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NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER-DEC. 24, 1842--INVENTIONS AND IMPROVEMENTS.
was published. It leaves us wholly at fault as to the | Georgia rail road, 104; Augusta to Charleston, by the Neath do.
RAIL ROADS AND CANALS.
RAILROADS FROM THE ATLANTIC TO THE TENNESSEE RIVER. Several important rail roads are now in progress in the states of Georgia and Tennessee, which, when completed, will form a line of communication between Savannah and Charleston, on the Atlantic, and Knoxville, on the Tennessee river. A brief notice of these rail roads will be interesting to many readers.
1. The Central rail road of Georgia extends from Savannah to Macon, Georgia, 190 miles, of which 152 miles are completed and now in operation; the remainder is under contract to be finished by the 1st of The amount expended so far is $2,275,July next. 228, and the capital stock of the company is $3.000,The greater part of the 000, with banking powers. stock is owned in Savannah and its vicinity, being held mostly in very small sums. The work was commenced in November, 1836, with a force of about 1000 men. During the past summer the operatives on the road have suffered much with fever, particularly those employed in the swamp, near the Oconee river, below Milledgeville. The swamp is crossed by a trestle bridge, 17 feet high and 2 miles in length. It is about two years since it was put under contract. The grading of the road on the western end of the line comprehends a succession of heavy cuttings and embankments. The heaviest and most costly portions of the work are completed.
The total receipts on this rail road, for the year ending 31st October last, were as follows:
This sum amounts to about five per cent. on the capital expended on the portion of the road in actual To this may be added $10 000 for transportation of materials for the construction of the road. The engineer calculates that the timber used in the construction of the road will require renewal once in six years.
2. The Monroe rail road extends from Macon to Whitehall, in Dekalb county, about 8 miles east of the Chatahoochee river; total length 101 miles. It was begun in 1836, and is to be completed and in operation by the 4th July next.
The chain of rail roads we have described, extends for about half the distance through a romantic and healthy mountain region, having, however, no tunnels or inclined planes on the route, and none of the grades exceeding 30 feet to the mile. By this route, when completed goods may be sent from New York, or other Atlantic parts, via Savannah, in ten or twelve days, to the remotest sequestered counties of East Tennessee, for $1 to $1.50 per cwt. This region of country has heretofore depended on supplies by wagons, from Baltimore or Richmond.-N. York Express.
From the North American.
THE RAILWAYS AND CANALS OF ENGLAND. It would appear, from their own account of the matter, that the capitalists of Great Britain as well as those of our own country have been somewhat disappointed in the practical result of many of their splendid works of internal improvement; nor have they, in that country, with all the advantages of extensive commerce, dense population, low wages, &c. been able to transport, even on their best lines, either passengers or freight, at so low rates as was at first generally anticipated.
By a circular issued from one of their leading con-
Low rates of carriage on the Grand Junction Rail-
1st class-Flour, grain, iron, (common,) lead,
7th class-Feathers, hats, furniture, and mil-
I have also before me another respectable periodical, "The London Stock and Share List," of September, 1841, which cites nearly all the stocks referred to in this communication, and, by a careful comparison of the two reports, published about thirteen months apart, we find that few of those highly important public improvements maintain, at the present time, the prices at which they were then (thirteen months ago) quoted.*
Of the fifty railways reported by "F. A. Help's Share List," in 1841, but few have advanced in value-27 have fallen considerably-11 to below onehalf their cost.
Of the 32 canals reported by both these authori ties, 17 have fallen somewhat; 6 of them to below par; 15 have held their own, and advanced; 2 or 3 INVESTIGATOR. have nearly doubled in value within that time.
Philadelphia, 12th month 10, 1842.
LARD OIL AND LARD CANDLES. Few discoveries have been more rapidly brought into use than that of the oil extracted from lard.Candles manufactured from a part of the same terial are pronounced equal to spermaceti candles.We have been anxious to learn the process. The following is the first satisfactory account of it we have met with:
A patent has been obtained by Mr. J. H. Smith, of New York. The substance of his process is as follows: Boil the lard, either by fire directly applied to the kettle, or by steam. When the latter is employed, he uses a steam tube to descend from a steam boiler into the vessel, and coiled round on the bottom so as to present a large heating surface to the lard; provision being made to carry off the water and waste steam. It is usual to perforate the tube with numerous holes along the whole of that portion of it which is submerged below the lard, thus allowing the whole of the steam to pass into and through the lard. To operate with advantage, the vessel should be of considerable capacity-holding (say) from ten to one hundred barrels. The length of boiling will of course vary according to the quantity of the lard. That which is fresh may not require to be boiled more than five or six hours, while that which has been long kept may require twelve hours. It is of great importance to the perfection of the separation of the stearin and eleain, (or the solid and fluid parts of the fat) that the boiling should be continued for a considerable period.
Which aggregate amount, divided by 7 108 32 gives the average cost of carrying from Liverpool or Manchester to London (210 miles) $15 47 per ton; the lowest rate $12 22, for that distance, being at the Alcohol is employed, mixed with the lard in the rate of $5 82 per ton for 100 miles. Nor does there appear any thing very flattering in the present mar- boiler, at the commencement of the operation.ket value of many of the English corporation stocks. When the lard is sufficiently fluid, gradually pour By a careful examination of "Herapath's Railway and stir into it about one gallon of alcohol to every Magazine, Commercial Journal, and Scientific Re- eighty gallons of lard, taking care to incorporate view," of October 1, 1842, it will be seen that the them as intimately as possible; and this will cause a present average value of all the railways in Great perfect separation between the stearin and eleain Britain is below their actual cost; more than two- from each other, by the spontaneous granulation of thirds of the whole number are under par; many of the former, which takes place when the boiled lard is allowed to cool in a state of rest. Camphor is 3. The Western and Atlantic rail road is a state them pay their owners nothing. From the same well accredited authority it ap- sometimes combined with alcohol, dissolving about work, and will be 118 miles in length, from Whitehall, as above, to Ross's landing on the Tennessee pears that 6 out of the 33 canals (distinctly) report-one-fourth of a pound in each gallon of alcohol; river, near the Georgia and Tennessee state line. It ed, are also below par, although the aggregate mar- which not only gives it an agreeable odor, but apwas commenced early in 1839, and 52 miles will be ket value of all the canals in England taken togeth- pears to-operate with the alcohol in effecting the object in view. in operation by the 4th July next, making in all aer, is something more than double their original cost. distance of three hundred and forty-three miles of continuous rail road from the city of Savannah, completed at that time.
