the state, for the past year, will be and bonds, and to which I have before alluded. The paid in treasury notes on the state treasury. This deficiency has been met by the bank, out of the reveleaves the treasury nearly destitute of means to pay nue deposited with it, to cover which there should be we must mention. His watch chain was found meltthe members of the legislature, the various public a special appropriation. The faith of the state, which should forever re-ed on his bosom, and links of the pure metal run into officers, and the current expenses of the government. The state's share of the land money is $26,877 66. main untarnished, requires that the interest upon the his breast, as though Death, cold and callous as he The general government has withheld of this sum, bonds should be promptly met, and I am well satis- is, had tried to encase the brave old man's heart in a $13,975, to back interest due on the bonds of the fied that this can be done, if my recommendations in casket of gold. His memory is enshrined still more state, purchased by the general government, and in-relation to the assessment and collection of the reve- preciously in the friendship of the many friends he vested in the Chickasaw and Choctaw annuities, leav-nue, and to cost in criminal cases, shall receive the has left behind him. Yesterday afternoon between four and five o'clock, ing a balance to the credit of the state of $12,902 66, favorable consideration of the legislature. There is a considerable sum due the bank for in- the Washington Battalion, under the command of which is all the money the state has to pay the exterest upon money advanced to the state for the erec-captain Tracy, formed in front of Royal street. The penses of the year! tion of the capitol, the pay of the troops, and for in- solemn music of the dead was played, and the coffin ternal improvement. Although these loans were not of the old man, covered with the glorious flag of our made in accordance with law, yet as the state re-native land-the symbol he had perilled his life to ceived and applied the money, it seems to be due to honor-borne in front of the line. There, save the the bank that the interest, at least, should be promptmusic, all noise was hushed, and all hearts like
ly paid, and it is hoped that suitable provision will be
The message says nearly the whole of the suspended debt of the state will prove a total loss! not more than half a million of the collateral securities are good for anything. Concerning repudiation, he "It is the future which must determine whether we are a faith-keeping people. As for myself, I have a deep and abiding confidence in the integrity and enterprise of the people of Indiana, in the extent to which her resources may be developed, and in the realization of those means which can and will be applied to discharge those obligations, the avoid- "The worst is death, and death will have his day." ance of which will bring upon us merited and lasting Poor "old Joe"-"Portuguese Joe," long and well infamy." known among us all, has made his final exit from The condition of the state bank, on the 31st of Oc-life through means of a fearful and terrible casualty. tober, is stated. Its discounts were $2,867,917; its He was a man of many excellent natural parts, and specie $799,047. The circulation was $1,732,518; there is not one who ever knew him that does not the deposits $1,811,248. cherish kindly remembrance of the man, as well as profound regret for his frightful and melancholy end. He was burned to death by the fire in Exchange Place yesterday morning, and from the position in which his blackened corpse was found, it would seem that he had rushed from his bed and found his escape cut off by flames upon the staircase. In the meantime the raging element shut off his retreat to the window, and he was found crouched in a corner of the staircase, blackened and scorched by the fire and A with his lower extremities crisped into a cinder. more terrible death has not been recorded among us in many months. To be startled from the calm slumber of midnight into the greatest terror that can affright humanity, is perhaps a degree of horror that living beings may only partially conceive.
On the 22d ult., Col. Sevier was re-elected U. S. senator by the legislature of this state, having received 71 votes, in opposition to Pike, the whig candidate, who received 10 votes.
THE MESSAGE OF GOVERNOR REYNOLDS is very long, and a large portion of it is devoted to national subjects. Banks and bank notes are in bad odor with his excellency. The single district system for electing representatives to congress, is denounced and he strenuously urges the legislature to protest "against this first and alarming attempt on the part of the federal government to control, by its mandate, the legislation of the state."
"Muffled drums were beating
Funeral marches to the grave."
He was followed to his last resting place by the military, and a large concourse of our citizens, and poor, good old Joe, who three days ago was in the full flush of health, now lies in his narrow bed in Cypress grove. Light be the turf upon the old man's head, and green his resting place.
And is there not a moral in all this? Ay, there is, and a beautiful one, although when drawn from the present subject, it is like the smile that we see resting on the pale brow of the dead. The moral teaches us that the bold, brave hearts of our countrymen look not upon the station, but the services of our adopted citizens. He was a man, in an humble sphere of life, knighted by his own patriotism and respected for his own virtues. No quartered shield was his, nor did his blood flow from a "noble" channel-genius never flitted over him with her lightning wings-nor did the yellow gold swell his coffers, yet the Templar of the olden time was not honored more than he. The banner of the proudest land on earth, wrapped his coffin, and a phalanx of the bravest men followed him to his grave.
Our praise has been sneered at by foreigners, as vulgar, and our rewards as miserly; but let them recollect it is our all-the "widow's mite."
We long since heard an anecdote of poor old Joe, Louis D'Jose was humble and poor, but he was a that obtained somewhat of local knowledge by ver-brave man and a patriot, and from one end of this The distribution of the proceeds of the public bal communication from one to the other. He was mighty land of curs, his memory will be cherished, lands is attacked with all energy. The passage, by captain of the main-top on board of commodore and his gallantry embalmed in a nobler sarcophagus the house of representatives, of the bill to declare McDonough's ship "Saratoga," at the famous battle than that which held the Egyptian king-the annals the boundary between Missouri and Iowa, is object-of Lake Champlain, at the time that the American of a free republic. And such is the reward given The bankrupt law is denounced-the proprie- flag was shot from the mast. In the very heat of the
[New Orleans Tropic.
