which he is clothed. Very few men can be found, defiance of all the power which it is authorised to the surgeon's and purser's department, has subject qualified in every respect for so high and imposing an exert. Our own people are daily selling to the ed the seamen to unnecessary charges, the governoffice; and unhappily there are too few among those government timber which they take against law from ment to constant imposition, in many cases to gross who now hold it, who duly feel its importance and the public lands; and it is understood that large sup- frauds, and consequently to heavy losses. These dignity. I humbly think that it is a high duty of plies of the same timber are already contracted for losses have been the greater, in consequence of the government to adopt every means, calculated in any by foreign governments. It is impossible to prevent want of proper means of establishing a system of degree to elevate the standard of character in the these depredations under existing laws. The sub- strict accountability; which would have enabled the naval commander, and to fit him in knowledge, inject is, in my opinion, worthy of the serious and department not only to see the extent of the evil, professional skill, and in personal character, to disbut to apply the proper remedy. The bureaux to charge the high and solemn duties of his office. This which these subjects belong have been diligently and can be best done by giving him a suitable preparatory successfully engaged in devising suitable means of education, and by providing proper and ready means guarding against similar impositions for the future. of removing him from the ranks of his profession, whenever he may be found unworthy to occupy a place in them.

prompt attention of congress. If they should tho-
roughly investigate it, the information which the de-
partment can afford will not fail to convince them
of the necessity of a reform in the laws relating to
it, and of additional grants of power and means to
the officers of the government to whom they may
choose to entrust this valuable part of the public

I respectfully renew the suggestion heretofore made, that there is yet one thing more, necessary to The subject next in importance is the establishcomplete the process of reform. The naval officer ment of a navy yard on the largest scale, on the washould feel that he has a place in the respect and ters of the lower Mississippi. I had the honour to confidence of his country, and that the honors and give my views upon this subject, in a report to the distinctions which his services shall have earned, will senate of the 31st of January last. Respectfully renot be withheld from him. Fromotion is the vital ferring to that report, I forbear to repeat at large principle of military service; and hence as many the suggestions which it offers. I will only say that grades should be established as may be found consist- the object which I have in view is to afford whatent with the due order and efficiency of the service. ever facilities such an establishment can afford, to The experience of every day tends to confirm me in the industry of the whole valley of the Mississippi, the belief that the several grades of admiral, vice now cut off in a great degree from its due share in admiral and rear admiral, ought to be established in the supplies of the navy. The iron of that region our navy. I had the honer to bring this subject to would find there a ready and convenient market; an your notice in my last report, and to urge such rea- extensive rope-walk-a necessary appendage to such sons as seemed to me to be sufficient in support of the a navy yard-would present a constant demand for recommendation now renewed. I have only to add hemp; the provisions of the west now worth little or that this important measure need not increase the ex-nothing. from their superabundance, would find a penses of the navy at all. It will afford an opportu- ready purchaser at fair prices. Every branch of nity to reward, by well-deserved promotion, many western industry would feel, directly or indirectly, officers in the several grades, who are well qualified the influence of such an establishment; while the for the highest stations and most important duties of navy itself would be secure of abundant and cheap the service. supplies, sufficiently convenient to the ocean, and yet perfectly safe from the attacks of any enemy.

The articles are now procured, as far as possible, from those who make or produce them, so that the profits-always large and often extortionate--which have heretofore been paid to the grocer, the apothecary, and the contractor for clothing, are saved to the government and the sailor. Such supplies as we are still compelled to obtain in the former mode, are subjected to rigorous inspection, which assures us of their good quality and reasonable prices; and when brought into the public stores, the persons under whose charge they are placed are required to account for them with a degree of minuteness which promises to guard effectually against any waste or extravagance in the use of them.

I have very little doubt that most of the mechanical labor which has been performed at our navy yards has been too dearly paid for. I can perceive no good reason why a mechanic should work fewer hours in the day, or receive higher wages, in a public dockyard than in a private workshop; on the contrary, if there be a difference, it should be in favor of the government, in consequence of the more constant employment and the more prompt and certain pay. It is certainly good policy on the part of the government to give such wages as will command the most competent and faithful workmen; but this can always be done, for the reasons above assigned, for the same wages which are paid at the best private establishments. Measures have been adopted to place the government upon terms of just equality, with individuals in this respect.