Three of the leading railways communicating
London and Birmingham, 112 miles in length,
4. The Hiwasse rail road, 941⁄2 miles in length, from Knoxville, East Tennessee, to the Georgia state line, where it unites with the Western and Atlantic rail road last mentioned. It is proposed to use cast iron rails on this road. English rolled rail road iron would cost, delivered along the line of the road, $110 per ton, (owing to the great expense of land trans-sells for £255 per share. portation on common roads;) nor can they obtain lower bids from Tennessee iron masters, for rolled iron. This rail road has been several years in progress, and will probably soon be completed; Knoxville is on the Holston, a branch of the Tennessee river, which is navigable for steamboats to this place. The valley of the Tennessee embraces a superficies of 41,000 square miles.
Ballochney, 4 miles long, cost £25, sells for £80 per share.
The present value given by this same "Railway
The length of rail road communication between
After the boiling has been continued for a sufficient length of time, the fire is withdrawn, or the steam cut off, and the mass is allowed to cool suffici ently to be ladled or drawn off into hogsheads or other suitable coolers, when it is to be left at perfect rest, to cool down and acquire the ordinary temperature of the atmosphere; and as the cooling proceeds, the granulation will take place, and become perfect. The material is then to be put into bags, and pressed moderately under any suitable press, which will cause the eleain to flow out in a state of great purity, there not being contained in it any perceivable portion of stearin; and this practice is to be continued until the stearin is as dry as it can be made in this
gives a beautiful clear light, and emits neither smoke
line of type to drop at once from the stick into galley,
The Independence has not yet gone to sea, owing in part to the fact that her crews have been taken from time to time for other vessels, and in part to the necessary engagements of commodore Stewart in other services. The rest of the squadron has, under his orders, been kept actively and usefully employed, and promises to answer all the expectations of congress in establishing it.
bean sea and Gulf of Mexico. This service requires one or two small vessels, in addition to those triciThe principal feature of novelty in this machine is ally assigned to the squadron, and these I propose to the endless chain on which the types are desposited, add. and by which they are conveyed into the receiver, It is found that the steam ships Missouri and Misand the advantages are, the types are carried forward sissippi are unsuited to cruising in time of peace.in a straight line by the endless chain, free from all | Their engines consume so much fuel as to add enorchance of disturbance, and subject to little or no mously to their expenses; and the necessity that they friction, and that as many letters may be set at once should return to port after short intervals of time, as happen to follow in uninterrupted alphabetical for fresh supplies, renders it impossible to send them sequence; and, in practice, there is a vast number of on any distant service. They will be useful vessels words and syllables which the compositor soon learns in time of war, as guards to our coasts and harbors, to dispose of in this way, by one stroke of the keys. and as auxiliaries in fleets; but they cannot be relied For example, act, add, all, accent, adopt, envy are words on as cruisers, and are altogether too expensive for the letters in which, following in their natural order, service in time of peace. I have therefore determined TYPE SETTING MACHINE. It is a fact worthy may be set up by one pressure of the hand on the keys; to take them out of commission, and shall substitute of notice, that notwithstanding improvements in print- the endless chain carries the types forward in the for them other and less expensive vessels. ing have apparently kept pace with other improve-order in which they were deposited upon it and nothments of the age; yet those improvements have been ing can occur to disturb that order. So also with directed mainly in respect of the press-to multiplying such syllables as ab, off, dem, opp, and ly. The savcopies with great rapidity. In that department, vast ing in time from the use of such accords (as they are improvements, indeed, have been achieved; but in termed) may be thus illustrated. The word accentuthe more experienced process of composition, (setting ation contains twelve letters, and would require twenthe type,) in which much the greatest number of ty-four movements of the arm of a compositor to set workmen are employed, the art has remained sta- up in the ordinary way; but with captain Rosenborg's tionary almost ever since printing was invented.-machine it is set up with only three strokes on the Occasionally we have had startling announcements keys, as thus, accentu-at-ion. of contrivances to facilitate the tedious operation. Captain Rosenborg states that he has proved, by A Yankee in England some time since announced actual trials, that his machine, is capable of deliverthat he had found out how to work it out by ma- ing, or clearing out types, (supposing them to be chinery-but he failed, we presume, for we heard composed without regard to order of sequence,) to nothing of it until within a few weeks past the an- the amount of 400 in a minute, or 25,000 in an hour. nouncement is made in such form as to leave little Already a young man, with only a few months' pracdoubt of the fact, that machines are constructing, tice, and without a previous knowledge of printing, is nay, have been in successful operation, by which able to set up about three lines of brevier in a minute, types can be set vastly faster than they have hereto- each line containing about 60 letters and spaces, (this fore been, and at a less expense. When the appa. we witnessed,) and, assuming that he is able to do so ratus shall have been perfected and simplified, as it for a continuance, that is equal to about 10,800 in no doubt upon experience will be found susceptible an hour. of, the invention will be a most important one. 1 We now present the view of the distributing maThe Illustrated London News contains engravings chine, by which a lad can distribute, and replace in and descriptions of both the composing and the dis- the composing machine, 6,000 letters in an hour, but tributing machine. The compositor would be mis- this would offer no hindrance to the general operataken for a man seated at an organised piano, each tions of any printing office adopting the system of small perpendicular pipe of which contains a letter composing by machinery, for there might be as many of type piled one over another in due form-his copy more distributing machines employed as composing is before him in place of a music book. Those pipes machines, according to the relative speed of the two; or tubes in the distributing machine lie horizontally for instance, three of the one for two of the other, instead of perpendicularly before him. We extract five for three, and so on. the following from the description. It seems that there are competitors for improvements already: 'In one of our early numbers was given an account of a new mode composing types, the invention of Messrs. Young and Delcambre. We have now the pleasure of presenting two views, one of a composing and the other of a distributing machine, both invented by captain Rosenborg, and certainly superior, in every way, to any previous ones.
'The cost of captain Rosenborg's two machines must, we think, be greater than that of Messrs. Young and Delcambre's one; but captain Rosenborg himself is of a contrary opinion. The machines lately shown at work in Howard street, Norfolk street, Strand, are the first complete ones of the sort, and what they may have cost furnishes of course, no criterion by which to judge of the price at which they could be manufactured in considerable numbers for sale. They are now in Hull for some further improvements, and will be again submitted to inspection in London, when the alterations and amendments are finished.'
