fers to ship them off. Materials of all kinds necessary to convert a common trader into a slave ship are kept on hand, and the change can be completed in a few hours. A number of Kroomen are employed, and boats and canoes ready for immediate ser


The slave stations are generally fortified with cannon and muskets, not only to guard against a rising of the slaves, but to protect them from sudden attacks of the natives in the vicinity, and to command their respect. 5th. "The usual articles of equipment and preparation, and the manner of fitting up, by which a vessel is known to be a slaver, though not caught with slaves on board?"

Vessels engaged in the slave trade are either fitted up with a slave deck, or have the materials on board prepared to put one up in a few hours. Their hatches instead of being close, as is usual in merchantmen, have gratings; they are supplied with boilers sufficiently large to cook rice or farina for the number of slaves they expect to receive; an extra number of water casks, many more than are sufficient for a common crew; also a number of shackles to secure their slaves. Most of these articles, however, are concealed, and every thing is done to disguise the


It is not unusual for them to have several sets of papers, two or more persons representing themselves as captains or masters of the vessel, and flags of all nations; every device is resorted to to deceive, should they encounter a cruiser,

Some are armed with only a few muskets; others have a number of heavy guns, acccording to the size of the vessel; and they range from sixty to four hundred tons burden, with crews from ten to upwards of one hundred men.

THE LETTER. Hermitage, Nov. 24, 1842. Our knowledge of the commanders of British MY DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 18th instant has cruisers authorises us to say that their conduct is not just been received, in which you ask permission to usually thus unfriendly; but many instances show the publish my letter, or extracts from it, to which you propriety of guarding the interests of the fair deal- refer. I have no copy of that letter, and when writer, who is generally opposed to the slave trade. ten, had no idea of its being published; and as I Respecting these treaties or agreements with the wrote it in haste, there may be errors both in gramtribes, we think that only the commanders of squad-mar and spelling, which may need correction; still, rons or governors of colonies should be permitted to as you say it may be useful for information to the make them; and with those over whom their govern- public, having the greatest confidence in your judg ment cannot reasonably claim jurisdiction, treaties ment, the permission you ask is freely given to you. should not be made to the exclusion of other mer-I never put to paper any thing but what are my macantile powers trading on the coast, as has some- tured opinions. times been done; and all treaties should contain a As to the allusions made to my message to conprohibition of the slave trade. Commanders of gress, had I strength, I would give you the full outsquadrons and governors of colonies should be au lines of that project, if congress had made the call 6th. "The utility of employing vessels of different thorised and directed to seize every opportunity, and on me. But why the call was not made upon me, nations to cruise together, so that one or the other make use of all honorable means, of inducing the congress was well aware of my opinion of the conmight have a right to visit and search every vessel native tribes, and particularly the emperor of Ash-stitutional powers of congress in their legislation for which might be met with under suspicious circum-antee, the empress or potentate at Loango, and other the district and the states with regard to chartering stances, either as belonging to the country of the powerful nations, to enter into agreements to put a banks. I will give you a concise and hasty view of vessel visiting or searching, or to some other country stop, as far as their influence extends, to the traffic; that opinion. That the power of congress over the which has by treaty conceded such right of visitation to seize and send home for trial all foreigners found district was equal to that of the states over their reon the coast engaged in the slave trade, whether be- spective limits, and that neither had the constitutionlonging to vessels or residing on the coast, (for al power to charter banks of paper issues-that the should these persons be permitted to remain, even only power in this respect was to charter banks based after their slave stations are destroyed, they will upon a specie basis, and of deposite and exchange. erect others at points probably less assailable); and The states having resigned to the general governshould be enjoined to extend their protection to fair ment the sovereign power to coin money, regulate traders, though not of their own nation. from issuing bills of credit, or to make any thing a the value thereof, &c. and prohibited themselves tender in payment of debts but gold and silver coin, hence the reserved rights of the states contained no power to charter banks with power to issue bills of

and search?

Commanders of squadrons and governors should be directed to destroy all slave factories within the reach of the force employed; and to proclaim to the tribes in the vicinity, they must not be renewed, on pain of having their villages also destroyed. We have little knowledge of the details respect8th. "Finally, what number of vessels, and of what size and description, it would be necessary to employing the slave trade on the eastern coast of Africa. on the western coast of Africa, in order to put an en- No instance has come to our knowledge of the use tire end to the traffic in slaves; and for what number of the American flag there. From the best inforof years it would probably be necessary to maintain mation we can obtain, it seems that a large trade is such force to accomplish that purpose?" adding "such carried on by Portuguese colonics, the Arab chiefs, observations as the state of your knowledge may and negro tribes. Their greatest markets are the allow, relative to the slave trade on the eastern coast Mahometan countries bordering on the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, the Portuguese East India colonies, Bombay, and perhaps other British possessions in the East Indies. This part of the trade is probably in the hands of the Arabian vessels. Many are also shipped to Brazil, and some perhaps find their to Cuba and Porto Rico.

credit. I ask, what is a bank bill but a bill of credit? The charter allows them to issue three dollars in paper for one of specie; three five dollar bills are issued: I go to the bank with one of them; I draw out five dollars in specie; I ask what the other two fives represent? They answer, nothing but credit. These were well known by congress to be my opinions, therefore my project was not called for. Many committees representing banks called upon me whilst in the executive chair to know if I would not approve a charter upon other terms than based upon a specie basis. My answer already was, that I would approve no charter; therefore none was presented to


We are of opinion that a squadron should be kept on the coast of Africa to co-operate with the British or other nations interested in stopping the slave trade; and that the most efficient mode would be for vessels

to cruise in couples, one of each nation.

7th, "To what places slaves taken from slave ships on the coast could be most conveniently taken?”

If captured under the American flag, send them to Cape Messurado, Liberia, or, if convenient, to such other of the American settlements as the agent of the United States there may wish.

In connexion with this subject we beg leave to re- "On finding, however," says Mr. Dawson, writing mark that the American fair trader is sometimes ob to the editors of the Enquirer, "lately, that there structed in the most vexatious manner by armed was some feeling in this neighborhood favorable to British merchantmen, sustained by British cruisers. the plan, and that persons seeking for signatures to This arises from the practice which exists with the a memorial to congress in its favor have stated to commanders of single cruisers, the agents of trad- those democrats whose names were asked for, that ing companies, the masters of merchantmen, and the plan was such an one as would be approved of others, making agreements, treaties, or, as the ex-by general Jackson, and being impressed with the pression there is, "books," securing to themselves belief that the plan was one to which that worthy the exclusive trade with the tribe or district. A patriot was and is opposed, I wrote to him for his late instance of this unreasonable, and probably un- permission to publish his letter of last year, to which authorised, spirit of monopoly, has come to our no- I have received a reply, consenting to the publication tice near Cape Mount, where the native chief was of his letter. And considering it highly important induced to believe that he could not make a treaty that the democrats of Hamilton county should be in with the American colonists because he had made possession of the general's sentiments upon this imone with the commander of a British cruiser. portant subject, I have to request of you the favor of The same commander, it is asserted, has also giving publicity to the correspondence in your paper, threatened the governor of the colony at Monrovia and therefore propose publishing the latest letter from that he will make reprisals on the commerce of the the general on the subject. colony for exercising the usual jurisdiction at Bassa Cove, only two or three miles from their town of Bassa and Edina.