These men, most of whom would soon become the ornaments and grace of any other navy in the world, It is by arrangements of this sort that the navy can are likely under our present system to grow gray in be made to return to the country twice the wealth subordinate and obscure stations; their merits un- which is expended in support of it. The wealth of acknowledged and their usefulness thrown away. a nation does not consist in the quantity of gold We may at least be allowed to regret that the higher which it may have in its treasury; the economy of a But a still more considerable source of expense in officers of the navy-those who, by their services in nation is not shown only in the smallness of its ex- building, repairing, arming and equipping our veswar, have reflected most honor on their country, and penditures. It is rich only in proportion as its peo- sels of war, may be found in the high prices and ingiven the best proofs of their own merits, are so raple are rich; and it is economical only so far as it different quality of the iron and copper which have pidly passing from the stage of life, that even if our applies the public money to uses more valuable to been used. The department has given much attenpolicy in this respect should ultimately change, others the people who pay it, than the money itself. This tion to these two important subjects, with a view to are likely to reap the honors which they have so is but another name for national thrift; but it is the the correction of the former abuses. In particular richly earned. This should be deemed by a gener-only sense in which national economy is of any va- kinds of iron, the standard has been raised seventyous country, a reason for adopting at once a policy lue. Nine-tenths of the appropriations to the navy five per cent. and yet it is found that supplies can be which beyond all doubt will ultimately be forced are paid back to our own people for materials, labor obtained at less prices than heretofore, although the upon us, if we shall continue to maintain any navy and subsistence. It is thus put into circulation, pay- quality is nearly as twice as good. The fact, now

at all.

I again respectfully ask for an increase in the number of marines, and of marine officers in the lower grades. Not less than twenty millions of dollars of the public property are now exposed in our navy yards to conflagration and theft, for want of proper marine guards. Thefts to a consideroble extent have recently been detected, and doubtless others have been committed which will never be detected. One fire, which a single additional marine might prevent, would probably destroy in a few hours more than the expenses of the whole marine force for ten years. Surely it cannot be true economy to leave so much of the public property exposed to such great dangers, for want of so cheap a protection as a few additional marines.

generally known, that proper tests are applied, and that no iron will be received which does not bear them, has served to create an honorable competition among those engaged in that branch of industry; so that the most important improvements are constantly made. The United States can furnish as good iron as any other country in the world, and with suitable encouragement would soon be able to supply the world with that metal.

ing debts, supplying wants, and sustaining credit.
Every dollar thus employed increases the tax-paying
ability of the people to twice that amount; and this
tax-paying ability is the true wealth of the nation.
The expenses of the navy, therefore, are not to be
considered a dead tax upon the treasury. They not
only go back and circulate among our own people,
but, unlike most other expenditures of the govern-
ment, they give employment to industry, encourage-
ment to enterprise, and patronage to genius. They In chain cables, an invaluable improvement has
perform, to a great extent, the office of a protective been made. None but the very best iron is ever ap-
tariff, in developing and bringing into use various plied to that use; and an apparatus is now in pro-
sources of our national wealth, particularly in cop- gress and very nearly completed, for subjecting the
per, iron, hemp, provisions and coal. The effect of cables, when finished, to thermotension. A long se-
even a small disbursement, so made, upon the pub-ries of careful and accurate experiments has ascer-
lic prosperity and comfort, is much more important
and extensive than the first view of it would lead us
to suppose.

It is an object of great interest to me, to make the navy subservient to the encouragement of American industry. This may be done, not only by the protec- I am far from saying that taxes ought to be levied tion which it affords to American commerce, (upon merely for the purpose of so expending them. No which I have already commented,) but also by means tax should be imposed, direct or indirect, which is of the supplies which it requires. We are probably not required for the legitimate and proper uses of the only people in the world who can, with perfect government. But if a necessity for the tax can be convenience, build, equip, arm, feed and clothe a shown to exist; if the purposes to which it is pronavy of the largest size from our own home resourc-posed to apply it, clearly appear to be useful and A nation of any magnitude, having all the ma- profitable to the country far beyond the measure of terials of war constantly at its command, is essen- the tax itself; it ceases to be a burden, and is relievtially powerful. Hence it is of the utmost impor-ed from all fair objection. Such, in my opinion, is tance that we should adopt a policy calculated at emphatically the case with almost the entire approonce to cherish and develope these sources of our priation to the naval service. It is confidently be strength and security. The measures more imme-lieved that such appropriations, as liberal as any condiately necessary to accomplish this object have already been brought to the notice of congress; but as they have not yet been acted on, it would seem to be proper that I should again refer to them.


venient and proper revenue system will allow, may be,
and of necessity must be, applied to "uses far more
valuable, to the people who pay them, than the mo-
ney itself;" and that, far from being an oppressive
burden, they will operate as a measure of positive