The duties originally contemplated for the home squadron, are highly important, and such as require in the commander the best order of qualifications. They do not, however require so many vessels as the law establishing that squadron authorizes. While, therefore it is desirable that the squadron should be such as to be worthy of the best professional rank and talent, it equally desirable that it should not be so large as to have any portion of it inactive. By assigning to it the duties of the West India squadron, and extending the cruising ground to the northern boundary of the cruising ground of the Brazil squadron, the larger vessels may be kept on constant duty to windward. In the meantime, the smaller vessels may, in like manner, be employed in the Caribbean sea and Gulf of Mexico, where the harbors are too shallow to admit those of larger size. The impossibility of beating up the coast, against the trade winds and Gulf Stream, suggests the propriety of assigning two or three steam vessels of medium size to that duty. These would afford a sufficient protection to our commerce, while they would serve to keep up the necessary intercourse between the commander of the squadron and that portion of it destined to service in the Gulf of Mexico. Without the aid of steam, that intercourse could not well be maintained-for a vessel, not propelled by steam, entering the Gulf of Mexico from the windward, could not regain her position without a tedious and dangerous passage through the Gulf of Florida.
The duties thus contemplated for the home squadron will afford full employment for it, except during the hurricane season, when it would not be prudent for it to keep the sea, except in the northern part of its cruising ground.
'The setting up of the types, which Messrs. Young and Delcambre were able to do at the rate of 6 000 an hour, captain Rosenborg states he can do at the rate of at least 10,800; and the distribution of the types, which, under Messrs Young and Delcambre's arrangement, furnishes occupation for four hands (boys) captain Rosenborg does by means of one, with REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE commander Farragut; and the schooner Enterprise, the aid of machinery.
The Brazil squadron consists of the Delaware 74, capt. Macauley; the frigate Columbia, captain E. R. Shubrick; the sloops of war Concord, commander Boerum; John Adams, commander Conover; Decatur,
lieutenant J. P. Wilson: all under the command of commodore Morris. This squadron, I have reason Navy department, December, 1842. to believe has distinguished itself for good order, To the President of the U. States: discipline, and constant and strict attention to all the SIR: I have the honor to present the following re-appropriate duties and exercises of squadron service. port, in relation to this department: I have also the pleasure to report that the interests of The home squadron, authorized by the act of the our citizens committed to the care of commodore 1st day of August, 1841, has been put in commission, Morris have been fully protected and secured; and and placed under the command of commodore Stew-that our relations with the countries within the range art. It is composed of the frigate Independence, the of his command, have been preserved on the most flag ship, now under the command of captain String favorable and honorable footing. ham; the frigate Constitution, captain Parker; the steam frigate Missouri, captain Newton; the steam frigate Mississippi, captain Salter; the sloop Falmouth, commander McIntosh, the sloop Vandalia, commander Ramsey; the brig Dolphin, commander Knight, and the schooner Grampus, licutenant Van Brunt.
'The mode of working with the machine is as follows:-The chief compositor, who sits at the front of the macnine, having his copy before him, performs upon the keys as he reads. By the action of the keys, the corresponding letters are forced out from their respective copartments, and are laid down upon an endless belt or chain, which is constantly passing through the middle of the machine, from the right towards the left. By the motion of this chain, the types, when liberated and placed upon it, are very quickly conveyed into the receiver, where, by the After the return of the frigate Brandywine, in July action of a small eccentric, which is revolving at a last, the squadron in the Mediterranean consisted of considerable speed, the types are deposited horizononly two sloops of war, the Fairfield, commander tally one above the other, in the same order as the Taitnall, and Preble, commodore Voorhees, under keys are performed upon, and are thus formed into the command of commander Morgan. I regret to lines, the lines being supported by a T shaped slider, say that commander Voorhees died at Smyrna on the which is made to recede in the same proportion as the 27th July last; he was an officer of high order of types accumulate upon it. As each line is completThe original design of this squadron was, to cruise merit, and his death is a serious loss to the country. ed, (of which the compositor is informed by a dial, along our own coast, with a view to extend the usual The Preble is now under the command of commandand warned by the bell,) the compositor takes hold protection to our trade; but more particularly to af- der Nicholson, and commander Bigelow has succeed of a small winch by his left hand, by turning which, ford assistance to vessels in distress; to make accu-ed commander Tattnall, who has returned to the U. the line thus completed is lowered to the bottom of rate soundings and observations along our shores, States. the receiver, while, by moving with his hand a lever, from which charts might be formed; to afford vessels On the 15th of July last, the frigate Congress, capt. the line is removed from the receiver into the justify-of different classes, always ready to take the places P. F. Voorhees, sailed for the Mediterranean, and on ing stick. The time consumed is this operation is of those returning from distant stations; and to per- the 29th day of August last, the Columbus, 74, capt. less than a second. As soon as the line is removed form any occasional service for which vessels of war Spencer, was despatched to the same station. The into the justifying stick, the assistant compositor de- might be required. Finding, however, that it was squadron now consists of the Columbus, Congress, taches with his left hand the upper end of that stick, unnecessarily large for these purposes, and that active Fairfield and Preble, all under the command of comthe end being moveable upon a fulcrum, and having employment could be given to it, I determined to as- modore Morgan. Orders have been given, however, lowered it into a horizontal position, he reads the line, sign to it the duties of the West India squadron, and assigning to commodore Morris the command of the the types standing now in a vertical position. Having to withdraw that squadron from service. This has Mediterranean squanron, and to commodore Morgan corrected such faults as may have occurred during the accordingly been done, and the cruising ground of the that of the Brazil squadron. This exchange is composition, he, by removing a slider, which consti- home squadron now extends from the banks of New- made in execution of a plan which I propose for tutes the bottom of the justifying stick, causes the foundland to the river Amazon, including the Carib- the management of all our squadrons, and of which
NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER-DEC. 24, 1842-REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.
to that service in March last, and I shall speak more at large in a subsequent part of say, belonging to the home squadron, was assigned this report.
still on the coast. Our relations with the the countries of the Mediter-The ratification of the treaty with England renders ranean have been préserved on the most friendly fool- it necessary that a squadron of at least eighty guns ing, with the single exception of the empire of Mo- should be assigned to that service. In consequence of an outrage, offered by a subordmate officer of that government, to the late consul of the United States, Mr. Carr, it was deemed necessary to call on the higher authorities to disavow the act, and to punish the aggressor. This was promptly done by commodore Morgan, and after many delays and much unnecessary formality on the part of the emperor, ample redress was offered by the public disavowal of the offence and the dismissal of the offending officer. Commodore Morgan appears to have conducted this affair with much skill and address, asserting with proper firmness the respect due to our flag, and yet claiming nothing in an arrogant or dictatorial spirit. I have every reason to be satisfied with the part he has borne in this delicate transaction. The friendly relations between the two countries are now restored.