One store-ship of from 250 to 300 tons.

All the vessels to have one-tenth less than their complements of men, to be filled up with Kroomen

on their arrival on the coast.

A steamer, (to be fitted up, if possible, to burn either wood or coal, as circumstances require,) will be essentially necessary.

of Africa."

As our personal knowledge of the coast extends to only that part of it comprised between Cape Verd and Cape Palmas, it is difficult to state the exact force required for this service; not less, however, than the following we think necessary:


One first class sloop of war.

One steamer from 200 to 300 tons burden.
Two (eight or ten gun) brigs or schooners.

In concluding this subject, we beg leave to re-
mark that the field of operations to carry on the
slave trade is so extensive, the profits so great, and

Ten schooners of about 100 tons, each with four the obstacles in the path so many, so various, so dif-
ficult, that every means should be used by civilized
nations, and particularly by the United States and
Great Britain, to effect the object; and we do not
believe that any material good can result without
an earnest and cordial co-operation. We have the
honor to be, with high respect, your obedient ser-
Commanders U. States navy

I am and ever have been opposed to all kind of 50ernment paper currency, let it be derived from exchequer or otherwise. If the paper is the real reof not the debts specic, and let the specie circulate in the hands of the laboring and producing classes? Then the dealings between the merchant and the laborer will be in specie, and the merchant by making a deposite can get a bill on any part of the union. Where, then, is the use of a paper currency? Neither the merchant nor laborer wants it. The merchant wants a bill-not a bank or exchequer bill-but upon a banker where he lays in his goods-as in Germany.

That part of the coast of Africa from which slaves
are exported is subject to light winds and calms. A Hon. Daniel Webster, sec'y of state, Washington,
steamer propelled at the rate of six miles an hour
could easily overtake the fastest sailing vessels, and
would be a great auxiliary m ascending rivers and
towing boats, in order to attack slave stations. Less
duty is performed by sailing cruisers on this coast
than on any other we are acquainted with, from the
reasons just stated; and the importance of steam ves-
sels is much increased by this difficulty.


It is one of the greatest humbugs ever attempted to be imposed upon a people that there is not specie enough in the world to answer all the necessary wants of the community. Look at Cuba! There is no paper there. Shut out from circulation all paper, and specie will flow in upon us as a tide; but never A correspondence is published in the Ohio papers will flow to any country that has a paper currency, between ex-president Jackson and his ancient friend which will always depreciate. A national paper Moses Dawson, esq. on the subject of the exchequer. currency is a great curse to any people, and a parThis correspondence, is not of late date. It was com- ticular curse to the labor of a country, for its depreWe cannot state confidently how long such force menced in 1841, soon after Mr. Tyler's plan of fi- ciation always falls upon the laborer. But with these would be necessary; but we are of opinion that in nance was published in his message. But Mr. Daw-hints I must close, being exhausted. I am greatly three years the trade would be so far destroyed as to son lately wrote to the general for permission to pub- debilitated, and remain your friend. enable the United States to withdraw a greater part lish that correspondence now, in order, it is supposANDREW JACKSON, while a small force of observation would be neces-ed, to change any impressions it may have created sary until the natives had become accustomed to favorable to the exchequer, and stop those of his other occupations, and lost all hope of again engag- own party from signing memorials in behalf of that ing in the traffic. project.


The National Intelligencer on inserting the above says: "Comment upon this letter is unnecessary. It 19 a pity it was written, or being written, that it


published. It leaves us wholly at fault as to the cial plan which the general said he was ready ve, if called upon by congress, and, in asserting doctrines on the subject of the currency, resorts rguments, or assertions rather, which have been ted over and over again, and which business on all sides know to be incorrect. It is, in short, such a letter as a discreet friend would be sorry The chain of rail roads we have described, extends read, and an angry opponent rejoice to behold. e regret that a mere partizan zeal has brought it light, and we place it upon record, rather as for about half the distance through a romantic and ronicling the present opinions of politicians at healthy mountain region, having, however, no tunme than as uttering sentiments that at all accord nels or inclined planes on the route, and none of the when completed goods may be sent from New York, ith the views expressed by Gen. Jackson in his pal-grades exceeding 30 feet to the mile. By this route, or other Atlantic parts, via Savannah, in ten or twelve days, to the remotest sequestered counties of East Tennessee, for $1 to $1.50 per cwt. This region of country has heretofore depended on supplies by wagons, from Baltimore or Richmond.-N. York Express.

ier days.


RAILROADS FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE TENNESSEE RIVER. Several important cail roads are now in progress in the states of Georgia and Tennessee, which, when completed, will form a line of communication between Savannah and Charleston, on the Atlantic, and Knoxville, on the Tennessee river. A brief notice of these rail roads will be interesting to many readers.

1. The Central rail road of Georgia extends from Savannah to Macon, Georgia, 190 miles, of which 152 miles are completed and now in operation; the remainder is under contract to be finished by the 1st of The amount expended so far is $2,275,July next. 228, and the capital stock of the company is $3.000,000, with banking powers. The greater part of the The work was stock is owned in Savannah and its vicinity, being held mostly in very small sums. commenced in November, 1836, with a force of about 1000 men. During the past summer the operatives on the road have suffered much with fever, particularly those employed in the swamp, near the Oconee river, below Milledgeville. The swamp is crossed by a trestle bridge, 17 feet high and 2 miles in length. It is about two years since it was put under contract. The grading of the road on the western end of the line comprehends a succession of heavy cuttings and embankments. The heaviest and most costly portions of the work are completed.

The total receipts on this rail road, for the year ending 31st October last, were as follows:

For freight,

66 passengers,
"U. S. mail,

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100 do

100 do
125 do
145 do
150 do
Georgia rail road, 104; Augusta to Charleston, by the | Neath do.
100 do
South Carolina rail road, 136 miles. Total from Knox-Oxford do.
ville to Charleston, 527 miles. The distance from Shrewsbury do.
Washington city to Knoxville is stated at 516 miles; Stourbridge do.
I have also before me another respectable periodi-
from Baltimore, through Virginia, about 520; from Stroudwater do.
Petersburgh, Virginia, via Raleigh, N. C 524 miles-- Swansea do.
cal, "The London Stock and Share List," of Sep-
(a remarkable similarity of distances, and comparing Trent & Mersey do. 50 do
nearly with the distance from New York or Boston
tember, 1841, which cites nearly all the stocks re-
to Lake Erie.)
ferred to in this communication, and, by a careful
comparison of the two reports, published about thir-
teen months apart, we find that few of those highly
sent time, the prices at which they were then (thir-
important public improvements maintain, at the pre-
teen months ago) quoted.*

Of the fifty railways reported by "F. A. Help's
Share List," in 1841, but few have advanced in va-
lue-27 have fallen considerably-11 to below one-
half their cost.