The first in importance is the preservation of navy timber growing on the public lands. No other coun-relief. try possesses so rich a store of this material as the In looking for the sources of unnecessary expense United States. Properly protected, it would afford throughout the naval establishment, I have found a supply for the largest navy in the world, for an in- much to correct. It cannot be denied that our navy definite time, without any sensible diminution. But has cost much more than it ought to have cost, conI regret to say that the laws which have been enact-sidering the small amount of vessels that we have ed with this view are in some respects inoperative, usually kept in commission. I do not know that this and in all respects inefficient. Depredations of the most ruinous kind are daily committed, in spite of all the vigilance which this department can use, and in

could have been very easily prevented under the for-
mer defective organization of the department. The
mode heretofore pursued of obtaining the supplies of

tained that this process adds seventeen per cent. to its strength. By this means the weight, and consequently the cost of a cable of given strength is greatly diminished; and so also is the labor of handling it on board ship. For this great improvement, we are indebted to the scientific information and industrious researches of professor Walter R. Johnson, of Philadelphia. It is impossible to calculate its value to the whole navigating interest to the world. The fate of the largest ship and of all her crew often depends upon the strength of her cables; so that a little more or less of strength in a single link may save or destroy her. I have considered it therefore, of the utmost importance to improve, by every practicable means, the quality of chain cable iron. It is believed that even at the present day we are not surpassed in this respect by any other nation; and if improvements shall advance hereafter, as rapidly as heretofore, we may in a short time safely challenge the competition of the world.

A similar improvement has been made in iron for ordnance. Too much importance cannot be attached to the soundness of cannon. The bursting of a single gun in battle is often more disastrous than many broadsides from an enemy. It not only destroys life, and withdraws so much from the effective battery of the ship, but it also creates confusion and disorder; excites in the minds of the crew distrust in the soundness of the other guns, and thus discourages and renders them timid. Hence, no consideration of mere money saving should ever enter into the arrange

onduct exposes them on Iful officers or valuable erials. The corrective,

shall be fixed by law; ngs, the number of offiade. There must be a eral grades, or else it Terent duties of the serged. In this respect, on bill of the last sesnumber of midshipmen rvice on the 1st of Janers to the number who January, 1842, will, if unfortunate in its ac

proper for the effective upon her class. We e different ships, a rule uracy to afford a safe Subject. But this proby the proviso above impossible, under that cers for the several staosing any considerable ommanders to be em-f that proviso is alreaal officers in the ser-esent, at the last sesor an increase of the tants. There are not d the aid which it is government to afford, her service at sea, and cessity for them, their In regard to the forboatswain, carpenter, scarcely less inconvely as their services are anger that their numgreat. At all events,

years in active service, at sea, before he should be en-
titled to examination for a warrant, as "passed mid-
shipman." That examination should be rigorous and
thorough, and none should be entitled to it who could
not produce the most satisfactory proofs of good con-
duct, attainments, capacity, and general fitness.-
By this time the boy will have attained a period of
life when the character is generally well developed,
and, in some degree, fixed; so that the country will
have good reason to trust him in the higher grades of
the service. A corps of officers, formed of such ma-
terials, would probably present few instances of mis
conduct or incapacity, and would reflect honor on the
country, while rendering to it the most valuable ser-

The system could not fail to relieve the personnel
of the navy, after a time, of all its present incum-
brances, and would certainly tend to keep it in a
healthy condition. But it would be too slow in its
operation for the cure of existing evils. Probably
there never was a similar institution. In any country,
into which abuses have not crept, after so long a
period as thirty years of profound peace, and of con-
sequent neglect. Governments and their people are
too apt to overlook the military arm, when there is
no immediate need of its protection; forgetting the
wise maxim, that in peace we should prepare for
war. Our navy has experienced its full share of
those unfavorable influences; and the natural con-
sequence is seen in the admitted fact that it contains
some officers who do no credit to their commissions.
Their number, however, is much smaller than might
have been justly expected, under the operation of so
many discouraging and corrupting causes. Every
nation finds it necessary, after particular intervals of
peace, to revise and reform its military establish-
ments; and the time has now arrived when such a
corrective may be advantageously applied to the
navy of the United States.

if he be not qualified, he sume will not be, called course he will remain a d sury, to the full amount of him on furlough, therefore treasury to the extent of o But the evil, if it really short duration. When the understand that there is a summary than a trial by c dignity and his income ma be cautious not to bring hi The effect of the furlough new motive on the part of himself to excel in his pro self above suspicion in po and conduct. The belief, an officer of any standing driven out; or at least tha of it, has had a strong inf pline, and corrupting its m furlough system, firmly a remove this impression; a an unsparing and impartial through courts martial, wi and will long keep it pu who are now in the navy s is probable that the treasur taxed with the pay of fur cessity of some mode of navy may be rid of the ind the guilty, is universally been able to devise any mo ive, or less objectionable than that which I now sugg