THE UNITED STATES BRIG SOMERS.
ty of abolishing imprisonment for debt during its ex-action, when shot were flying thick as hail, he stuck by Americans to the patriot.
The rest of the message is devoted to state affairs. Of its financial condition this account is given: "There has been paid into the treasury, from the ordinary sources of revenue, for the two last fiscal years, exclusive of the balance in the treasury on the 30th September, 1840, $266,518 81, and the the disbursements for the same period amount to $233,930 16, leaving a balance in the treasury of $33,588 65.
This excess, produced, in part, by the collector of the county of St. Louis depositing monthly the amount of revenue collected, instead of reserving the whole amount, as heretofore, until his annual settlement on the first of December.
The bonds authorised to be issued by the act entitled "An act to issue state bonds to pay the state debt," approved, February 15, 1841, were disposed of at par after being made to bear ten per cent interest per annum. This was the lowest rate of interest at which the bonds could be sold.
MUTINY AND EXECUTION.
had vanished long before in progress of the engage.
The most of these bonds, having been sold in the city of New York, and payment for them made there, the amount of premium upon the exchange, $5,219 66, was passed, by the bank of the state of Missouri,leans Picayune, Nov. 30th. to the credit of the state, and has been applied to the payment of the interest upon the bonds."
The Tropic of the 1st inst. makes the following notice of "poor old Joe's funeral:"
Known here by almost everybody only as "Portuguese Joe," few were aware of his right name, which we found some trouble in ascertaining yesterday. He was called, when addressed properly, Louis D'Jose, Express: "The Somers sailed from Monrovia, Liberia, on the and he will be consigned to the tomb to-day. We know not when we have been pained in noticing the night of the 11th November. There were no Amedemise of a braver or an honester man.-New Or- rican vessels at Monrovia. The colony was in a flourishing condition, bidding fair to realize eventually the hopes of its enlightened and benevolent founders. The colonists are being more disposed From an early hour yesterday morning, until the than heretofore to devote themselves to agricultural The seven per cent bonds, issued under the authori ty of the act supplementary to the previously recited procession started, thousands stopped to take a last pursuits-barter with the natives, buying as cheap as act, were purchased by the contractors upon the Ca-view of the brave old man's blackened form. The possible and selling as dear, having hitherto been pitol, there being no other persons proposing to pur- room in which he lay was neatly decorated with their almost exclusive pursuit. Sugar and coffee, crape, and it was a thrilling sight to mark how death said to equal the first Mocha and of most abundI regret to inform you that the fund, set apart and had usurped the place of life. Where business, the ant yield, promise to become valuable staples.ledged for the payment of the interest upon the cheerful rattle of the glasses, the smile, and the The colonists recently arrived in the Maripoza Donds, authorised to be issued at the last session of pledge of friendship once was heard,now was changed are doing well. There had been comparatively few he legislature, has fallen far short of the amount to a place crowded with men with gloomy faces-a deaths among them. Their previous pursuits had anticipated. This failure has resulted in part, from smothered murmur filled the room-the visiters been chiefly agricultural, and they were expected to he neglect of many of the assessors to execute the shook their heads, and looked to the floor, muttering prove a valuable accession to the colony.
pers, and been copied into a paper of extensive circuThe Somers arrived at St. Thomas on the evening headed by an officer, to murder the captain and constitution and laws of the country. Various publation at the seat of government, giving versions of the of the 4th December, after a passage of 23 days; principal officers, except the surgeon, and turn pi- lications have however appeared in the New York paThe most enérgetic measures became necessary.procured water and necessary supplies, and sailed rates. thence in the night of the 5th December, and has performed her passage from St. Thomas in 8 days Midshipman Spencer and two of the petty officers transaction, the materials for which, if not the verand 16 hours, and from Liberia in less than 31 days. were immediately arrested, and enquiries set on foot sions themselves, were obviously furnished by some The chief news at St. Thomas, was that war had to ascertain the extent of the mutiny. Investiga- officers who had a hand in the bloody deed. This is broken out between Spain and the republic of Hayti. tion proved it to be to a most alarming extent. The evident from their containing some facts which could Port au Prince was blockaded by a squadron from captain called upon the officers to express their opi- be known only to those officers-but so perverted, so Havana and Porto Rico. Several English men-of- nion as to what measures the exigencies of the case exaggerated, and interspersed with so much surmise, war had gone thither to look after British interests. required. After a formal investigation, they gave and so much downright falsehood, as to evince the Four or five mail steamers were expected to meet at it, as their unanimous opinion, that the safety of the deep anxiety felt to make sure of the first impression St. Thomas, now the general rendezvous of their ship and crew required that the ringleaders should on the public mind. An awful responsibility rests packets in the West Indies, on the 8th inst., for the be put to death; and, after giving them a short time on those officers, and above all on their commander. Confessions of guilt were made by Spencer more hazardous than it now is, it is still deemed an distribution of the mails, thence to separate for their for preparation, they were swung up at the yard Without the least desire to render that responsibility respective destinations. and one of the men, and the justice of their sen- act of simple and bare justice to the memory of the tence acknowledged with their dying breath. In slain, to say that an examination of the papers transSpencer's neckcloth was found a paper written inmitted by Com. Mackenzie show these facts: cipher detailing the whole plan.
The Somers has been absent 3 months and a day, has made the Azores, touched at Madeira, Teneriffe, Port Baya, Cape Messurado and St. Thomas, and was at anchor 107 hours. The officers and crew are in excellent health."
1st. That acting midshipman Spencer was put in double irons on the 25th of November, and the boatswain's mate Samuel Cromwell, and seaman Elisha 2d. That no disorder of a mutinous character apSmall, on the day following, on a charge of intended mutiny.