From the North American.
of the matter, that the capitalists of Great Britain
LAND. It would appear, from their own account
as well as those of our own country have been some-
what disappointed in the practical result of many of
their splendid works of internal improvement; nor
have they, in that country, with all the advantages
of extensive commerce, dense population, low wa-
ges, &c. been able to transport, even on their best
lines, either passengers or freight, at so low rates
as was at first generally anticipated.

By a circular issued from one of their leading con-
cerns, "The Grand Junction Railway," on which a
heavy business is done each way (this is material) the
following is announced:

$12 22

way between Liverpool or Manchester and Bir-
Low rates of carriage on the Grand Junction Rail-
mingham and through to London:
&c. 15s.-55s. per ton; in currrency,
1st class-Flour, grain, iron, (common,) lead,
and tallow, 17s. 6d.-57s. 6d. per ton,
2d class-Ale and porter, chains, nails, oil,
3d class-Dry saltery, cider, raw sugar, earth-
enware, soap, 20s 60s. per ton,
4th class-Packs and cases of drapers' goods,
groceries, hardware, 25s.-65s. per ton,
5th class-Glass, eggs, drugs, stationery, and
haberdashery, 30s.-70s. per ton,

6th class--Ripe fruit in boxes, luggage, silks,
tubes, &c. 40s.-80s. per ton,
7th class-Feathers, hats, furniture, and mil-
linery, 60s.-100s. per ton,

Nett profit,



This sum amounts to about five per cent. on the capital expended on the portion of the road in actual To this may be added $10 000 for transportation of materials for the construction of the road. The engineer calculates that the timber used in the construction of the road will require renewal once in

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12 78

13 33

14 14

15 55

A patent has been obtained by Mr. J. H. Smith, to the kettle, or by steam. When the latter is employfollows: Boil the lard, either by fire directly applied ed, he uses a steam tube to descend from a steam of New York. The substance of his process is as boiler into the vessel, and coiled round on the bottom so as to present a large heating surface to the lard; provision being made to carry off the water and waste steam. It is usual to perforate the tube with numerous holes along the whole of that portion of it which is submerged below the lard, thus allowing the whole of the steam to pass into and through the lard. To operate with advantage, the vessel should be of considerable capacity-holding (say) from ten to one hundred barrels. The length of boiling will of course 17 78 vary according to the quantity of the lard. That which is fresh may not require to be boiled more than 22 22 five or six hours, while that which has been long kept may require twelve hours. It is of great im108 32 portance to the perfection of the separation of the Which aggregate amount, divided by 7 gives the average cost of carrying from Liverpool or stearin and eleain, (or the solid and fluid parts of the Alcohol is employed, mixed with the lard in the Manchester to London (210 miles) $15 47 per ton; fat) that the boiling should be continued for a considthe lowest rate $12 22, for that distance, being at the erable period. rate of $5 82 per ton for 100 miles. Nor does there appear any thing very flattering in the present mar-boiler, at the commencement of the operation.By a careful examination of "Herapath's Railway and stir into it about one gallon of alcohol to every ket value of many of the English corporation stocks. When the lard is sufficiently fluid, gradually pour Magazine, Commercial Journal, and Scientific Re- eighty gallons of lard, taking care to incorporate view," of October 1, 1842, it will be seen that the them as intimately as possible; and this will cause a present average value of all the railways in Great perfect separation between the stearin and eleain thirds of the whole number are under par; many of the former, which takes place when the boiled lard is allowed to cool in a state of rest. Camphor is Britain is below their actual cost; more than two- from each other, by the spontaneous granulation of From the same well accredited authority it ap- sometimes combined with alcohol, dissolving about them pay their owners nothing. out of the 33 canals (distinctly) report-one-fourth of a pound in each gallon of alcohol; ject in view. pears that ed, are also below par, although the aggregate mar-which not only gives it an agreeable odor, but aper, is something more than double their original cost. After the boiling has been continued for a sufficiket value of all the canals in England taken togeth- pears to-operate with the alcohol in effecting the obThree of the leading railways communicating kingdom are worth, at the present time, double their steam cut off, and the mass is allowed to cool suffici ently to be ladled or drawn off into hogsheads or othwith the most important commercial cities in the ent length of time, the fire is withdrawn, or the er suitable coolers, when it is to be left at perfect actual cost. the granulation will take place, and become perfect. rest, to cool down and acquire the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere; and as the cooling proceeds, The material is then to be put into bags, and pressed moderately under any suitable press, which will cause the eleain to flow out in a state of great purity, there not being contained in it any perceivable portion of stearin; and this practice is to be continued until the stearin is as dry as it can be made in this


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six years.

2. The Monroe rail road extends from Macon to Whitehall, in Dekalb county, about 8 miles east of the Chatahoochee river; total length 101 miles. It was begun in 1836, and is to be completed and in operation by the 4th July next.

3. The Western and Atlantic rail road is a state
work, and will be 118 miles in length, from White-
hall, as above, to Ross's landing on the Tennessee
river, near the Georgia and Tennessee state line. It
was commenced early in 1839, and 52 miles will be
in operation by the 4th July next, making in all a
distance of three hundred and forty-three miles of con-
tinuous rail road from the city of Savannab, com-
pleted at that time.
4. The Hiwasse rail road, 941⁄2 miles in length, from
Knoxville, East Tennessee, to the Georgia state line,
where it unites with the Western and Atlantic rail
road last mentioned. It is proposed to use cast iron
rails on this road. English rolled rail road iron
would cost, delivered along the line of the road, $110.
per ton, (owing to the great expense of land trans-sells for £255 per share.
portation on common roads;) nor can they obtain
The present value given by this same "Railway
lower bids from Tennessee iron masters, for rolled per share.
iron. This rail road has been several years in pro-
gress, and will probably soon be completed; Knox-Journal" of 16 out of the 33 canals reported, is as
Ville is on the Holston, a branch of the Tennessee
river, which is navigable for steamboats to this place.
The valley of the Tennessee embraces a superficies Birmingham do. £8 15s. for 1-16 of a share,
of 41,000 square miles.

London and Birmingham, 112 miles in length,
carrying a vast number of passengers each way, par
value £100-paid in £90-now sells for £183 per
Stockton and Darlington, 43 miles, cost £100,
Ballochney, 4 miles long, cost £25, sells for £80

follows, viz:

Per share.

Barnsley canal cost £100, now sells for

present value thereof
100 pr sh. present price
100 do
100 do
Coventry do.
Cromford do.
Erewash do.