If this system should be f out, I do not perceive tha necessary to insure to the n able officers. Hitherto, it The only difficulty is in adopting the right process. fortune that with fewer op To dismiss from the service officers who have com- educate themselves, the gov tion to the other offi-mitted no positive offence, would be unjust and cru- to educate them. The cad el. The nature of their profession is such as to dis- the army well founded in t cd proper naval schools qualify them for nearly all the pursuits of industry useful learning, and fully ion has hitherto been on shore. Most of them have been kept long on pro- advantage in any pursuit w on of naval officers.bation, and have been thus encouraged to expect that life. The candidate for the rs, the young midship- they would remain in the service. Many of them is deemed well enough q selves and one another; now have families dependent upon them who would read and write, to answer a at they lost, few oppor- be exposed to great suffering if the public support geography and English gran teachers are now pro- should be entirely withdrawn. On the other hand problems in the elementary ols are kept in receiv- it is to be borne in mind that the officer stipulates Why should this differen in the midst of a thou- with his country, that he will be both willing and as a proper preparatory e liments, which render able to perform all the dutics of the station which he army officer, it is even mor o value. Under such solicits and receives at her hand; and he has, there- of the navy. Apart from of a solid and useful fore, no right to complain that she rejects him when opportunities to improve hi d. This subject was he proves either neglectful or incompetent. Per-bered that he is the most fr gress at its last session, haps no more just rule can be adopted than to com- his country abroad, the st I school, passed the se- pel the officer to retire, upon a certain proportion of nations will be most apt to the house of represen- his annual pay. A system of compulsory furlough, Intellectual character; he is gain earnestly recom- properly regulated, and guarded against abuse, would with important and delicat hat its effects upon the have the most salutary effect. To lodge such a pow- the rights of our citizens, degree beneficial. If er in the secretary of the navy would probably not of our country. The fund se, prescribe such rules be generally acceptable. mander is much more usefu as may seem to them than is generally supposed gest the following as the


shed at such of the old eaboard as may afford as may not be requ red

penses of the navy
nity to reward, by well-deserv
officers in the several grades
for the highest stations ands
The service.

These men, most
ornaments and grace
are likely under our prese
subordinate and obscure
acknowledged and their
We may at least be allow
officers of the navy
war, have reliactada
given the best proois
pidly passing front
policy in this respects
are likely to reap
richly earned. The
ous country.
which beyond al
upon us, if we shall
at all.

1egain respectfistic
ber of mar
grades. Not
the public p
yards to con
marine guards
recently been
been committed
fire, which
would probably
expenses of the
Surely it
of the public
for want of

he will remain a dead weigitu o the full amount of his whisp furlough, therefore, is a posit y to the extent of one half h The evil, if it really be one, vil iration. When the navy of and that there is a process s y than a trial by court martial and his income may both be ous not to bring himself with ct of the furlough system will ive on the part of the naval to excel in his professional e suspicion in point of pes uct. The belief, heretofon of any standing in the mys t; or at least that he could had a strong influence in corrupting its morals and system, firmly administered s impression; and, with s ng and impartial administra urts martial, will soon pan ong keep it pure. W w in the navy shall have that the treasury will thera the pay of furloughed af me mode of proceeding i rid of the incompetent, s S universally admitted a devise any mode more j objectionable on the st ch I now suggest. m should be fully and f perceive that any thing nsure to the navy compe Hitherto, it has been da ith fewer opportunist elves, the government n. The cadet from Wes founded in the principle , and fully prepared y pursuit whether of on date for the nary, c enough qualified, f o answer a few s nglish grammar, lementary rules of sil is difference be male aratory education an even more important art from the fact th prove himself, its most frequent rep the standard by tapt to measure er; he is also in delicate negotiation izens, and the p De function of the useful, importa pposed. To his at every hour e ship, and the


untry's Bag di
lations in pea

mong the

I invite attention to the existing laws on the subject of navy pensions, which appear to me to need many changes and modifications.

On motion of Mr. Walker,


Resolved, That the committee on the public lands be instructed to inquire into the expediency of permitting the state of Mississippi to appropriate $25,000 of the 2 per cent. fund of said state wards the completion of the rail road leading from Jackson to Brandon, upon the conditions designated by said state.