The crew was to rise at night in his watch, and the mutiny to commence by a sham fight on the foreOn Sunday, however, intimations reached us from castle-he was to conduct them aft as if to report were to appear greatly excited; and, as if eagar, New York on one hand, and at the same time from them to the officer of the deck. They, in turn, Washington on the other, to which it had been con- each one to tell his own story, were to crowd around peared among the crew for the four succeeding days; In the mean time, others good weather towards the island of St. Thomas, veyed by an officer of the Somers, who reached that the officer, and clapping their hands on his mouth, that the vessel was going with good breezes and in city on Saturday by express, of a solemn tragedy throw him overboard. the captain and first lieutenant, and stab them in having occurred on board that vessel during her voy- were to go down, as if for the purpose of calling where she actually arrived and took in supplies on age. As the officers would authorise no publications, their sleep. The quarter deck guns, loaded with some day between the 1st and 5th of December.
at least semi-official sources.
thousands of rumors, many of them of course ex-grape, were then to be pointed down the hatches,
The responsibility of commander Mackenzie was
Cromwell, one of the men hung, had been a pirate, and the other a slaver; doubtless, it was the influence of these men, who were in Spencer's watch, that led this youth to such an extremity. Full parthat led this youth to case have not yet transpired; the foregoing are derived from an authentic source, but, until the case be fully before the public, we would request a suspension of public opinion.
The Madisonian of the 20th contains the following
We are authorised to say that a full account of
On the same day the same paper contained the following communication, which we see the public the deceased midshipman-the secretary of war.papers generally attribute to the pen of the father of The Madisonian, without having guarded the reader from such an inference, premises its insertion in the following language:
In consideration of the source whence the commu
3d. That on the 30th of November, the opinion of the officers was required by commander Mackenzie pear to have examined thirteen seamen as witnesses as to the disposition of the prisoners; that they apto prove the alleged mutiny, (and who are therefore supposed innocent of any participation in it), which examination was had, so far as the papers show, in the absence of the prisoners, and without giving them any opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses or to make any explanation or defence, or to proficers, without even the form of a court, without cure any testimony in their own behalf. These of even the obligation of an oath, and upon this ex parte secret information, united in the opinion that the safety of the vessel required that the prisoners should influenced by the acts or fears of Mr. Mackenzie, be put to death! How far this recommendation was does not appear.
4th. That on the 1st of December, when every quiet, after four days of entire security, the three thing and person on board the vessel were perfectly persons were, by order of Mackenzie, hung at the yard arm at mid-day.
And had it been
The allegation, in some of the papers, that it was proved to have been the infention of the mutineers to execute their project on arriving at St. Thomas, wholly destitute of any evidence. their design, it was effectually justified so far as these prisoners were concerned, by their confinement. At St. Thomas, any of the crew might have been left, and the power of the officers of the vessel strengthened to any extent that was necessary.
The statement in the Intelligencer, copied appar ently from the New York American, that Spencer violated an engagement formerly made to resign, seems to have been deemed necessary to prejudice the public mind against him, that those who slew him might have a more favorable hearing. It is untrue; he did resign, and the secretary of the navy, on the recommendation of his commanding officer, considering the nature and circumstances of the of fence (inebriation,) restored his warrant, with a
strong admonition; and this was done without the solicitation of any of his friends. His age is represented in the same paper to have been over twenty. Had he lived, he would have been nineteen the 28th of January next.
As to the probability that such a mere boy-utterly unacquainted with navigation-brought up in the interior would seriously endeavor to seduce to mutiny
an old seaman who had arrived at the rank of boat-
The Madisonian of the 19th inst. contains the fol-nication signed "S" emanated, we placed it in the to intercept the packets, seems to have been thrown
The only account we have, given by Spencer himself, is, that it was all a joke. If it shall appear to have been the mere romance of a heedless boy, ing himself, it is true, in a dangerous manner, but still devoid of such murderous designs as are imputed, and if the execution of him and two seamen (against one of whom at least, there is not yet a particle of evidence) should prove to have been the re
sult of unmanly fear, or of a despotic temper, and They were then to cruise in search of merchant ves- suspected to be concerned, were permitted to go to wholly unnecessary at the time to repress or prevent sels, trading between this port and Europe; which duty until they reached this port, when they were also a munity-if all this can appear, it cannot be doubted after being plundered, and the males on board killed, ironed and sent on board the North Carolina. that the laws will be vindicated. The laws of con- were to be indiscriminately sunk; and if there chanc- The following are the names of the men and boys gress prescribing the navy regulations, forbid the taked to be any females, they were to be taken on board now confined on board the receiving ship, and awaiting of human life, even by the sentence of a court the Somers, violated, and retained so long as the piing the action of the navy department: martial, before which all parties are heard, without rates might desire, when they also were to be com- Charles A. Wilson, sail maker's mate. the sanction of the president of the United States, or, mitted to the deep! The arrangement for the divi- Daniel McKinley landsman. if without the United States, of the commander of sion of the spoils, the allotment of the females, the vathe fleet or squadron. This is believed to be the first rious officers on board, &c., were all completed, and instance in our history in which the law has been drawn up in detail in SPENCER'S HAND-WRITING; and violated the first in which prisoners-not of the he assured Mr. Wales that he had twenty of the enemy, but of our own citizens-have been been put crew with him sure. to death in cold blood.