The length of rail road communication between
Knoxville and Savannah, will be 503 miles, viz:
Hiwasse rail road, 94; Western and Atlantic, 118; Mon-
roe, 101; Central, 190 miles. The distance to Charles-
ton, S. C., will be rather more, viz: Hiwasse, 941; Loughborough do.
Western and Atlantic, 118. From Whitehall to Madi- Monmouthshire do. 100 do
son, Georgia, about 75, Madison to Augusta, by the Mersey & Irwell do. 100 do

Leeds & Liverpool do 100 do

142 15s. do




Of the 32 canals reported by both these authorities, 17 have fallen somewhat; 6 of them to below par; 15 have held their own, and advanced; 2 or 3 INVESTIGATOR. have nearly doubled in value within that time.

Philadelphia, 12th month 10, 1842.

Few discoveries have been more rapidly brought
terial are pronounced equal to spermaceti candles.-
into use than that of the oil extracted from lard-
Candles manufactured from a part of the same
We have been anxious to learn the process.
following is the first satisfactory account of it we
have met with:









180 310 320














The stearin is then, by a very simple process, which we have not space to give at present, prepar ed to be made into candles, the elcain being ready for use as oil.

We have seen these preparations, and they are ful equal to sperm oil and candles, and are much cheaper. The oil is sold at 75 cents per gallon, and


Question. What description of stocks have so well sustained their value during the same period?-ED. REG,

line of type to drop at once from the stick into galley,
where he spaces it out.

bean sea and Gulf of Mexico. This service requires
one or two small vessels, in addition to those orij-
mally assigned to the squadron, and these I propose to

It is found that the steam ships Missouri and Mississippi are unsuited to cruising in time of peace.Their engines consume so much fuel as to add enor mously to their expenses; and the necessity that they should return to port after short intervals of time, for fresh supplies, renders it impossible to send them on any distant service. They will be useful vessels in time of war, as guards to our coasts and harbors, and as auxiliaries in fleets; but they cannot be relied on as cruisers, and are altogether too expensive for service in time of peace. I have therefore determined to take them out of commission, and shall substitute for them other and less expensive vessels.

The Independence has not yet gone to sea, owing in part to the fact that her crews have been taken from time to time for other vessels, and in part to the necessary engagements of commodore Stewart in other services. The rest of the squadron has, under his

gives a beautiful clear light, and emits neither smoke nor smell while burning. The candles also burn as well as the best sperm. There are three large man- The principal feature of novelty in this machine is ufactories of oil and candles, we believe, at Cincinna- the endless chain on which the types are desposited, ti, and one at Philadelphia, and one at New York; and by which they are conveyed into the receiver, and the demand for oil as yet exceeds the supply. and the advantages are, the types are carried forward This will enable the farmer to dispose of his pork in a straight line by the endless chain, free from all without difficulty, and we imagine the fears of some chance of disturbance, and subject to little or no that there will be no market for corn, because of the friction, and that as many letters may be set at once overthrow of distilleries by the Washingtonians, will as happen to follow in uninterrupted alphabetical be groundless. A kind and merciful providence has sequence; and, in practice, there is a vast number of provided ways enough in which the fruits of the words and syllables which the compositor soon learns earth may be used for the benefit of mankind. to dispose of in this way, by one stroke of the keys. [N. Y. Farmer. For example, act, add, all, accent, adopt, envy are words the letters in which, following in their natural order, TYPE SETTING MACHINE. It is a fact worthy may be set up by one pressure of the hand on the keys; of notice, that notwithstanding improvements in print- the endless chain carries the types forward in the ing have apparently kept pace with other improve-order in which they were deposited upon it and nothments of the age; yet those improvements have been ing can occur to disturb that order. So also with directed mainly in respect of the press-to multiplying such syllables as ab, off, dem, opp, and ly. The savcopies with great rapidity. In that department, vast ing in time from the use of such accords (as they are improvements, indeed, have been achieved; but in termed) may be thus illustrated. The word accentuthe more experienced process of composition, (setting ation contains twelve letters, and would require twen-orders, been kept actively and usefully employed, and the type,) in which much the greatest number of ty-four movements of the arm of a compositor to set promises to answer all the expectations of congress workmen are employed, the art has remained sta- up in the ordinary way; but with captain Rosenborg's in establishing it. tionary almost ever since printing was invented.-machine it is set up with only three strokes on the Occasionally we have had startling announcements keys, as thus, accentu-at-ion. of contrivances to facilitate the tedious operation. Captain Rosenborg states that he has proved, by A Yankee in England some time since announced actual trials, that his machine, is capable of deliver that he had found out how to work it out by ma- ing, or clearing out types, (supposing them to be chinery-but he failed, we presume, for we heard composed without regard to order of sequence,) to nothing of it until within a few weeks past the an- the amount of 400 in a minute, or 25,000 in an hour. nouncement is made in such form as to leave little Already a young man, with only a few months' pracdoubt of the fact, that machines are constructing, tice, and without a previous knowledge of printing, is nay, have been in successful operation, by which able to set up about three lines of brevier in a minute, types can be set vastly faster than they have hereto- each line containing about 60 letters and spaces, (this fore been, and at a less expense. When the appa. we witnessed,) and, assuming that he is able to do so ratus shall have been perfected and simplified, as it for a continuance, that is equal to about 10,800 in no doubt upon experience will be found susceptible an hour. of, the invention will be a most important one. The Illustrated London News contains engravings and descriptions of both the composing and the distributing machine. The compositor would be mistaken for a man seated at an organised piano, each small perpendicular pipe of which contains a letter of type piled one over another in due form-his copy is before him in place of a music book. Those pipes or tubes in the distributing machine lie horizontally instead of perpendicularly before him. We extract the following from the description. It seems that there are competitors for improvements already:

The duties originally contemplated for the home squadron, are highly important, and such as require in the commander the best order of qualifications.-They do not, however require so many vessels as the law establishing that squadron authorizes. While, therefore it is desirable that the squadron should be such as to be worthy of the best professional rank and talent, it is equally desirable that it should not be so large as to have any portion of it inactive. By assigning to it the duties of the West India squadron, and extending the cruising ground to the northern boundary of the cruising ground of the Brazil squadron, the larger vessels may be kept on constant duty to windward. In the meantime, the smaller vessels may, in like manner, be employed in the Caribbean sea and Gulf of Mexico, where the harbors are too shallow to admit those of larger size. The impossibility of beating up the coast, against the trade winds and Gulf Stream, suggests the propriety of assigning two or three steam vessels of medium size to that duty. These would afford a sufficient protection to our commerce, while they would serve to keep up the necessary intercourse between the commander of the squadron and that portion of it destined to service in the Gulf of Mexico. Without the aid of steam, that intercourse could not well be maintained-for a vessel, not propelled by steam, entering the Gulf of Mexico from the windward, could not regain her position without a tedions and dangerous passage through the Gulf of Florida.

'In one of our early numbers was given an account of a new mode composing types, the invention of Messrs. Young and Delcambre. We have now the pleasure of presenting two views, one of a composing and the other of a distributing machine, both invented by captain Rosenborg, and certainly superior, in every way, to any previous ones.

The duties thus contemplated for the home squadron will afford full employment for it, except during the hurricane season, when it would not be prudent for it to keep the sca, except in the northern part of its cruising ground.