time force as that of the gulf of Mexico. Not only much at the mercy of the most inconsiderable marivast and fertile region of the Mississippi and its trithe states which lie immediately on that water, but all those whose streams enter into it, including the And we may properly add, also, no inconI regret to say that in consequence of the unpro- butary waters, make this their chief channel of com. tected condition of our trade on that coast, several of merce. our vessels have been captured by the natives, and siderable amount in the article of cotton sent from their crews barbarously murdered. The last aggres- Texas by means of the Red River, and paying trision of this sort was upon the schooner Mary Car- bute to our commercial agencies in its transit through ver captain Farwell, in the district of Beribee, ninety our territory. Cotton is the principal material of miles south of Cape Palmas. Instructions have been our trade, both foreign and domestic; it probably given to commander Ramsay to proceed to that point constitutes three-fourths of our exports in its raw and demand such reparation as the circumstances of and manufactured states. Taking the year ending the case may require. This, however, will be at on the 31st August, 1842, it is found that the whole best but little satisfactory, since no chastisement cotton crop amounted to 1,683,574 bales; of which which can be inflicted upon such savages can either 1,160,389 were shipped from the ports of the gulf of do honor to our flag or prevent other outrages of the Mexico. Of this crop 1,465,249 bales were exportlike kind. Our commerce with Africa is rapidly in-ed to foreign countries; and of these exports 937,830 creasing, and is well worthy of all the protection bales were from the ports of that gulf. Thus it may which it asks. The protection is to be derived, not be assumed that two-thirds of the most valuable arfrom any terror which can be inspired by the de- ticle of our commerce, foreign and coastwise, is In other articles, the productions of the west, the The squadron in the Pacific consists of the frigate struction of a few miserable villages on the sea shipped in the ports of the gulf of Mexico. yet large enough to give peculiar importance to the United States, captain Armstrong. sloop Cyane. beach, but from the presence of armed vessels, able commander Stribling; sloop Yorktown, lieutenant to prevent, as well as to punish, all violations of the proportion although perhaps not quite so large, is I need scarcely add that our duty in the suppres- gulf of Mexico. The tobacco, the iron, the lead, Nicholas; sloop Dale, commander Dornin; and the rights and laws of fair trade. schooner Shark, lieutenant Eagle; all under the its coal,) find their way to market chiefly through command of commodore T. Ap C. Jones. The St.sion of the slave trade cannot be discharged without the sugar, the hemp, and the provisions of that great Louis, commander Forrest, returned on the 16th a much larger force on the coast of Africa than we and rich region, (and in a few years we may add also The return of the exploring squadron, late under that single channel. These already form no ineonSeptember last, and her place has not yet been sup-have ever maintained there. plied. Nothing has occurred, since my last report, to the command of lieutenant Charles Wilkes, has given siderable part of the entire exports of our country; Without pretending to perfect accuracy, we inturrupt the friendly relations of our country with the to the country rich and abundant stores in all the and will, after no long process of time, enter still nations bordering on the Pacific coast of America-departments of natural history. I am now arranging more largely into our trade, hoth foreign and domesOur squadron has, at all times, ably and faithfully them, under the authority of a law of the last session tic. performed its duty; but it is much too small to ren- of congress. Lieutenant Wilkes himself is engaged may safely assume that not less than two-thirds of der all the services expected of it, in that remote re-in preparing a narrative of his voyage, and in com- the entire commerce of our country, exclusive of gion. Every part of that vast ocean is traversed bypleting the various charts of the numerous surveys the whale fisheries, passes through the gulf of Mexiour trading vessels, and in every part of it the pro-made under his direction. In this work, he has, at co; and we may, with even more safety, assume that tection of our naval flag is consequently required.—his own request, the assistance of lieutenants O. Carr, this proportion will increase from year to year, with It is to be borne in mind that nearly all this valuaThe few ships, allowed even to the largest squadron T. A. Budd, and C. M. Totten, of the navy. I re- the increase of the population and wealth of our that we have ever sent to the Pacific, are not enough gret that I have no authority to furnish him with the western states. to guard our whaling interest alone. It can scarce- additional aid which he has a right to expect from ly be expected that five or six vessels most of which the scientific corps attached to the expedition. There ble trade is carried on through the gulf of Florida. are of the smallest class, can properly protect our is no fund under my control, out of which a com- I had the honor to present my views upon this subcommerce and our people, along a coast of three pensation could be paid to them. I respectfully sug-ject, in a report which I made to the senate, during thousand miles in extent, and throughout an ocean gest that provision ought to be made for this. The the last session of congress, but which was not actfour thousand miles wide. I respectfully suggest that country looks with very deep interest for the results ed on by that body. I respectfully refer to that doctoo little attention has heretofore been paid to the of this expedition; and it is due, not less to the of-ument, as containing many suggestions connected important interests of our country in the Pacific ficers concerned in it, than the country itself, that with this inquiry, which I believe to be not wholly Ocean. There is at this time a stronger necessity they should be fairly and properly laid before the unworthy of public attention. I repeat here, only than ever, for more strict vigilance and more active world. It can scarcely be expected that Mr. Wilkes, the well-known fact, that in consequence of the exertion on our part, to prevent other nations from even with the aid of the few naval officers whose as- strength of the gulf stream and trade winds, there is plish a task of so much labor; nor is it reasonable south side of the island of Cuba. It must, of necessubjecting our trade to injurious restrictions and em-sistance he has asked, can in a short time accom- virtually no passage for our trade eastward on the Even if a barrassment. The English settlers have, by their enterprise, to suppose that naval officers however killed in sity, pass through the gulf of Florida, a narrow nearly engrossed the trade from the Columbia river what properly belongs to the profession, will be able strait which can be effectually blockaded by two acthe night, it would have but one path open to it for to the islands, so that our countrymen are as effec-to perfect the drawings and other mechanical works, tive steam frigates, and probably by one. tually cut off from it, as if they had no rights in that and works of art, necessary to prepare this publica- trading vessel should pass such a blockading force in quarter. The people of various countries are rapid- tion in the style contemplated by congress. When I had the honor to present to you the usual a great distance, and might of course be pursued ly forming settlements all along the shores of the Pacific, from Columbia river to the Gulf of Califor-report from this department, at the commencement with a certainty of being overtaken. It would not The facts to which I have thus adverted show a nia; and this, too, with the countenance and support of the last session of congress, I proceeded upon the enjoy even the ordinary chances of a vessel escapof their respective governments. In the mean time, idea that it was the settled policy of the government ing from a blockaded port into a wide and open sea. we are doing literally nothing for our own interests gradually to mercase the navy. Notwithstanding in that quarter. To those of our people who are in- the favorable change which has since occurred in striking peculiarity in our condition. The greatest clined to settle there, we do not even hold out the en-our foreign relations, and notwithstanding the pre- portion of our commerce, confined to a single chancouragement of a reasonable expectation that we will sent unfavorable condition of the public treasury, I nel of some hundreds of miles, is exposed in a pecuprotect them against the violence and injustice of have seen no reason to believe that this policy is less liar manner to any enemy having possession of the other nations. A few small vessels, scarcely as many approved now than heretofore, by the great body of our sea; and what would render our condition still worse as we ought to keep constantly upon the coast of each people. It is true that the circumstances