These remarks are made, not to excite prejudice, but to repel the attempt to create it, and to enable the American people to see what mighty principles are involved in this unheard-of proceeding. Let justice be done; let it not be denied, because one of the victims was connected with a high functionary of government, nor because another is unknown, and has not a friend or relation on the face of the earth. And let not wanton opprobrium be heaped upon the memory of the dead, to justify the bloody deeds of
From the moment Spencer made the above circumstances known to Mr. Wales, he was watched with Argus eyes by Samuel Cromwell, boatswain's mate, and Elisha Small, seaman, who were the principal ringleaders with Spencer, and who threatened to throw him overboard, the moment they saw the least signs of defection in him, or had the least cause to suspect that he had made or intended to make any disclosures to any person.
Benjamin F. Green, ordinary seaman (apprentice.)
tending this attempt to seize upon a national ship
What confirms this supposition is the fact now ascertained, that SPENCER declared before his departure that he would never return to this city, and on the passage out assumed to be able to tell men's fortunes, and assured his fellow midshipmen in the steerage that they had not long to live! words which at the time were treated as badinage, but which were doubtless based upon a knowledge of his desperate schemes.
All the petty officers who remained true to their flag, have behaved in the most exemplary manner; and the serjeant of marines, whose name has escaped us, left the sick report on the day the mutiny was discovered, and performed his duty daily until his arrival in port, when he was conveyed to the hospital seriously and dangerously ill.
P. S. The mutiny we believe, was discovered to capt. MACKENZIE on the 29th of November, and the culprits executed on the 1st December. This sad alternative, we have reason to suppose, was expedited by a movement among the disaffected which looked like an attempt at rescue.
The following is a list of the officers of the Somers when she sailed from this port:
Mr. Wales, not daring to communicate with capt. Mackenzie, made all the circumstances as detailed by midshipman Spencer, known to the purser, who promptly conveyed the intelligence to capt. MackenThe New York Courier of Monday has the fol-zie, when measures were immediately taken to aslowing circumstantial narrative of the late mutiny certain the truth of the case. Spencer's papers and execution on board the U. S. brig Somers: were thereupon examined, and all the details of Now that the matter is before the public, we feel their plans as narrated by Wales, were fully confirm fully authorised to give the facts of this extraordi-ed. Spencer, Cromwell and Small, were then senary, yet entirely justifiable proceeding, in the full cured, and all hands being mustered on deck, capt. conviction that the truth and the whole truth, is what Mackenzie addressed them on the subject of the the public are entitled to know, and upon which proposed mutiny, apprising them that all the plans a correct judgment in the premises be of the mutineers had been discovered and frustrated, formed. We would merely premise, that although and warning them of the consequences of any simiour account is not official, and although it may not comport with Mr. Mackenzie's notions of naval Capt. MACKENZIE then addressed a circular letter etiquette to approve of such a detailed statement as to each of the officers on board the vessel, except the we are prepared to give, yet it may be relied upon as acting midshipmen, requesting their opinion as to the actually embracing most of the particulars of that course of conduct which should be pursued towards gentleman's report to the secretary of the navy; and SPENCER and the two men who had been arrested as we do not hold ourselves responsible to the distin- with him. Each one returned for answer that they guished naval officers now on this station for what deserved immediate death, and Captain MACKENZIE'S we may deem proper to make public under existing opinion coinciding with that of his officers, it was decircumstances, we hope that they will agree with us, termined to carry the punishment into immediate exethat the sooner the truth reaches the public the bet-cution. All hands were accordingly called to witter it will be for all parties as well as for the char-ness punishment. Whips were then rove into each acter of the navy; and in consequence, not give end of the fore yard arm, and one on the inner part themselves any unnecessary trouble to ascertain our of the yard. The prisoners were then brought on source of information. deck and informed of the punishment about to be The Somers sailed from this port about three executed upon them. SMALL at once fully confessed months since, with a crew of eighty apprentices, his fault, and asked most penitently the forgiveness eighteen ordinary seamen, and an orderly sergeant of his commander and the officers, which was at once of marines, who acted as master at arms. She was accorded to him. He then obtained permission to commanded by master commandant Siidell Macken- address the crew, which he did, warning them against zie, well known to the navy as one of our most ex-permitting themselves ever to be seduced as he had emplary officers, and to the literary world as the au- been, into the committal of the crime for which he thor of a "Year in Spain." Her officers consisted was about to suffer death. of lieut. Gansevoort, of Albany, and five or six midshipmen among whom was Philip Spencer, son of the secretary of war, and two sons of commodore Perry. Having delivered the despatches with which he was charged, to the commanding officer on the coast of Africa, capt. Mackenzie sailed for this port with the publicly avowed intention of touching at St. Thomas for provisions previous to coming on our coast at this season of the year. A day or two previous to December 1st, and when the vessel was within five or six hundred miles from St. Thomas, midshipman Spencer hinted a part of his plans to Mr. Wales, the purser's steward, who affected a hearty co-operation, took an oath of secrecy, &c. which Spencer administered to him, when he was made more fully acquainted with the plan of the mutineers. They had arranged to raise a scuffle on the forecastle some night after leaving St. Thomas, Every thing being in readiness, the noose was proved the correctness of the commander's decision. while the deck was in charge of midshipman Rodg- placed around the neck of each of the culprits, and From a state of almost open mutiny the crew were ers, a nephew of the late commodore John Rodgers; the officers were stationed about the deck to see that subdued to their former discipline, and every thing and when the men engaged in it would of course be every man had both hands on the ropes. About one went on without the least cause for alarm. The of ordered aft to account for the cause of the distur- o'clock, (sea time) on the 1st of December, the sig-ficers kept their watches completely armed, and on bance, and when Mr. Rodgers was thus engaged, they nal for execution was given by firing a gun to lee- the arrival of the brig here, four of the crew (who were to seize, gag, and throw him overboard, with as ward, and the guilty men were run up. little noise as possible. Spencer was then to enter After hanging about an hour the bodies were low-were the only ones brought here in irons) were imthe cabin and kill capt. Mackenzie; and others were appointed to be stationed at the main hatch, through which the crew must pass to get on deck, and at the steerage hatch, through which all the officers except the captain, must pass. All the officers, except the SMALL'S last words were to invoke a blessing on surgeon, were to be murdered and thrown over- the American flag, and to ask forgiveness for having board; and the crew, who were below, were to be so dishonored it; but the others died without any mustered on deck. The two after guns were to be marks of penitence. Immediately after the execu pointed forward, to secure the mutineers from an tion all hands were called to cheer ship; and three attack, and such of the crew who had not yet join- hearty cheers were given for the American flag, ed, but who then elected to come in with them, were to be admitted, while the others were to be
They were then to get out all the boats and lighten the vessel; after which they were to make for the Isle of Pines, where they were to meet a confederate.