The setting up of the types, which Messrs. Young and Delcambre were able to do at the rate of 6 000 an hour, captain Rosenborg states he can do at the rate of at least 10,800; and the distribution of the types, which, under Messrs Young and Delcambre's arrangement, furnishes occupation for four hands (boys) captain Rosenborg does by means of one, with REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE commander Farragut; and the schooner Enterprise, the aid of machinery.

The Brazil squadron consists of the Delaware 74, capt. Macauley; the frigate Columbia, captain E. R. Shubrick; the sloops of war Concord, commander Boerum; John Adams, commander Conover; Decatur,

lieutenant J. P. Wilson: all under the command of 'The mode of working with the machine is as folcommodore Morris. This squadron, I have reason lows:-The chief compositor, who sits at the front of Navy department, December, 1842. to believe has distinguished itself for good order, the macnine, having his copy before him, performs To the President of the U. States: discipline, and constant and strict attention to all the upon the keys as he reads. By the action of the keys, SIR: I have the honor to present the following re-appropriate duties and exercises of squadron service. the corresponding letters are forced out from their port, in relation to this department: I have also the pleasure to report that the interests of respective copartments, and are laid down upon an The home squadron, authorized by the act of the our citizens committed to the care of commodore endless belt or chain, which is constantly passing Ist day of August, 1841, has been put in commission, Morris have been fully protected and secured; and through the middle of the machine, from the right and placed under the command of commodore Stew-that our relations with the countries within the range towards the left. By the motion of this chain, the art. It is composed of the frigate Independence, the of his command, have been preserved on the most types, when liberated and placed upon it, are very flag ship, now under the command of captain String favorable and honorable footing. quickly conveyed into the receiver, where, by the ham; the frigate Constitution, captain Parker; the After the return of the frigate Brandywine, in July action of a small eccentric, which is revolving at a steam frigate Missouri, captain Newton; the steam last, the squadron in the Mediterranean consisted of considerable speed, the types arc deposited horizon- frigate Mississippi, captain Salter; the sloop Fal- only two sloops of war, the Fairfield, commander tally one above the other, in the same order as the mouth, commander McIntosh, the sloop Vandalia, Taitnall, and Preble, commodore Voorhees, under keys are performed upon, and are thus formed into commander Ramsey; the brig Dolphin, commander the command of commander Morgan. I regret to lines, the lines being supported by a T shaped slider, Knight, and the schooner Grampus, licutenant Van say that commander Voorhees died at Smyrna on the which is made to recede in the same proportion as the Brunt. 27th July last; he was an officer of high order of types accumulate upon it. As each line is completThe original design of this squadron was, to cruise merit, and his death is a serious loss to the country. ed, (of which the compositor is informed by a dial, along our own coast, with a view to extend the usual The Preble is now under the command of commandand warned by the bell,) the compositor takes hold protection to our trade; but more particularly to af- der Nicholson, and commander Bigelow has succeed of a small winch by his left hand, by turning which, ford assistance to vessels in distress; to make accu-ed commander Tattnall, who has returned to the U. the line thus completed is lowered to the bottom of rate soundings and observations along our shores, States. the receiver, while, by moving with his hand a lever, from which charts might be formed; to afford vessels On the 15th of July last, the frigate Congress, capt. the line is removed from the receiver into the justify- of different classes, always ready to take the places P. F. Voorhees, sailed for the Mediterranean, and on ing stick. The time consumed is this operation is of those returning from distant stations; and to per- the 29th day of August last, the Columbus, 74, capt. less than a second. As soon as the line is removed form any occasional service for which vessels of war Spencer, was despatched to the same station.' into the justifying stick, the assistant compositor de-might be required. Finding, however, that it was squadron now consists of the Columbus, Congress, taches with his left hand the upper end of that stick, unnecessarily large for these purposes, and that active Fairfield and Preble, all under the command of comthe end being moveable upon a fulcrum, and having employment could be given to it, I determined to as- modore Morgan. Orders have been given, however, lowered it into a horizontal position, he reads the line, sign to it the duties of the West India squadron, and assigning to commodore Morris the command of the the types standing now in a vertical position. Having to withdraw that squadron from service. This has Mediterranean squanron, and to commodore Morgan corrected such faults as may have occurred during the accordingly been done, and the cruising ground of the that of the Brazil squadron. This exchange is composition, he, by removing a slider, which consti- home squadron now extends from the banks of New- made in execution of a plan which I propose for tutes the bottom of the justifying stick, causes the foundland to the river Amazon, including the Carib-, the management of all our squadrons, and of which


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1 We now present the view of the distributing ma-
chine, by which a lad can distribute, and replace in
the composing machine, 6,000 letters in an hour, but
this would offer no hindrance to the general opera-
tions of any printing office adopting the system of
composing by machinery, for there might be as many
more distributing machines employed as composing
machines, according to the relative speed of the two;
for instance, three of the one for two of the other,
five for three, and so on.

'The cost of captain Rosenborg's two machines
must, we think, be greater than that of Messrs.
Young and Delcambre's one; but captain Rosenborg
himself is of a contrary opinion. The machines
lately shown at work in Howard street, Norfolk street,
Strand, are the first complete ones of the sort, and
what they may have cost furnishes of course, no cri
terion by which to judge of the price at which they
could be manufactured in considerable numbers for
sale. They are now in Hull for some further im-
provements, and will be again submitted to inspection
in London, when the alterations and amendments are



shall speak more at large in a subsequent part of say, belonging to the home squadron, was assigned
to that service in March last, and is still on the coast.
is report.
Our relations with the the countries of the Mediter-The ratification of the treaty with England renders
anean have been préserved on the most friendly foot-it necessary that a squadron of at least eighty guns
ng, with the single exception of the empire of Mo-should be assigned to that service.
occo. In consequence of an outrage, offered by a
ubordmate officer of that government, to the late
consul of the United States, Mr. Carr, it was deemed
necessary to call on the higher authorities to disavow
he act, and to punish the aggressor. This was
promptly done by commodore Morgan, and after ma-
y delays and much unnecessary formality on the
part of the emperor, ample redress was offered by
the public disavowal of the offence and the dismissal
of the offending officer. Commodore Morgan ap-
pears to have conducted this affair with much skill
and address, asserting with proper firmness the re-
spect due to our flag, and yet claiming nothing in an
arrogant or dictatorial spirit. I have every reason
to be satisfied with the part he has borne in this
delicate transaction. The friendly relations between
the two countries are now restored.