A message was received from the house of representatives announcing the death of the hon. Richard W. Habersham, and the proceedings thereon, when

ments for producing ordnance for the navy. True economy requires that the very best guns which can be made, and none others, should ever be used. Upon this idea this department is acting. No cannon is I have thus, sir, submmitted without reserve my received which does not bear the most satisfactory views of the present condition and actual requiretests, and yet it is not found that the cost of ordnancements of our naval service. It is my duty to do this is any greater than heretofore. On the contrary. without reference to any other considerations, guns of the same kind which have heretofore cost Whether my recommendations shall be adopted or more than one hundred and thirty dollars per ton, not. must of course depend on the view which may be have recently been contracted for at ninety-five dol- taken of them by the legislative departments of the lars. government. In presenting my own views, I simply In copper, the frauds which have been practised up-discharge my own duty, to those to whose better on the government have been gross and enormous.— judgment all the measures which I have proposed Pure copper ought to last upon a ship's bottom twen- must be referred. ty years; and yet that which we have used upon our ships of war has not lasted upon an average more than seven. Upon examining a portion of the copper recently taken from the bottom of the Columbus, I found that it exhibited the appearance of worm eaten TWENTY SEVENTH CONGRESS OF THE department, covering a report from Mr. Hassler, su

wood; the reason of which is that it was full of impurities, which corroded and fell off. Even that which remained, instead of possessing the toughness which belongs to pure copper, would not bear to be bent, but broke short off like a piece of cast iron. It is impossible to be too careful in procuring an article so costly as copper. Nothing but the application of proper scientific tests can detect its impurities, or prevent the grossest and most ruinous impositions.A single defective sheet on the bottom of a large ship will render it necessary to bring her into dock, and will thus cost the country ten times as much as would have been required to prevent any such result. The copper in a ship's bottom is no small part of her entire cost; and this cost is more than doubled by using copper of bad quality.

The great importance of guarding against the imposition in this respect, has induced the department to institute a series of experiments, under the management of professor Johnson, the result of which promises to be of great benefit to the economy of the service. These results I have the honor to communicate in a copy of Mr. Johnson's report, hereto annexed.


All which is respectfully submitted.




DECEMBER 15. The Hon. J. C. Calhoun, of South
Carolina, appeared in his seat.

Mr. Buchanan presented a memorial from the
chamber of commerce of Philadelphia in favor of the
warehouse system.

Mr. Benton submitted the following:

Resolved, That the president of the United States be requested to inform the senate whether the quintuple treaty for the suppression of the slave trade has been communicated to the government of the United States in any form whatever; and, if so, by whom, for what purpose, and what answer may have been returned to such communication.

Mr. Berrien rose and addressed the senate on the melancholy occurrence with an eulogy on the deceased, and concluded by offering the usual resolutions of respect for his memory, which were unanimously adopted, and the senate adjourned. DECEMBER 20. The president of the senate laid before the body a communication from the treasury

perintendent of the coast survey, and showing the progress made therein during the present year.

After the presentation of petitions, several bills of a private character were presented; and also, by Mr. Smith, of Indiana, a bill to provide for ascertaining and disposing of the lead mineral lands in the states of Illinois and Arkansas, and the territories of Wiskonsan and Iowa.

The resolution submitted by Mr. Benton, calling on the president for information as to the Quintuple treaty, came up in its order, when a debate ensued, in which Messrs. Archer, Benton, King, and others participated; when the resolution was postponed until Thursday next, and ordered to be printed. The senate then adjourned.

DECEMBER 21. Mr. Linn, from the select comAlso, to communicate to the senate all the infor-mittee to which it was referred, reported the bill to mation which may have been received by the govern- authorise the adoption of measures for the occupament of the United States going to show that the tion and settlement of the territory of Oregon, and "course" which the government might take in relation to for extending certain portions of the laws of the U. said treaty has excited no small degree of attention and States over the same, and for other purposes, with discussion in Europe.

Also, to inform the senate how far the "warm animadversions" and the "great political excitement” which this treaty has caused in Europe, have any application or reference to these United States.

certain amendments.

Mr. Linn submitted the following:

Resolved, That the president be requested to inAs steamships will hereafter form a part of our naform the senate of the nature and extent of the "invy, it becomes important to ascertain what kind of formal communications" which took place between fuel can be most advantageously used. With this of having "the lanes and the obligations" of the United minister, during the late negotiations at Washington Also, to inform the senate what danger there was the American secretary of state and the British special view, I have taken measures to cause a proper anal- States in relation to the suppression of the slave trade city, upon "the subject of the claims of the United ysis to be made, of the several coals of our country,"executed by others," if we did not "remove the pretext States and Great Britain to the country west of the and also of those of England. All persons interested in this subject were invited by public advertisement to and motive for violating our flag and executing our laws," Rocky Mountains;" and also to inform the senate send samples of their coal to the navy yard in Wash- by entering into the stipulations for the African what were the reasons which prevented "any agreeington, in order that a proper comparison might be squadron, and the remonstrating embassies which are ment upon the subject at present," and which made it made, under suitable phile sophical tests. About thir-contained in the 8th and 9th sections of the late Bri-inexpedient to include that subject among the subjects of ty samples have been sent, and some progress has formal negotiation" been made in the examination of them. Professor A joint resolution was received from the house, Johnson, to whom this investigation has been entrus- and read, so amending the 19th rule as to prevent ted, was called from Washington before any conclu- any intoxicating liquors from being offered for sale, sive results had been obtained; but his experiments or exhibited within the capitol or the public grounds will be resumed as soon as possible, and will undoub- adjacent, and that the restaurateurs be forthwith removed from the capitol. tedly present a mass of most useful information on this important subject.

tish treaty.