SPENCER asked a respite of TEN MINUTES for himself and companions in guilt, in order that they might prepare to dic. This was granted, and he was asked if he wished to write to his father or mother; but he replied that HE DID NOT. He then acknowledged his guilt and the justice of his punishment, and remarked that he would rather meet such a death there (at sea) than to be subjected to the infamy of exposure on shore. The ten minutes asked for by SPENCER was extended to upwards of one hour, nearly the whole of which time was employed by him in endeavoring to obtain forgiveness of SMALL, having seduced him into the committal of a crime for which he was so soon to expiate with his life. SMALL withheld his forgiveness for a length of time; but at last in reply to SPENCER'S oft reiterated request of "Do forgive me SMALL," he said that he fully pardoned him.
ered down and delivered to their several messmates
which was then waving at the gaff; after which all
vessel were resumed.
Four of the men who appeared to be most deeply implicated, were placed in irons immediately upon the discovery of the projected mutiny; but the others
Commander-*Alexander S. Mackenzie.
Assistant surgeon-R. W. Lincock.
Acting midshipmen-A. Deslande, Ph. Spencer,* *Jno. Tillotson.
Clerk-O. H. Perry.
Purser's steward-J. W. Wales.
The N. York American republishes the foregoing account, and adds the following:
It is said that Spencer asked to be permitted to fire the gun, which was the signal for execution--but when the trying moment came, another was obliged to fire the gun.
The effect of the execution was instantaneous, and
shortly after nine more, making in all thirteen-of mediately transferred to the North Carolina, and whom eleven were apprentics-were added to the
These thirteen with the three executed, are all against whom complete and satisfactory proof could be found, but that the great majority of the crew were also implicated, there is no shadow of doubt, though it cannot be so clearly established as with the sixteen. Of this, however, we shall hear more when the details which have been sent to Washington are made public. Sufficient is known already to establish beyond a question the necessity, imperative and immediate, however dreadful, of th
*Natives of New York.
1. The extent of the western coast of Africa, along | sometimes more or less perfectly associated for a which the slave trade is supposed to be carried on; greater distance. with the rivers, creeks, inlets, bays, harbors, or parts of the coast to which it is understood slave ships most frequently resort.
course pursued by commander Mackenzie, than
3. The general course of proceeding of a slave
It was a noble act of patriotic self-devotion. Capt. Mackenzie, accompanied by all his officers and crew, attended divine service yesterday at Brooklyn, to return thanks to an all-wise providence for their escape from the dangers to which they have been exposed.
It seems not without connection with the fact that a confederate off the Isle of Pines was referred to by the mutineers, to notice that a rumor was circulated some week or two ago here, of the shipwreck of the Somers. This may have been designed to account for her non-appearance in case the mutineers had been successful.
We understand writs of habeas corpus have been sued out in favor of some of the men in confinement on board the North Carolina.
The New York Herald says that the following are the names of the persons confined as prisoners belonging to the brig Somers, now on board the North Carolina:
How long in service.
Where Names. Age. born. Rate. Daniel McKinley, 20 Boston Landsman Benjamin F. Green, 19 Portland 5 ys. apprentice Charles A. Wilson, 22 N. York 6 m. sail m. mate Alexander McRea, 17 Ireland 6 m. apprentice
The above four were brought home in irons. After the brig was moored off the navy yard, Brooklyn, all hands were called on deck, and from among them the following persons were also put in irons:
Chas. J. Goldenham, 18 Boston 4y. 3m. apprentice
Chas. Van Velzer,
Philip Spencer, midshipman, born in New York; and who received his warrant as midshipman on No
vember 20, 1841. Samuel Cromwell, boatswain's mate, aged 35, of N. York; Elijah H. Small, seaman, aged 24, native of Boston. ISLE OF PINES. The navy department, it is said, immediately on receipt of commander McKenzie's despatches, ordered a vessel of war to proceed with all despatch from Norfolk to this Island-which lies off Cape Antonio, (Cuba) in latitude 21 31. The Island has but few houses on it, which are concealed in bushes-is of considerable extent, and has good wells of water.
[N. York American, Dec. 20. COURT OF INQUIRY. It is understood that a court of inquiry, composed of high officers of the navy, has been already ordered by the navy department, to investigate the conduct of commander A. Slidell Mackenzie, commanding the United States brig Somers, in the very trying emergency in which he was placed by the mutiny on board that vessel on her late cruise.
sons on land..
4. The nature of the stations or barracoons in which slaves are collected on shore to be sold to the traders; whether usually in rivers, creeks, or inlets, or on or near the open shore.
5. The usual articles of equipment and preparation, and the manner of fitting up, by which a vessel is known to be a slaver, though not caught with slaves
Of these factories and tribes, a few have never been directly engaged in the slave trade, and are oppos. ed to it; but the great preponderance is of the slave trading interest.