much at the mercy of the most inconsiderable mari-
time force as that of the gulf of Mexico. Not only
the states which lie immediately on that water, but
vast and fertile region of the Mississippi and its tri-
all those whose streams enter into it, including the
I regret to say that in consequence of the unpro- butary waters, make this their chief channel of com.
And we may properly add, also, no incon-
tected condition of our trade on that coast, several of merce.
our vessels have been captured by the natives, and siderable amount in the article of cotton sent from
their crews barbarously murdered. The last aggres- Texas by means of the Red River, and paying tri-
sion of this sort was upon the schooner Mary Car-bute to our commercial agencies in its transit through
ver captain Farwell, in the district of Beribee, ninety our territory. Cotton is the principal material of
miles south of Cape Palmas. Instructions have been our trade, both foreign and domestic; it probably
given to commander Ramsay to proceed to that point constitutes three-fourths of our exports in its raw
and demand such reparation as the circumstances of and manufactured states. Taking the year ending
the case may require. This, however, will be at on the 31st August, 1842, it is found that the whole
best but little satisfactory, since no chastisement cotton crop amounted to 1,683,574 bales; of which
which can be inflicted upon such savages can either 1,160,389 were shipped from the ports of the gulf of
do honor to our flag or prevent other outrages of the Mexico. Of this crop 1,465,249 bales were export-
like kind. Our commerce with Africa is rapidly in-ed to foreign countries; and of these exports 937,830
creasing, and is well worthy of all the protection bales were from the ports of that gulf. Thus it may
which it asks. The protection is to be derived, not be assumed that two-thirds of the most valuable ar-
from any terror which can be inspired by the de- ticle of our commerce, foreign and coastwise, is
struction of a few miserable villages on the sea shipped in the ports of the gulf of Mexico.
beach, but from the presence of armed vessels, able
to prevent, as well as to punish, all violations of the
rights and laws of fair trade.

In other articles, the productions of the west, the yet large enough to give peculiar importance to the proportion although perhaps not quite so large, is gulf of Mexico. The tobacco, the iron, the lead, the sugar, the hemp, and the provisions of that great its coal,) find their way to market chiefly through and rich region, (and in a few years we may add also that single channel. These already form no inconsiderable part of the entire exports of our country; Without pretending to perfect accuracy, we and will, after no long process of time, enter still more largely into our trade, both foreign and domesmay safely assume that not less than two-thirds of the entire commerce of our country, exclusive of the whale fisheries, passes through the gulf of Mexi co; and we may, with even more safety, assume that this proportion will increase from year to year, with the increase of the population and wealth of our western states.

The squadron in the Pacific consists of the frigate United States, captain Armstrong. sloop Cyane. commander Stribling; sloop Yorktown, lieutenant Nicholas; sloop Dale, commander Dornin; and the I need scarcely add that our duty in the suppresschooner Shark, lieutenant Eagle; all under the command of commodore T. Ap C. Jones. The St.sion of the slave trade cannot be discharged without Louis, commander Forrest, returned on the 16th a much larger force on the coast of Africa than we September last, and her place has not yet been sup-have ever maintained there. The return of the exploring squadron, late under plied. Nothing has occurred, since my last report, to the command of lieutenant Charles Wilkes, has given inturrupt the friendly relations of our country with the to the country rich and abundant stores in all the nations bordering on the Pacific coast of America.-departments of natural history. I am now arranging Our squadron has, at all times, ably and faithfully them, under the authority of a law of the last session tic. performed its duty; but it is much too small to ren-of congress. Lieutenant Wilkes himself is engaged der all the services expected of it, in that remote re-in preparing a narrative of his voyage, and in comgion. Every part of that vast ocean is traversed by pleting the various charts of the numerous surveys our trading vessels, and in every part of it the pro-made under his direction. In this work, he has, at his own request, the assistance of lieutenants O. Carr, tection of our naval flag is consequently required.The few ships, allowed even to the largest squadron T. A. Budd, and C. M. Totten, of the navy. I reIt is to be borne in mind that nearly all this valuáthat we have ever sent to the Pacific, are not enough gret that I have no authority to furnish him with the It can scarce-additional aid which he has a right to expect from to guard our whaling interest alone. ly be expected that five or six vessels most of which the scientific corps attached to the expedition. There ble trade is carried on through the gulf of Florida. are of the smallest class, can properly protect our is no fund under my control, out of which a com-I had the honor to present my views upon this subcommerce and our people, along a coast of three pensation could be paid to them. I respectfully sug-ject, in a report which I made to the senate, during thousand miles in extent, and throughout an ocean gest that provision ought to be made for this. The the last session of congress, but which was not actfour thousand miles wide. I respectfully suggest that country looks with very deep interest for the results ed on by that body. I respectfully refer to that doctoo little attention has heretofore been paid to the of this expedition; and it is due, not less to the of ument, as containing many suggestions connected important interests of our country in the Pacific ficers concerned in it, than the country itself, that with this inquiry, which I believe to be not wholly Ocean. There is at this time a stronger necessity they should be fairly and properly laid before the unworthy of public attention. I repeat here, only than ever, for more strict vigilance and more active world. It can scarcely be expected that Mr. Wilkes, the well-known fact, that in consequence of the exertion on our part, to prevent other nations from even with the aid of the few naval officers whose as- strength of the gulf stream and trade winds, there is subjecting our trade to injurious restrictions and em-sistance he has asked, can in a short time accom- virtually no passage for our trade eastward on the plish a task of so much labor; nor is it reasonable south side of the island of Cuba. It must, of necesbarrassment. Even if a The English settlers have, by their enterprise, to suppose that naval officers however killed in sity, pass through the gulf of Florida, a narrow nearly engrossed the trade from the Columbia river what properly belongs to the profession, will be able strait which can be effectually blockaded by two acto the islands, so that our countrymen are as effec-to perfect the drawings and other mechanical works, tive steam frigates, and probably by one. the night, it would have but one path open to it for tually cut off from it, as if they had no rights in that and works of art, necessary to prepare this publica-trading vessel should pass such a blockading force in quarter. The people of various countries are rapid-tion in the style contemplated by congress. When I had the honor to present to you the usual a great distance, and might of course be pursued ly forming settlements all along the shores of the Pacific, from Columbia river to the Gulf of Califor-report from this department, at the commencement with a certainty of being overtaken. It would not nia; and this, too, with the countenance and support of the last session of congress, I proceeded upon the enjoy even the ordinary chances of a vessel escapof their respective governments. In the mean time, idea that it was the settled policy of the government ing from a blockaded port into a wide and open sea. we are doing literally nothing for our own interests gradually to mercase the navy. Notwithstanding in that quarter. To those of our people who are in-the favorable change which has since occurred in striking peculiarity in our condition. The greatest our foreign relations, and notwithstanding the pre- portion of our commerce, confined to a single chanclined to settle there, we do not even hold out the encouragement of a reasonable expectation that we will sent unfavorable condition of the public treasury, Inel of some hundreds of miles, is exposed in a pecuprotect them against the violence and injustice of have seen no reason to believe that this policy is less liar manner to any enemy having possession of the other nations. A few small vessels, scarcely as many approved now than heretofore,by the great body of our sea; and what would render our condition still worse as we ought to keep constantly upon the coast of each people. It is true that the circumstances in which-if we be without a naval force, that commerce of the South American nations on the Pacific-these, we are now placed render necessary very great mo- may be annihilated at a cost which would not be felt If these views be correct, I am at a loss to pertoo,charged with the duties which twice their num-difications of the systems which would otherwise by any tenth rate maritime power. ber would not be able to perform-can offer but little be proper; but the opinion is as general now as it aid or support to the infant settlements of our people, ever has been, that a suitable navy is absolutely ne- ceive what portion of our country is not interested remote from each other, and demanding the constant cessary to the protection of our trade, the security of in them. To the states bordering on the gulf of our people, and the respectability of our government. Mexico, and to all those which use the Mississippi presence of some protecting power. There are many considerations connected with this subject of deep Fortunately, there is nothing in the circumstances of river as a channel of trade, the subject is of a deep importance in themselves, which belong rather to our country to render this in any degree a local ques- and daily increasing interest. So far as their pros other departments of the government than to this.tion. Apart from the general proposition that what perity depends on the outlet of the various producI advert to them only so far as to justify me in recom- is best for the general interest should be regard- tions of their country, they have but a single quesmending a very large increase of the Pacific squad-ed as best for the whole, there is a local and parti- tion to decide. Is, or is not, their commerce worth cular interest in nine-tenths of our country, which the cost of a naval power adequate to protect it? It In the East Indies we have only two ships, the fri-demands a respectable naval establishment. The has no other protection, and it cannot have any other To these considerations are added, others growing gate Constellation, captain Kearney, commanding the commercial towns on our sea board, by which nearly until its present channels shall be changed. squadron, and the sloop of war Boston, commander all our foreign and coasting trade is conducted, have On these points I can only relake and sea coast. Long. It is owing more to our good fortune than to our so immediate and direct an interest in the subject, out of the peculiar character of our government strength, that our commerce has suffered no material as to render unnecessary any remarks upon that and institutions, and the exposed condition of our interruption. That little squadron has done all that point. The various agricultural and manufacturing classes, peat the suggestions offered in my last report. No could have been expected of it, and it deserves much credit for its great vigilance and activity, and for scattered throughout the country, and connected country in the world has a greater interest than ours the prudence and sound discretion with which com. with and dependent upon this trade, have an indirect to guard itself against invasion. If we are destined Kearney has acquitted himself of the important trusts interest not less apparent. The great and increasing to see again the smoke of an enemy's camp, we commerce of the lakes, although less exposed than should at least be careful not to allow it to ascend reposed in him. On the coast of Africa we have no squadron. The that of the ocean, is yet far too important to be left from our own soil. It is in all respects better for us small appropriation of the present year was believed undefended, even against the single power which to repel an enemy from our coast, than to subdue to be scarcely sufficient to answer the present de- may become its enemy. But the gulf of Mexico him after he has landed upon our shores. To do mands of more important stations; and hence no has peculiar claims. It is believed that there is not in this we must cherish our naval power,-not as the vessel has been equipped expressly for the African the world an equal amount of commercial and agri-institution cf a day or of a year,-not as a subject seas. The sloop of war Vandalia, commander Ram-cultural interest belonging to any one country, so which we can lay aside, and take up again when