in which-if we be without a naval force, that commerce If these views be correct, I am at a loss to perof the South American nations on the Pacific-these, we are now placed render necessary very great mo- may be annihilated at a cost which would not be felt too,charged with the duties which twice their num-difications of the systems which would otherwise by any tenth rate maritime power. ber would not be able to perform-can offer but little be proper; but the opinion is as general now as it aid or support to the infant settlements of our people, ever has been, that a suitable navy is absolutely ne-ceive what portion of our country is not interested remote from each other, and demanding the constant cessary to the protection of our trade, the security of in them. To the states bordering on the gulf of There are ma- our people, and the respectability of our government. Mexico, and to all those which use the Mississippi presence of some protecting power. ny considerations connected with this subject of deep Fortunately, there is nothing in the circumstances of river as a channel of trade, the subject is of a deep importance in themselves, which belong rather to our country to render this in any degree a local ques- and daily increasing interest. So far as their prosother departments of the government than to this.tion. Apart from the general proposition that what perity depends on the outlet of the various producI advert to them only so far as to justify me in recom-is best for the general interest should be regard tions of their country, they have but a single quesmending a very large increase of the Pacific squad-ed as best for the whole, there is a local and parti- tion to decide. Is, or is not, their commerce worth cular interest in nine-tenths of our country, which the cost of a naval power adequate to protect it? It To these considerations are added, others growing demands a respectable naval establishment. The has no other protection, and it cannot have any other commercial towns on our sea board, by which nearly until its present channels shall be changed. On these points I can only reall our foreign and coasting trade is conducted, have lake and sea coast. so immediate and direct an interest in the subject, out of the peculiar character of our government as to render unnecessary any remarks upon that and institutions, and the exposed condition of our point. The various agricultural and manufacturing classes, peat the suggestions offered in iny last report. No scattered throughout the country, and connected country in the world has a greater interest than ours with and dependent upon this trade, have an indirect to guard itself against invasion. If we are destined interest not less apparent. The great and increasing to see again the smoke of an enemy's camp, we commerce of the lakes, although less exposed than should at least be careful not to allow it to ascend On the coast of Africa we have no squadron. The that of the ocean, is yet far too important to be left from our own soil. It is in all respects better for us small appropriation of the present year was believed undefended, even against the single power which to repel an enemy from our coast, than to subdue to be scarcely sufficient to answer the present de- may become its enemy. But the gulf of Mexico him after he has landed upon our shores. To do mands of more important stations; and hence no has peculiar claims. It is believed that there is not in this we must cherish our naval power,-not as the vessel has been equipped expressly for the African the world an equal amount of commercial and agri-institution cf a day or of a year,-not as a subject The sloop of war Vandalia, commander Ram-cultural interest belonging to any one country, so which we can lay aside, and take up again when
In the East Indies we have only two ships, the frigate Constellation, captain Kearney, commanding the squadron, and the sloop of war Boston, commander Long. It is owing more to our good fortune than to our strength, that our commerce has suffered no material interruption. That little squadron has done all that could have been expected of it, and it deserves much credit for its great vigilance and activity, and for the prudence and sound discretion with which com. Kearney has acquitted himself of the important trusts reposed in him.
with their currents, winds, &c.; with the languages,
ever we please, as the policy or the caprice of the of reform, which they have just commenced, as permoment may dictate; but as a great and permanent fect as possible. The bill, as it passed the senate, institution, worthy of a great people, and demanding would, it is believed, have proved as complete and the grave attention of government; an institution effective in its provisions, as could be reasonably exresting upon wise system, and worthy to be main- 5. The flag of the country will be displayed in pected of any new measure, running so much into tained in the spirit of a liberal, comprehensive and different ports, on many different vessels thereby details; but the changes which were made in it by stable policy. giving to foreign countries a better idea of the ex-the house of representatives have produced difficulThese considerations forbid us to fall so far in the tent of our naval power. Heretofore, the habit of ties and embarrassments in practice which were rear of other nations, and of the age in which we sending the same vessels repeatedly to the same fo- not foreseen at the time. The uniting of two bulive as to surrender our due share of the dominion of reign station has produced the impression that we reaus, whose duties are wholly distinct and require the seas. A commerce, such as ours, demands the had no others to send, and has thus detracted from a wholly different order of qualifications to disprotection of an adequate naval force; our people, the respect which ought to attach to us as a naval charge them, has been found extremely inconvenient scattered all over the world, have a right to require power. and embarrassing. the occasional presence of our flag, to give assu- 6. Our vessels of war will be kept constantly in The bureau of construction and repairs, for exrance to all nations, that their country has both the the tracks of our commerce, and be thus ready, on ample, is charged with duties of the bureau of will and the power to protect them. Our position all occasions and in all places, to afford to it what equipment. It requires a ship carpenter to build or among the nations is such as to leave us without ex-ever assistance it may need. In this way the small repair a vessel of war; it requires a naval officer to cuse, if we voluntarily strip ourselves of a power force destined for the protection of our African trade, equip her. In like manner, the providing of ordwhich all other nations are anxious to grasp. Our and for the suppression of the slave trade, may be nance and ordnance stores has no natural connexion forms of government and municipal institutions sug- occasionally strengthened by the presence of ves- with hydrographical surveys; and these two subgest that a naval force is our safest, and perhaps our sels of war, interchanging between the Mediterran-jects are entrusted to the same bureau. It would only defence; and as an additional recommendation, ean and the Brazils. But the great interest of our probably be impossible to find any one man properly of no small weight, the expenditure which this de-commerce in the Pacific, and particularly that most qualified to perform all the duties of building, refence requires is to be made chiefly among our own important part of it, the whale fisheries, will derive pairing, and equipping a vessel of war; and although people, encouraging their enterprise, invigorating peculiar advantages from this system. At present it would not, perhaps, be so difficult to find one comtheir industry, and calling out the abundant and now most of our whalers rarely see one of our vessels of petent to the duties of the two bureaux of ordnance almost hidden resources of our country. war, although it is well understood that they often and hydrography, yet it would probably happen, in If our navy is not to be put down altogether, nor need their protection. Our national ships crossing most instances, that he who was best qualified for abandoned to neglect and decay, it is high time that the Pacific, should be directed to visit the whaling the one would be least qualified for the other. it were placed upon some fixed and permanent plan. stations; a process by which that distant and now sides, great confusion will necessarily exist in keepWith a view to this, I respectfully offer the follow-neglected part of our commerce may always being, by the same set of clerks, the accounts of mating suggestions: within the reach of the protecting arm of their ters so wholly distinct. The clerical force allowed In the present favorable condition of our foreign country. to these two bureaux is much too small. Indeed relations, promising a long continuance of peace, I The system thus proposed will require, in order to this is true, though not to the same extent, of the cannot recommend any considerable appropriation prosecute it with all its advantages, larger squadrons other bureaux. The severe labors imposed, and the for building new vessels of war. We have already than we have heretofore employed. The good ef- small salaries allowed, are positive discouragements as many vessels as it will be necessary to keep infects, however, which may reasonably be expected to a zealous and energetic discharge of duty. commission; except, perhaps, in the classes of sloops from it, will, it is hoped, recommend it to adoption. In providing a chief of the bureau of construction, of war and small brigs and schooners. A few more The charge upon the treasury need not be material-equipment and repair, the alternative was between of these are required, and they can be built out of materials now on hand, at a very small cost. It seems to me to be too obvious to admit of doubt that our true policy is to apply as much as possible of the appropriations for the general naval service, to the employment of ships in commission.