To enumerate the rivers and inlets of this coast would not convey a just idea of the slave country or practices, as the embarkation often takes place from the beach where there is no inlet; but we will state a few of the most noted.
Commencing at Cape Roxo, in latitude twelve de grees thirty min. north, and running down the coast as far as the river Mellacorce, in latitude nine degrees north, the slave trade is more or less carried on; but (in consequence of the vigilance of cruisers) not to the same extent it was a few years ago.
Another portion of the coast, from the limits of the Sierra Leone colony to Cape Mount, (a space includ ing the mouths of six or more rivers,) the slave trade is extensively prosecuted. Here commences the jurisdiction of the American colonization society, which extends to Grand Bassa. There are several on board. slave stations between Grand Bassa and Cape Pal. From thence eastwardly to Cape Coast castle, 6. The utility of employing vessels of different na-situated near the meridian of Greenwich, we believe tions to cruise together, so that one or the other there are no slave stations; but eastward of this, and might have a right to visit and search every vessel in the bights of Benin and Biafra, along the whole which might be met with under suspicious circum-coast, (which includes the mouths of the great rivers stances, either as belonging to the country of the Benin, Formosa, Nun, old and new Calabar, Bonny, vessels visiting and searching, or to some other coun- Camerons, Gaboon, and Congo,) with few exceptions, try which has, by treaty, conceded such right of visi- down to Benguela, in latitude 13 deg. south, the slave tation and search. trade is carried on to a very great extent.
7. To what places slaves from slave ships could be most conveniently taken.
2d. "The space or belt along the shore, within which cruisers may be usefully employed for the 8. Finally, what number of vessels, and of what purpose of detecting vessels engaged in the traffic?" size and description, it would be necessary to employ Men of war should always cruise as near the shore on the western coast of Africa, in order to put an as the safety of the vessel will admit, in order to take entire end to the traffic in slaves, and for what num-advantage of the land and sea breezes. Twenty or ber of years it would probably be necessary to main- thirty miles from the coast there are continual calms, tain such force to accomplish that purpose? where vessels are subject to vexatious delays; besides which, ships engaged in the slave trade keep close in with the land, in order to reach their places of destination.
You will please to add such observations as the state of your knowledge may allow, relative to the slave trade on the eastern coast of Africa. I have the honor to be &c. DANIEL WEBSTER. Caplains Bell and Paine, U. S. navy.
Commanders Bell and Paine to the secretary of state. Washington city, May 10, 1842. SIR: In accordance with the wishes expressed in your communication of the 30th ultimo, we have the honor to submit the following statement:
In reply to the first particular, viz: "The extent of the western coast of Africa, along which the slave trade is supposed to be carried on with the rivers, creeks, inlets, bays, harbors, or parts of the coast to which it is understood slave ships most frequently
Vessels bound from the coast of Brazil, or the
West Indies, to the coast of Africa, are obliged, in consequence of the trade winds, to run north as far as the latitude of thirty or thirty-five, to get into the variable winds; thence to the eastward, until they reach the longitude of Cape Verd Islands; then steer The slave trade from the Western Africa to Ame-bound as far to the eastward as the Gulf of Guinea, to the southward to their port of destination; and, if rica is carried on wholly between Senegal, latitude usually make the land near Cape Mount or Cape Paldegrees west, and Cape Frio, in latitude eighteen part of the coast of Africa run south as far as the sixteen degrees north, longitude sixteen and a half mas. Vessels from Brazil bound to the southern degrees south, longitude twelve degrees east, a space latitude of thirty-five degrees south, and make up (following the windings of the coast at the distance their easting in the southern variables. of three or four miles) of more than 3,600 miles.There are scattered along the coast five English, four French, five American, six Portuguese, six or eight Dutch, and four or five Danish settlements besides many which have been abandoned by their respective governments.
These settlements are generally isolated; many of them only a fortress without any town; while a few are a cluster of villages and farins.
Slave vessels are generally owned or chartered by those persons who have an interest in the slave estab lishments on the coast of Africa, where the slaves are collected and confined in barracoons or slave prisons, ready for transhipment the moment the ves sel arrives. They are therefore detained but a short time after arriving at their place of destination. Instances have come to our notice of vessels arriving at the slave station in the evening, landing their cargo, land breeze the following morning. taking on board all their slaves, and sailing with the
settlements, exercise an important influence in supThe British, French, and particularly the American pressing the slave trade. The influence of the Danes and Dutch is not ma- with any particular slave establishment to make their It is not unusual, however, for vessels unconnected The Portuguese influence is supposed to favor purchases after their arrival. If any delay is likely The court consists of the following gentlemen-ter influence of the British, through treaty stipula- sea, and remains absent for as long a time as may be the continuance of the trade, except the coun- to occur, an agent is landed, and the vessel stands to thought necessary to complete their arrangements. The slavers communicate with the shore either with their own boats or boats and canoes belonging to the Kroomen in the employment of those on shore.
Commodores STEWART, JACOB JONES, and DALLAS— with judge advocate OGDEN HOFFMAN, Esq. of New York.