The facts to which I have thus adverted show a


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ever we please, as the policy or the caprice of the
moment may dictate;-but as a great and permanent
institution, worthy of a great people, and demanding
the grave attention of government; an institution
resting upon wise system, and worthy to be main-
tained in the spirit of a liberal, comprehensive and
stable policy.

with their currents, winds, &c.; with the languages, of reform, which they have just commenced, as per-
manners, customs, &c. of different regions of the fect as possible. The bill, as it passed the senate,
globe; all of which information is indispensable to would, it is believed, have proved as complete and
an accomplished naval commander.
effective in its provisions, as could be reasonably ex-
5. The flag of the country will be displayed in pected of any new measure, running so much into
different ports, on many different vessels thereby details; but the changes which were made in it by
giving to foreign countries a better idea of the ex- the house of representatives have produced difficul-
tent of our naval power. Heretofore, the habit of ties and embarrassments in practice which were
sending the same vessels repeatedly to the same fo- not foreseen at the time. The uniting of two bu-
reign station has produced the impression that we reaus, whose duties are wholly distinct and require
had no others to send, and has thus detracted from a wholly different order of qualifications to dis-
the respect which ought to attach to us as a naval charge them, has been found extremely inconvenient
and embarrassing.

the seas.


These considerations forbid us to fall so far in the rear of other nations, and of the age in which we live as to surrender our due share of the dominion of A commerce, such as ours, demands the protection of an adequate naval force; our people, scattered all over the world, have a right to require the occasional presence of our flag, to give assu- 6. Our vessels of war will be kept constantly in The bureau of construction and repairs, for exrance to all nations, that their country has both the the tracks of our commerce, and be thus ready, on ample, is charged with duties of the bureau of will and the power to protect them. Our position all occasions and in all places, to afford to it what equipment. It requires a ship carpenter to build or among the nations is such as to leave us without ex-ever assistance it may need. In this way the small repair a vessel of war; it requires a naval officer to cuse, if we voluntarily strip ourselves of a power force destined for the protection of our African trade, equip her. In like manner, the providing of ordwhich all other nations are anxious to grasp. Our and for the suppression of the slave trade, may benance and ordnance stores has no natural connexion forms of government and municipal institutions sug- occasionally strengthened by the presence of ves- with hydrographical surveys; and these two subgest that a naval force is our safest, and perhaps our sels of war, interchanging between the Mediterran-jects are entrusted to the same bureau. It would only defence; and as an additional recommendation, ean and the Brazils. But the great interest of our probably be impossible to find any one man properly of no small weight, the expenditure which this de-commerce in the Pacific, and particularly that most qualified to perform all the duties of building, refence requires is to be made chiefly among our own important part of it, the whale fisheries, will derive pairing, and equipping a vessel of war; and although people, encouraging their enterprise, invigorating peculiar advantages from this system. At present it would not, perhaps, be so difficult to find one comtheir industry, and calling out the abundant and now most of our whalers rarely see one of our vessels of petent to the duties of the two bureaux of ordnance almost hidden resources of our country. war, although it is well understood that they often and hydrography, yet it would probably happen, in If our navy is not to be put down altogether, nor need their protection. Our national ships crossing most instances, that he who was best qualified for abandoned to neglect and decay, it is high time that the Pacific, should be directed to visit the whaling the one would be least qualified for the other. it were placed upon some fixed and permanent plan. stations; a process by which that distant and now sides, great confusion will necessarily exist in keepWith a view to this, I respectfully offer the follow-neglected part of our commerce may always being, by the same set of clerks, the accounts of maling suggestions: within the reach of the protecting arm of their ters so wholly distinct. The clerical force allowed In the present favorable condition of our foreign country. to these two bureaux is much too small. Indeed relations, promising a long continuance of peace, I The system thus proposed will require, in order to this is true, though not to the same extent, of the cannot recommend any considerable appropriation prosecute it with all its advantages, larger squadrons other bureaux. The severe labors imposed, and the for building new vessels of war. We have already than we have heretofore employed. The good ef- small salaries allowed, are positive discouragements as many vessels as it will be necessary to keep in fects, however, which may reasonably be expected to a zealous and energetic discharge of duty. commission; except, perhaps, in the classes of sloops from it, will, it is hoped, recommend it to adoption. In providing a chief of the bureau of construction, of war and small brigs and schooners. A few more The charge upon the treasury need not be material-equipment and repair, the alternative was between of these are required, and they can be built out of ly, if it at all, increased, if the appropriations, here- a naval captain qualified to equip, and a naval contofore made for "increase and repair," should be, as structor qualified to build and repair. I did not hesifar as possible, for "equipment, pay, and subsist-tate to prefer the former, and the place is filled by a ence." member, of the late board of navy commissioners. I have caused estimates to be prepared for such But, in uniting the two bureaux, it was, I presume, squadrons as could, in my opinion, be most usefully not perceived that the salary, originally contemplated I hope to be excused for repeating here an idea and profitably employed in the manner above men- for the bureau of construction and repairs, was rethrown out in my last report, and which I am anx- tioned. This it is my duty to do, submitting it to tained. Thus it happens that one of the captains at ious to enforce, because it is the foundation of all congress to determine whether, under the circum- the head of a bureau, receives five hundred dollars sound policy in regard to the navy: It is an easy thing stances of the country, so large a force can properly per annum less than his pay as captain in command, to build a ship of war; it is a difficult thing to qualify be put in commission or not. If the condition of and less, by the same sum, than is received by each an officer to command her. This simple proposition, the treasury will warrant it, (of which they are the of the captains holding corresponding stations in the which every one knows to be true, should never be judges), I have no