ly, if it at all, increased, if the appropriations, here- a naval captain qualified to equip, and a naval contofore made for "increase and repair," should be, as structor qualified to build and repair. I did not hesifar as possible, for "equipment, pay, and subsist- tate to prefer the former, and the place is filled by a ence." member, of the late board of navy commissioners. I have caused estimates to be prepared for such But, in uniting the two bureaux, it was, I presume, squadrons as could, in my opinion, be most usefully not perceived that the salary, originally contemplated I hope to be excused for repeating here an idea and profitably employed in the manner above men- for the bureau of construction and repairs, was rethrown out in my last report, and which I am anx- tioned. This it is my duty to do, submitting it to tained. Thus it happens that one of the captains at ious to enforce. because it is the foundation of all congress to determine whether, under the circum- the head of a bureau, receives five hundred dollars sound policy in regard to the navy: It is an easy thing stances of the country, so large a force can properly per annum less than his pay as captain in command, to build a ship of war; it is a difficult thing to qualify be put in commission or not. If the condition of and less, by the same sum, than is received by each an officer to command her. This simple proposition, the treasury will warrant it, (of which they are the of the captains holding corresponding stations in the which every one knows to be true, should never be judges), I have no hesitation in earnestly recommend- department. This was doubtless not intended, and lost sight of by a nation that does not intend to aban-ing the employment of the largest force estimated will be corrected. don the ocean altogether. It requires at least five for. But in order that congress may, without trou- I also especially suggest that there is no good reayears of strict attention to make a good seaman; and ble, apportion the appropriation to the force which son for giving to the chief of the bureau of medicine not less than twenty years of active service in diffe- they are willing to keep in commission, I have caus- less salary than is received by others in correspondrent grades, to form a properly qualified naval com-ed to he prepared a table, showing the cost of a ing positions. He ought to be, and it is presumed mander. Surely, then, since competent officers can-ship of each class. Thus the reduction in the esti- always will be, a man of a high order of professionnot spring up with every exigency which may re- mates may be made in exact proportion to the re-al attainments, and general education, holding a soquire their services, true policy demands that we duction of the vessels in commission. cial position equal, in all respects, to that of any
should keep the requisite number of them in constant Whether it be the pleasure of congress to autho-other man. His expenses, of course, will be as great training, to be ready whenever their country shall rize a large or a small naval force, the necessity and his sacrifices certainly will not be less. Of the call for them. The best ship of war is powerless, will be the same for placing it on a proper footing. importance and utility of this bureau I already have when unskilfully commanded. We build fleets for The navy cannot be reformed by merely reducing its the most satisfactory proof, in the improved organiour enemies, when we put them in charge of incom-size. In my report of last year, I invited your at-zation of the medical department of the service, and tention to a variety of points on which I considered in the saving of expense greatly beyond my expecta
In order to carry out this idea, it is necessary not legislation necessary, in order to give due efficiency tions. An expenditure, twice as large as the bit cat only that we should keep more ships in commission to this department and to correct the abuses existing now calls for, will be more than twice saved annualthan heretofore, but that we should employ them in throughout the whole naval establishment. In my ly, by its services. Its claims, therefore, to the ina different manner. Our squadrons on foreign sta-opinion, every reform necessary to place the navy crease of salary which I recommend, are of the tions have been generally kept too much in port; upon the most useful, and at the same time upon the strongest character in every respect. have been too little employed in cruising, and too most economical footing, may be easily effected.- These defects in the law are obvious. Whenever With that view, I respectfully offer the following they shall be corrected, it is confidently believed that seldom employed in squadron manoeuvres. medy this, I propose a system of interchange between suggestions: a system of administration may be established in this So far as the materiel is concerned, nothing is re-department, as prompt, exact, and efficient as can be the several squadrons, and with that view, to arrange them that no ship except perhaps that of the quired exceptfidelity, vigilance and industry on the found in any other department of the government. commander-in-chief, shall remain more than one part of those to whom that matter is entrusted, and The acts of the last session, "to establish and regu year on the same station. I propose that the squad- such changes in the laws as will ensure a proper ac- late the navy ration," and "to regulate the pay of drons of the Mediterranean and the Brazils shall countabily. A great deal has already been accom- pursers and other officers of the navy," promise the consist as near as possible, of the same number and plished in this respect.. It is confidently believed most beneficial results to the economy of the service; classes of vessels, and that the same equality shall that the expense of building, repairing and equip- and will probably remove many of the difficulties prevail between those of the East Indies and the ping our vessels of war is much less at this time which would otherwise have existed in accomplishPacific. After particular intervals of time, a ves- than it was at any previous period within the lasting all the objects proposed in the reorganization of sel of the Mediterranean squadron shall be sent to twenty years. This result is attributable, not so the department. Brazil; and at the same time, one of the same de- much to the head of the department, as to the steaThe personnel of the navy is a subject of much scription from Brazil to the Mediterranean; and so dy and zealous efforts of those officers of the navy deeper interest, although it presents no greater difof the squadrons of the East Indies and the Pacific. who have had charge of the navy yards. Little is ficulties. That abuses exist, and that the public eye The advantages of this system are great and obvious. now required, except to establish a rigid system of occasionally offended with displays of disreputa1. By keeping the ships more at sea, the officers accountability in every branch of expenditure. ble behavior, is not surprising. Such things might will be more exercised in their proper duties, and Much has already been done to attain this object. be expected in any body of men equally numerous; will acquire more of the science and practice of their The law for the re-organization of this depart-they are seen every day, in social circles on shore, profession. ment has been carried out, as far as has been found without affixing to those circles any individual or practicable. The advantages of this change in the even general reproach. The navy is as free from such increased facilities of transacting business, and in scandals as any equal number of men in any order the concentration of responsibilities, are manifest of society. It is matter of just surprise that it should and great. I regret to say, however, that the sys-, be so. Withdrawn, in a great degree by the very tem is yet very imperfect. It is with extreme re-nature of their pursuits, from the immediate influ luctance that I bring this subject again to your no- ence of that public opinion which is the best cortice; and I should not do so, if I were not convinc-rective of manners, and with a most imperfect sysed that it is the wish of congress to make the work tem of laws and regulations as a substitute for it.