DECEMBER 19. The hon. Mr. Henderson and Mr.
Walker, of Miss., Mr. Phelps, of Vermont, and Mr.
Sevier, of Arkansas, appeared in their seats.

On motion, Ordered, That when the senate adjourn, The application of scientific principles in the meit adjourn to mect on Monday next. chanical arts is now universal. The mere artizan, The senate then proceeded to the consideration of whose skill is only derived from practice, is far be-executive business, and, after some time spent therehind the times. Science is now lending her aid to in, adjourned. the arts, in all their departments, expanding their powers, multiplying their uses, and perfecting their works. I respectfully suggest that this aid is no where more important, than in the various operations connected with a naval establishment. When we consider the number and variety of the materials which are used, the costliness of many of them, and the high importance that they should all be of the best and most durable kinds, the propriety of sub. jecting them to all necessary tests, and of improving their equality as far as possible, will at once be admitted.

This can be done only by the union of science with practical skill. The knowledge which we obtain from experience is always slow, always costly, and not always sure; that which we obtain from experiment, particularly in physical science, rarely deceives, and seldom fails richly to repay us. The experiments which have already been made, under the direction of this department, have imparted to it a degree of information which could not have beenderived from any other source, and which will more than repay their cost, in the building of a single ship. These experiments, however, are but the beginning of what might be accomplished in the same way. If the department were in a condition to avail itself of the improvements which are daily made in practical science, the most important results would soon be realized, in the improved quality of our ships, and in the general economy of the service. I respectfully recommend the subject to the favorable cousideration

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The president laid before the senate an elaborate report from the secretary of the navy, in relation to the growth and culture of American hemp, together with much other statistical information in relation to the imports, exports, &c. of hemp.

Mr. Huntington, from the committee on commerce, reported a bill allowing drawback upon foreign merchandise exported in the original packages to Chihuahua and Santa Fe, in Mexico, without amendment, and recommending its immediate passage.

Mr. Linn, introduced on leave, a bill to authorise the adoption of measures for the occupation and settlement of the territory of Oregon, for extending certain portions of the laws of the United States over the same, and for other purposes.

[The bill, on motion of Mr. Linn, was referred to a select committee, to be appointed by the chair. The committee consists of Messrs. Linn, Walker, Sevier, Merrick and Phelps.]

Mr. Conrad submitted the following:

Resolved, That the secretary of state be requested to communicate to the senate (if not incompatible with the public interest) whether the amount due and payable by Mexico for indemnity to citizens of the United States, under the late convention, has been paid in conformity with the terms of said convention; ifot, whether any and what measures have been adopted by our government to obtain or enforce payment; as also, to obtain the recognition of such claims as were submitted to, but not finally acted upon, by the late joint commission.

Mr. Benton submitted the following: Resolved, That the president of the United States be requested to inform the senate whether the late special minister from Great Britain to the United States made any proposition, informal or otherwise, to the negotiator on the part of the United States for the assumption or guaranty of the state debts by the government of the United States to the holders of said debts.

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Resolved, That the secretary of war be directed to communicate to the senate the report of the board of commissioners to select sites for western armories. Mr. Allen submitted the following resolution:

Resolved, That the 46th rule for conducting business in the senate, and which requires the senate to close its doors when transacting executive business, be rescinded, and the senate shall hereafter sit with open doors when transacting all business, except treaties.

The bill granting donations of land to certain persons in the state of Arkansas, was ordered to be engrossed, and after further proceedings of minor importance, the senate adjourned.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. THURSDAY, DEC. 15. The speaker announced the following as the committee on international copyright: Mr. Kennedy, of Maryland; Mr. Winthrop, of Massachusetts; Mr. Brockway, of Connecticut; Mr. McKeon, of New York; Mr. Cushing, of Massachusetts.

The house then resolved itself into committee of the whole on the state of the union, (Mr. Briggs, of Massachusetts, in the chair.)

And, on motion of Mr. Fillmore, the committee proceeded to the consideration of the bill making appropriations for the civil and diplomatic expenses of government for the half calendar year ending the 30th day of June, 1843." And the bill having first been read through, was taken up by items.