North of the Portuguese cluster of settlements, of which Bissao is the capital, and south of BenCORRESPONDENCE ON THE AFRICAN guela, (also Portuguese,) there is believed to be no
[CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 56.]
probability of a revival of the slave trade to any ex
This leaves about 3,000 miles of coast to which the trade (principally with Cuba, Porto Rico, and Brazil)
Mr. Webster to Captains Bell and Paine. Department of state, Washington, April 30, 1842. There are hundreds of trading places on the coast, GENTLEMEN: Your experience in the service on calling themselves "factories," and each claiming the coast of Africa has probably enabled you to give the protection of some civilized power. Some of information to the government on some points con- these were the sites of abandoned colonies; others nected with the slave trade on that coast, in respect have been established by trading companies or indito which it is desirable that the most accurate know-viduals. ledge attainable should be possessed. These parti- The actual jurisdiction of a tribe on the coast seldom exceeds ten miles, though these small tribes are
fers to ship them off.
Materials of all kinds neces-j sary to convert a common trader into a slave ship are kept on hand, and the change can be completed in a few hours. A number of Kroomen are employed, and boats and canoes ready for immediate service. The slave stations are generally fortified with cannon and muskets, not only to guard against a rising of the slaves, but to protect them from sudden attacks of the natives in the vicinity, and to command their respect. 5th. "The usual articles of equipment and preparation, and the manner of fitting up, by which a vessel is known to be a slaver, though not caught with slaves on board?"
Vessels engaged in the slave trade are either fitted up with a slave deck, or have the materials on board prepared to put one up in a few hours. Their hatches instead of being close, as is usual in merchantmen, have gratings; they are supplied with boilers sufficiently large to cook rice or farina for the number of slaves they expect to receive; an extra number of water casks, many more than are sufficient for a common crew; also a number of shackles to secure their slaves. Most of these articles, however, are concealed, and every thing is done to disguise the vessel.
It is not unusual for them to have several sets of papers, two or more persons representing themselves as captains or masters of the vessel, and flags of all nations; every device is resorted to to deceive, should
they encounter a cruiser,
Some are armed with only a few muskets; others have a number of heavy guns, acccording to the size of the vessel; and they range from sixty to four hundred tons burden, with crews from ten to upwards of
one hundred men.
6th. "The utility of employing vessels of different nations to cruise together, so that one or the other might have a right to visit and search every vessel which might be inet with under suspicious circumstances, either as belonging to the country of the vessel visiting or searching, or to some other country which has by treaty conceded such right of visitation
We are of opinion that a squadron should be kept on the coast of Africa to co-operate with the British or other nations interested in stopping the slave trade; and that the most efficient mode would be for vessels
to cruise in couples, one of each nation.
7th, "To what places slaves taken from slave ships on the coast could be most conveniently taken?"
If captured under the American flag, send them to Cape Messurado, Liberia, or, if convenient, to such other of the American settlements as the agent of the United States there may wish.
In connexion with this subject we beg leave to re- "On finding, however," says Mr. Dawson, writing mark that the American fair trader is sometimes ob to the editors of the Enquirer, "lately, that there structed in the most vexatious manner by armed was some feeling in this neighborhood favorable to British merchantmen, sustained by British cruisers. the plan, and that persons seeking for signatures to This arises from the practice which exists with the a memorial to congress in its favor have stated to commanders of single cruisers, the agents of trad- those democrats whose names were asked for, that ing companies, the masters of merchantmen, and the plan was such an one as would be approved of others, making agreements, treaties, or, as the ex-by general Jackson, and being impressed with the pression there is, "books," securing to themselves belief that the plan was one to which that worthy the exclusive trade with the tribe or district. A patriot was and is opposed, I wrote to him for his late instance of this unreasonable, and probably un-permission to publish his letter of last year, to which authorised, spirit of monopoly, has come to our no- I have received a reply, consenting to the publication tice near Cape Mount, where the native chief was of his letter. And considering it highly important induced to believe that he could not make a treaty that the democrats of Hamilton county should be in with the American colonists because he had made possession of the general's sentiments upon this imone with the commander of a British cruiser. portant subject, I have to request of you the favor of The same commander, it is asserted, has also giving publicity to the correspondence in your paper, threatened the governor of the colony at Monrovia and therefore propose publishing the latest letter from that he will make reprisals on the commerce of the the general on the subject. colony for exercising the usual jurisdiction at Bassa Cove, only two or three miles from their town of Bassa and Edina.