hesitation in earnestly recommend- department. This was doubtless not intended, and lost sight of by a nation that does not intend to aban-ing the employment of the largest force estimated will be corrected. don the ocean altogether. It requires at least five for. But in order that congress may, without trou- I also especially suggest that there is no good reayears of strict attention to make a good seaman; and ble, apportion the appropriation to the force which son for giving to the chief of the bureau of medicine not less than twenty years of active service in diffe-they are willing to keep in commission, I have caus- a less salary than is received by others in correspondrent grades, to form a properly qualified naval com-ed to be prepared a table, showing the cost of a ing positions. He ought to be, and it is presumed mander. Surely, then, since competent officers can ship of each class. Thus the reduction in the esti- always will be, a man of a high order of professionnot spring up with every exigency which may re-mates may be made in exact proportion to the real attainments, and general education, holding a soquire their services, true policy demands that we duction of the vessels in commission. cial position equal, in all respects, to that of any should keep the requisite number of them in constant Whether it be the pleasure of congress to autho-other man. His expenses, of course, will be as great training, to be ready whenever their country shall rize a large or a small naval force, the necessity and his sacrifices certainly will not be less. Of the call for them. The best ship of war is powerless, will be the same for placing it on a proper footing. importance and utility of this bureau I already have when unskilfully commanded. We build fleets for The navy cannot be reformed by merely reducing its the most satisfactory proof, in the improved organi our enemies, when we put them in charge of incom- size. In my report of last year, I invited your at-zation of the medical department of the service, and tention to a variety of points on which I considered in the saving of expense greatly beyond my expectapetent men. In order to carry out this idea, it is necessary not legislation necessary, in order to give due efficiency tions. An expenditure, twice as large as the bateau only that we should keep more ships in commission to this department and to correct the abuses existing now calls for, will be more than twice saved annualthan heretofore, but that we should employ them in throughout the whole naval establishment. In my ly, by its services. Its claims, therefore, to the in a different manner. Our squadrons on foreign sta- opinion, every reform necessary to place the navy crease of salary which I recommend, are of the tions have been generally kept too much in port; upon the most useful, and at the same time upon the strongest character in every respect. have been too little employed in cruising, and too most economical footing may be easily effected.With that view, I respectfully offer the following seldom employed in squadron manœuvres. To remedy this, I propose a system of interchange between suggestions: the several squadrons, and with that view, to ar

materials now on hand, at a very small cost. It seems to me to be too obvious to admit of doubt that our true policy is to apply as much as possible of the appropriations for the general naval service, to the employment of ships in commission.

These defects in the law are obvious. Whenever they shall be corrected, it is confidently believed that a system of administration may be established in this So far as the materiel is concerned, nothing is re- department, as prompt, exact, and efficient as can be range them that no ship except perhaps that of the quired exceptfidelity, vigilance and industry on the found in any other department of the government. commander-in-chief, shall remain more than one part of those to whom that matter is entrusted, and The acts of the last session, "to establish and reguyear on the same station. I propose that the squad- such changes in the laws as will ensure a proper ac- late the navy ration," and "to regulate the pay of drons of the Mediterranean and the Brazils shall countabily. A great deal has already been accom- pursers and other officers of the navy," promise the consist as near as possible, of the saine number and plished in this respect.. It is confidently believed most beneficial results to the economy of the service; classes of vessels, and that the same equality shall that the expense of building, repairing and equip and will probably remove many of the difficulties prevail between those of the East Indies and the ping our vessels of war is much less at this time which would otherwise have existed in accomplishPacific. After particular intervals of time, a ves- than it was at any previous period within the lasting all the objects proposed in the reorganization of sel of the Mediterranean squadron shall be sent to twenty years. This result is attributable, not so the department. Brazil; and at the same time, one of the same de- much to the head of the department, as to the steaThe personnel of the navy is a subject of much scription from Brazil to the Mediterranean; and so dy and zealous efforts of those officers of the navy deeper interest, although it presents no greater difof the squadrons of the East Indies and the Pacific. who have had charge of the navy yards. Little is ficulties. That abuses exist, and that the public eye The advantages of this system are great and obvious. now required, except to establish a rigid system of is occasionally offended with displays of disreputa every branch of expenditure.ble behavior, is not surprising. Such things might 1. By keeping the ships more at sea, the officers accountability in will be more exercised in their proper duties, and Much has already been done to attain this object. be expected in any body of men equally numerous; will acquire more of the science and practice of their The law for the re-organization of this depart-they are seen every day, in social circles on shore, profession. ment has been carried out, as far as has been found without affixing to those circles any individual or 2. Discipline will be better learned and better en- practicable. The advantages of this change in the even general reproach. The navy is as free from such forced, both as to officers and crews. It is always increased facilities of transacting business, and in scandals as any equal number of men in any order relaxed while vessels are in port. the concentration of responsibilities, are manifest of society. It is matter of just surprise that it should and great. I regret to say, however, that the sysbe so. Withdrawn, in a great degree by the very tem is yet very imperfect. It is with extreme re- nature of their pursuits, from the immediate influ luctance that I bring this subject again to your no-ence of that public opinion which is the best cortice; and I should not do so, if I were not convinc-rective of manners, and with a most imperfect sysed that it is the wish of congress to make the work tem of laws and regulations as a substitute for it,

3. The dangerous connexions and fatal habits, so often formed amid the seductions of luxurious ports, will be avoided.

4. Officers will have a better opportunity to become acquainted with different coasts and harbors;

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