After having disposed of thirteen of the thirty pages of the bill, the committee rose and reported progress. On motion of Mr. Cooper, of Penn., another member was ordered to be appointed on the committee of Indian affairs, vice Mr. Guin, of Miss., appointed, but not yet arrived. On the suggestion of Mr. Fillmore, the speaker laid before the house sundry executive communications. And then the house adjourned. FRIDAY, DEC. 16. Mr. Green, of Ky., appeared Mr. Bronson submitted a resolution calling from the secretary of the treasury a statement of fees taxed by the clerks of the United Sates courts in cases of admiralty and bankruptcy, &c. Adopted. Mr. Toland asked leave to offer the following resolution, which was read for information:

in his scat.


which has only terminated in his death; which pain- this act shall not affect any case or proceeding in ful event, as we are informed, took place at his resi-bankruptcy commenced before the passage of this dence in Habersham county, Georgia, on the second act. or any pains, penalties, or forfeitures incurred day of this month, surrounded by his family and under the said act; but every such proceeding may friends. Mr. Habersham was a descendant of the be continued to its final consummation in like manmost honorable and distinguished families in Geor-ner as if this act had not been passed.'” gia. He was endowed with more than ordinary Mr. Barnard said he would consent to withdraw powers of mind, which was enlarged and cultivated his motion to commit the bill on one condition, nameby a liberal education. Being thus qualified, he early ly, that he might offer, instead of the amendment engaged in public life, and, by a long course of up proposed by the gentleman from Massachusetts, anoright conduct and unbending integrity, he acquired a ther which he now held in his hand, and which was, degree of confidence which few attain, and, what is in fact, a substitute for the bill. It was read, as folstill more rare, which he never abused. He has oc- lows: cupied stations of honor and trust, both under the "That so much of the act entitled 'an act to esfederal and state governments, the duties of which tablish a uniform system of bankruptcy throughout he discharged to the full requisitions of the law and the United States,' approved on the 19th day of Auentire satisfaction of those with whom he had official gust, 1841, as authorises any person owing debts to apply, by petition, for the benefit of said act, togethResolved, That the secretary of the treasury be di- In eighteen hundred and thirty-eight he was electer with all the parts of said act which are applicarected to inform this house whether any charges ed as a member of congress, and continued in that ble solely to the mode of obtaining the benefit of the have at any time been preferred to the department character until his death. To you, sir, and his asso- provisions of such act in behalf of debtors, by the against Jonathan Roberts, late collector of the port ciates here, I need say nothing. You have witnessed voluntary petition of such debtors, without the conof Philadelphia, relative to his discharge of the du- his course; you appreciate his worth as a man, and currence or aid of their creditors, be and the same ties of said office; and if any have been, that he be his usefulness as a member of this body. And not- is hereby repealed: Provided, That this act shall not directed to furnish copies of the same. Also, that withstanding the political asperity of the times dur- affect any case or proceeding in bankruptcy already he transmit to this house copies of any order, in- ing which he has been a member, and although he commenced, or which shall be commenced before struction, or request, addressed to the said Jonathan has been firm and unwavering in his political course, the 4th day of July next, or any pains, penalties, or Roberts, to remove or appoint any subordinate offi- yet I believe he never indulged in a sentiment, or forfeitures prescribed and incurred, or which shall cers of the customs at the port of Philadelphia suffered an expression to escape his lips, at which be incurred under said act." Also, a copy of the order or letter dismissing him even the most sensitive political opponent could justfrom the office of collector of the said port, and co-ly take exception. His errors and infirmities, if any pies of all letters and papers in possession of the de- he had-and none are faultless-"were of the head, partment relating to the subjects embraced by this and not of the heart." He was amiable, generous, and forgiving in his disposition; his home was the centre of kindness and hospitality, and his hand ever open to the calls of charity. It may be said of him, what can with truth be said of him, that he has gone and not left an enemy behind him. In his lamented | death, Georgia has lost one of her most useful, virThe question, "will the house second the demand tuous, and talented citizens; one of her most distin- for the previous question?" was then taken, (by telguished, patriotic, and cherished sons; and his fami- lers) and decided in the negative: ayes 66, noes 94.


Mr. Weller objected-and a suspension of the rules being moved, the vote was yeas 96, nays 81, (not two-thirds), so the rules were not suspended for the purpose of considering the resolution.

The house then resolved itself into committee on the general appropriation bill, and the day's session was devoted chiefly to a motion by Mr. Aycrigg, of N. Jersey, to strike out the item appropriatingly have sustained a loss which cannot be repaired $50,000 for the coast survey. The merits of Mr. by time. "May that being who tempers the wind Hassler, its superintendent were somewhat assailed, to the shorn lamb" comfort and sustain them in this and finally, the committee rose, reported progress, their deep affliction; and may this memento of our and the house adjourned. mortality make a deep and lasting impression upon SATURDAY, DEC. 17. Mr. Gwin, of Miss., and our hearts, and cause us well to consider the admoMr. D. H. Lewis, of Alabama, took their seats. Mr.nition addressed to us in the Word of Truth which Campbell, of S. C., introduced to the house, the hon. is enforced by this solemn dispensation: "Be ye also S. W. Trotti, representative elect from the state of ready, for in such an hour as ye think not the Son of S. C., (vice S. H. Butler, resigned), who was qualifi-Man cometh." ed and took his seat.