Hermitage, Nov. 24, 1842. MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 18th instant has
Our knowledge of the commanders of British cruisers authorises us to say that their conduct is not just been received, in which you ask permission to usually thus unfriendly; but many instances show the publish my letter, or extracts from it, to which you propriety of guarding the interests of the fair dealrefer. I have no copy of that letter, and when writer, who is generally opposed to the slave trade. ten, had no idea of its being published; and as I Respecting these treaties or agreements with the wrote it in haste, there may be errors both in gramtribes, we think that only the commanders of squad-mar and spelling, which may need correction; still, rons or governors of colonies should be permitted to as you say it may be useful for information to the make them; and with those over whom their govern- public, having the greatest confidence in your judgment cannot reasonably claim jurisdiction, treaties ment, the permission you ask is freely given to you. should not be made to the exclusion of other mer-I never put to paper any thing but what are my macantile powers trading on the coast, as has some- tured opinions. times been done; and all treaties should contain a As to the allusions made to my message to conprohibition of the slave trade. Commanders of gress, had I strength, I would give you the full outsquadrons and governors of colonies should be au lines of that project, if congress had made the call thorised and directed to seize every opportunity, and on me. But why the call was not made upon me, make use of all honorable means, of inducing the congress was well aware of my opinion of the connative tribes, and particularly the emperor of Ash-stitutional powers of congress in their legislation for antee, the empress or potentate at Loango, and other the district and the states with regard to chartering powerful nations, to enter into agreements to put a banks. I will give you a concise and hasty view of stop, as far as their influence extends, to the traffic; that opinion. That the power of congress over the to seize and send home for trial all foreigners found district was equal to that of the states over their reon the coast engaged in the slave trade, whether belonging to vessels or residing on the coast, (for spective limits, and that neither had the constitutional power to charter banks of paper issues-that the should these persons be permitted to remain, even only power in this respect was to charter banks based after their slave stations are destroyed, they will upon a specie basis, and of deposite and exchange. erect others at points probably less assailable); and The states having resigned to the general governshould be enjoined to extend their protection to fairment the sovereign power to coin money, regulate traders, though not of their own nation. the value thereof, &c. and prohibited themselves from issuing bills of credit, or to make any thing a tender in payment of debts but gold and silver coin, hence the reserved rights of the states contained no power to charter banks with power to issue bills of credit. I ask, what is a bank bill but a bill of credit? The charter allows them to issue three dollars in paper for one of specie; three five dollar bills are issued: I go to the bank with one of them; I draw fives represent? They answer, nothing but credit. These were well known by congress to be my opincommittees representing banks called upon me whilst in the executive chair to know if I would not approve a charter upon other terms than based upon a specie basis. My answer already was, that I would approve no charter; therefore none was presented to
Commanders of squadrons and governors should be directed to destroy all slave factories within the reach of the force employed; and to proclaim to the tribes in the vicinity, they must not be renewed, on pain of having their villages also destroyed. We have little knowledge of the details respect8th. "Finally, what number of vessels, and of what size and description, it would be necessary to employing the slave trade on the eastern coast of Africa. on the western coast of Africa, in order to put an en- No instance has come to our knowledge of the use tire end to the traffic in slaves; and for what number of the American flag there. From the best infor-out five dollars in specie; I ask what the other two of years it would probably be necessary to maintain mation we can obtain, it seems that a large trade is such force to accomplish that purpose?" adding "such carried on by Portuguese colonics, the Arab chiefs, observations as the state of your knowledge may and negro tribes. Their greatest markets are the ions, therefore my project was not called for. Many allow, relative to the slave trade on the eastern coast Mahometan countries bordering on the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the Portuguese East India colonies, Bombay, and perhaps other British possessions in the East Indies. This part of the trade is probably in the hands of the Arabian vessels. Many are also shipped to Brazil, and some perhaps find their way
As our personal knowledge of the coast extends to only that part of it comprised between Cape Verd and Cape Palmas, it is difficult to state the exact force required for this service; not less, however, than the following we think necessary:
One first class sloop of war.
to Cuba and Porto Rico.
In concluding this subject, we beg leave to reOne steamer from 200 to 300 tons burden. mark that the field of operations to carry on the Two (eight or ten gun) brigs or schooners. slave trade is so extensive, the profits so great, and Ten schooners of about 100 tons, each with four the obstacles in the path so many, so various, so difficult, that every means should be used by civilized nations, and particularly by the United States and Great Britain, to effect the object; and we do not believe that any material good can result without an earnest and cordial co-operation. We have the honor to be, with high respect, your obedient servants,
One store-ship of from 250 to 300 tons. All the vessels to have one-tenth less than their complements of men, to be filled up with Kroomen
on their arrival on the coast.
A steamer, (to be fitted up, if possible, to burn either wood or coal, as circumstances require,) will be essentially necessary.
CHARLES H. BELL,
POLITICS OF THE DAY.
That part of the coast of Africa from which slaves are exported is subject to light winds and calms. A Hon. Daniel Webster, sec'y of state, Washington, steamer propelled at the rate of six miles an hour. could easily overtake the fastest sailing vessels, and would be a great auxiliary in ascending rivers and towing boats, in order to attack slave stations. Less duty is performed by sailing cruisers on this coast than on any other we are acquainted with, from the reasons just stated; and the importance of steam vessels is much increased by this difficulty.
I am and ever have been opposed to all kind of government paper currency, let it be derived from exchequer or otherwise. If the paper is the real representative of specie, why not pay the debts in specie, and let the specie circulate in the hands of ings between the merchant and the laborer will be the laboring and producing classes? Then the dealin specie, and the merchant by making a deposite can get a bill on any part of the union. Where, then, is the use of a paper currency? Neither the merchant nor laborer wants it. The merchant wants a bill-not a bank or exchequer bill-but upon a banker where he lays in his goods-as in Germany.
It is one of the greatest humbugs ever attempted to be imposed upon a people that there is not specie enough in the world to answer all the necessary wants of the community. Look at Cuba! There is no paper there. Shut out from circulation all paper, and specie will flow in upon us as a tide; but never A correspondence is published in the Ohio papers will flow to any country that has a paper currency, between ex-president Jackson and his ancient friend which will always depreciate. A national paper Moses Dawson, esq. on the subject of the exchequer. currency is a great curse to any people, and a parThis correspondence, is not of late date. It was com- ticular curse to the labor of a country, for its depreWe cannot state confidently how long such force menced in 1841, soon after Mr. Tyler's plan of fi- ciation always falls upon the laborer. But with these would be necessary; but we are of opinion that in nance was published in his message. But Mr. Daw-hints I must close, being exhausted. I am greatly three years the trade would be so far destroyed as to son lately wrote to the general for permission to pub- debilitated, and remain your friend. enable the United States to withdraw a greater part lish that correspondence now, in order, it is supposANDREW JACKSON, while a small force of observation would be neces-ed, to change any impressions it may have created sary until the natives had become accustomed to favorable to the exchequer, and stop those of his other occupations, and lost all hope of again engag- own party from signing memorials in behalf of that ing in the traffic. project.
MOSSES DAWSON, ESQ.
The National Intelligencer on inserting the above says: "Comment upon this letter is unnecessary. It 19 a pity it was written, or being written, that it