2. Discipline will be better learned and better enforced, both as to officers and crews. It is always relaxed while vessels are in port.
3. The dangerous connexions and fatal habits, so often formed amid the seductions of luxurious ports,
will be avoided.
4. Officers will have a better opportunity to become acquainted with different coasts and harbors;
268 NILES' NATIONAL REGISTER-DEC. 24, 1842-REPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF THE NAVY.
country is a sure corrective of all abuses of that sort, and no mar, who valued either his reputation or his comfort, would hazard the one or the other by any feeling unbecoming the impartial justice of his station. Still, however, it is desirable, not only that but that the public and the navy officers should bethe department should be in fact just and impartial, lieve it to be so.
The officers and teachers shall be supplied from what is there but their own sense of propriety, to prevent naval officers from falling into the worst ex-those actually in the naval service; and all nautical cesses? For twenty years past the navy has receiv-instruments, boats for practice, &c. shall be furnish ed from the governinent little more than a step mo-ed from the navy. This will save nearly the whole challenging that public opinion for the indulgence of ther's care. It was established without plan, and has expense of the schools. been conducted upon no principle, fixed and regulated by law. Left to get along as well as it could, the wonder is that it retains even a remnant of the character which it won so gloriously during the last
Instruction in the schools shall be given to candidates for admission into the navy, and to midshipmen actually in the service.
The admission of candidates shall be regulated by law as it is done in regard to the West Point academy. No boy shall receive an acting appointment in the navy, until he shall have passed a certain period of diligent study at a naval school; nor unless he shall produce the necessary certificates from his officers and instructors of his good conduct, capacity, physical ability, and general fitness.
I propose, therefore, that whenever the secretary of the navy shall be of opinion that an officer is unfit for the service, he shall be required to present his name to the senate for furlough; stating fully, if required so to do, the reasons for that opinion. If the tute, shall concur with him, the officers shall be put senate, after such inquiry as it may choose to instion furlough upon a certain proportion-say one half this way the same power that appoints will remove, his pay, and be considered out of the service. In and the act, receiving the sanction of the senate, will be placed above the suspicion of injustice or op. pression.
Reform, in this particular, must commence with the midshipmen. After a time, these boys become men, and these midshipmen become lieutenants, and commanders, and captains. Hence it is of the utmost importance that none should be appointed who are not duly qualified, and suited in all respects to that Among those who shall produce such certificates, peculiar service. And yet, to this great and fundamental truth no attention has hitherto been paid.appointments shall be made according to such rule as The department has been left free to appoint whom congress shall prescribe. These precautions will afford a reasonable assuit pleased, and as many as it pleased, without any law whatever to guide or regulate its judgment. The rance that no boy will be admitted into the navy It may be urged as an objection to his plan, that only rule by which the secretary can be governed is without being qualified for, and worthy of, that stato appoint those who are, or seem to be, best recom- tion. But the watchful care of the government over This is not true in point of fact. These offimended; and yet, in half the cases, the boy himself is him should not stop here. He should receive in the it will create a body of quasi pensioners upon the as well known as those who certify in his favor. Hence first instance, an acting appointment, as is now the treasury, who have done nothing to deserve such fathe secretary acts in the dark, and must, of neces-practice, and not be entitled to a full appointment, vor. It is a notorious fact, that until he shall have seen at least one years's service, cers are already in the service, and if they be not sity, be often in error. wayward and incorrigible boys, whom even parental at and made suitable progress in the science and put on furlough, will receive their whole pay instead authority cannot control, are often sent to the navy practical duties of the service. After receiving his of only half of it. No officer will ever be put on as a mere school of discipline, or to save them from full appointment he should pass not less than five furlough if he be really qualified for the service; and the reproach to which their conduct exposes them on years in active service, at sea, before he should be en- if he be not qualified, he ought not to be, and I preshore. It is not often that skilful officers or valuable titled to examination for a warrant, as "passed mid-sume will not be, called into service at all. Of men are made out of such materials. The corrective, shipman." That examination should be rigorous and course he will remain a dead weight upon the treathorough, and none should be entitled to it who could sury, to the full amount of his whole pay. To put which I propose, is, this: not produce the most satisfactory proofs of good con-him on furlough, therefore, is a positive relief to the But the evil, if it really be one, will be of very duct, attainments, capacity, and general fitness.treasury to the extent of one half his pay. By this time the boy will have attained a period of life when the character is generally well developed, short duration. When the navy officer shall come to and, in some degree, fixed; so that the country will understand that there is a process more certain and have good reason to trust him in the higher grades of summary than a trial by court martial, by which his A corps of officers, formed of such ma- dignity and his income may both be reduced, he will the service. terials, would probably present few instances of mis be cautious not to bring himself within such peril. conduct or incapacity, and would reflect honor on the The effect of the furlough system will be to create a himself to excel in his profession, and to place himcountry, while rendering to it the most valuable ser-new motive on the part of the naval officer to exert vices. self above suspicion in point of personal character and conduct. The belief, heretofore prevailing, that an officer of any standing in the navy could not be driven out; or at least that he could not be kept out of it, has had a strong influence in ruining its discipline, and corrupting its morals and manners. The furlough system, firmly administered, will serve to an unsparing and impartial administration of the law, remove this impression; and, with the assistance of When the inefficient through courts martial, will soon purify the service, and will long keep it pure. who are now in the navy shall have been removed, it is probable that the treasury will thereafter be rarely taxed with the pay of furloughed officers. The necessity of some mode of proceeding by which the navy may be rid of the incompetent, as well as of the guilty, is universally admitted; and I have not been able to devise any mode more just, more effective, or less objectionable on the score of expense than that which I now suggest.
1. The naval establishment shall be fixed by law; ascertaining, among other things, the number of officers to be allowed in each grade. There must be a due proportion among the several grades, or else it will be impossible that the different duties of the service can be properly discharged. In this respect, the proviso of the appropriation bill of the last session of congress, limiting the number of midshipmen to the number who were in service on the 1st of January, 1841, and of other officers to the number who were in service on the 1st January, 1842, will, if The system could not fail to relieve the personnel persisted in, prove extremely unfortunate in its action. The precise proportion, proper for the effective of the navy, after a time, of all its present incumofficering of a ship, depends upon her class. We brances, and would certainly tend to keep it in a may find, in an average of the different ships, a rule healthy condition. But it would be too slow in its near enough to perfect accuracy to afford a safe operation for the cure of existing evils. Probably guide of legislation upon the subject. But this pro- there never was a similar institution. any country, portion is wholly destroyed by the proviso above into which abuses have not crept, after so long a mentioned, so that it will be impossible, under that period as thirty years of profound peace, and of conlaw, to furnish the proper officers for the several sta- sequent neglect. Governments and their people are tions of our ships of war, supposing any considerable too apt to overlook the military arm, when there is number of our captains and commanders to be em- no immediate need of its protection; forgetting the ployed. The inconvenience of that proviso is alrea- wise maxim, that in peace we should prepare for war. Our navy has experienced its full share of dy felt, in regard to the medical officers in the serI had the honor to represent, at the last ses- those unfavorable influences; and the natural consion, the pressing necessity for an increase of the sequence is seen in the admitted fact that it contains number of surgeons and assistants. There are not some officers who do no credit to their commissions. now in service enough to afford the aid which it is. Their number, however, is much smaller than might the acknowledged duty of the government to afford, have been justly expected, under the operation of so to those who are engaged in her service at sea, and many discouraging and corrupting causes. Every yet, whatever may be the necessity for them, their nation finds it necessary, after particular intervals of numbers cannot be increased. In regard to the for- peace, to revise and reform its military establishward warrant officers, such as boatswain, carpenter, ments; and the time has now arrived when such a gunner, &c. the restriction is scarcely less inconve- corrective may be advantageously applied to the nient. They are appointed only as their services are navy of the United States. The only difficulty is in adopting the right process. required, so that there is no danger that their num bers will be inconveniently great. At all events, To dismiss from the service officers who have comthey should bear a due proportion to the other offi-mitted no positive offence, would be unjust and cruel. The nature of their profession is such as to dis2. There should be established proper naval schools qualify them for nearly all the pursuits of industry on shore. Little or no attention has hitherto been on shore. Most of them have been kept long on propaid to the proper education of naval officers.bation, and have been thus encouraged to expect that Through a long course of years, the young midship- they would remain in the service. Many of them men were left to educate themselves and one another; now have families dependent upon them who would and it is creditable to them that they lost, few oppor- be exposed to great suffering if the public support Suitable teachers are now pro- should be entirely withdrawn. On the other hand tunities of doing so. vided for them, but their schools are kept in receiv-it is to be borne in mind that the officer stipulates ing ships and cruising vessels, in the midst of a thou- with his country, that he will be both willing and sand interruptions and impediments, which render able to perform all the dutics of the station which he the whole system of little or no value. Under such solicits and receives at her hand; and he has, therecircumstances, the foundation of a solid and useful fore, no right to complain that she rejects him when This subject was he proves either neglectful or incompetent. Pereducation can rarely be laid. brought to the attention of congress at its last session, haps no more just rule can be adopted than to comand a bill, establishing a naval school, passed the se-pel the officer to retire, upon a certain proportion of nate. It was not acted on by the house of represen- his annual pay. A system of compulsory furlough, again earnestly recom- properly regulated, and guarded against abuse, would tatives, for want of time. mend it, convinced, as I am, that its effects upon the have the most salutary effect. To lodge such a pownavy will be in the highest degree beneficial. If er in the secretary of the navy would probably not adopted, congress will, of course, prescribe such rules be generally acceptable. and regulations in regard to it as may seem to them proper; but I respectfully suggest the following as the outline of the system.
If this system should be fully and faithfully carried out, I do not perceive that any thing more will be able officers. Hitherto, it has been their great misnecessary to insure to the navy competent and honorfortune that with fewer opportunities than others to educate themselves, the government has done nothing to educate them. The cadet from West Point enters the army well founded in the principles of solid and useful learning, and fully prepared to engage with advantage in any pursuit whether of civil or military life. The candidate for the navy, on the contrary, is deemed well enough qualified, if he be able to read and write, to answer a few simple questions in geography and English grammar, and to solve plain Why should this difference be made? Important problems in the elementary rules of arithmetic. as a proper preparatory education may be to the army officer, it is even more important to the officer of the navy. Apart from the fact that he has few opportunities to improve himself, it is to be remembered that he is the most frequent representative of his country abroad, the standard by which foreign nations will be most apt to measure her moral and intellectual character; he is also frequently entrusted with important and delicate negotiations, involving the rights of our citizens, and the peace and honor mander is much more useful, important and dignified, of our country. The function of the naval comthan is generally supposed. To his skill and vigilance are entrusted, at every hour of the day and night, the safety of the ship, and the lives of her For crew.
The natural jealousy which every one feels of
The honor of his country's flag, and in a great detection in war, are among the awful trusts with gree her harmonious relations in peace and her pro