Mr. Everett gave notice that he would ask leave to introduce at first opportunity a bill entitled "a bill to revive and establish the public credit."

Mr. Ingersoll presented a memorial of claimants under French spoliations prior to 1800.. Referred to committee of the whole house.

Mr. G. then read resolutions of respect, &c. Which were unanimously adopted, and thereupon the house adjourned.

TUESDAY, DEC. 20. Mr. Gwin asked leave to submit a resolution calling for information from the president respecting the mutiny said to have been contemplated on board the Somers. Mr. Andrews, of Kentucky, objected. Mr. G. moved a suspension of

The house went into committee of the whole and resumed the consideration of the general appropria-the rules. The house refused. tion bill and of the motion to strike out the item appropriating $50,000 to the coast survey.

Mr. J. R. Ingersoll strenuously opposed the motion and vindicated Mr. Hassler.

The house then proceeded (having first refused to go into committee on the general appropriation bill) to the bill reported by Mr. Everett for the repeal of the bankrupt law.

Mr. Everett addressed the house in favor of the

Mr. Reynolds advocated the motion. Mr. Gilmer would advocate the motion not in re-repeal. ference to the qualifications or not, of Mr. Hassler, but on the grounds of absolute necessity for retrenchment. But as he was willing to grant something for this survey, he moved to strike out "fifty" and insert "twenty."

Mr. Aycrigg accepted the amendment. The committee at this stage rose and reported progress.

After having one or two executive communications laid before them, the house adjourned.

Mr. Barnard followed in opposition to its repeal, and concluded by moving the reference of the bill to the judiciary committee.

Mr. C. J. Ingersoll moved an amendment to the motion of Mr. Barnard, instructing the committee "to report a bankrupt act excluding voluntary applicants, and banks owned by states, and including such corporations not owned by states as issue notes for circulation."

cluding voluntary applicants and banks owned by states,

Mr. B. said that the time specified in this amendment was not material. The house could substitute any other date it might prefer. Mr. B. urged that his amendment went to include that of the gentleman, and could do it no possible harm.

object he had in view, and he accordingly renewed Mr. Cushing thought it would defeat the whole the previous question.

So there was no second.

The question recurring on the amendment of Mr. Arnold,

The debate was then continued by Mr. Underwood, who thought there ought to be a discrimination in the repeal, and that congress should establish a general bankrupt system. He had no objections to vote for the amendment suggested by the gentleman from New York, over the way, (Mr. Barnard), provided he would reduce the time: in that case he was ready to vote for it.

Mr. Barnard suggested to Mr. Ingersoll and Mr. Underwood that if they would consent to give way and allow him to withdraw his motion to recommit, and offer his amendment in a modified form, reducing the time from the 4th of July to the 4th of April, he would now do so, and the gentleman could go on with his speech.

Assent being given, Mr. Barnard offered his amendment.

Mr. Cushing then offered the amendment he had heretofore indicated, and moved to commit with instructions, &c. After a few remarks from Mr. Hopkins,

Mr. Briggs moved that the bill be referred to the committee on the judiciary with the following instructions:

"To report a bill to repeal that part of the exist of debtors, and to include corporations which issue ing law which authorises the voluntary application paper to circulate as money within the operations of

said law."

Mr. Cave Johnson moved to amend the instructions so as to direct the committee to report a bill at once repealing the bankrupt law.

Mr. Wise said that he had been watching the Protean shapes which this bill had assumed till he was tired, and now, after shifting its form so often, there "Ex-was at length a proposition instructing the judiciary committee to report a direct repeal of the law. All this was child's play. If gentlemen really intended to repeal the bankrupt law, now was the accepted time. The house could put the bill into such a form as they liked, and he hoped they would vote down the commitment and vote down the instructions, and at once medify the bill so that it should repeal the law from the date of its passage. That was what was wanted, and all that was wanted. There was

Mr. Bowne and Mr. Charles Browne made a few remarks, and Mr. Pickens renewed the motion for the previous question and before it was taken, on motion of Mr. Arnold the house adjourned.

WEDNESDAY, DEC. 21. Mr. Tho. B. King, of Geo. appeared and took his scat.

After some remarks from Messrs. Winthrop, Paine, MONDAY, DEC. 19. Mr. Gamble rose and address-and Gordon, Mr. Cave Johnson moved the previous ed the house as follows: The present congress, it is question. The house rejected it. believed, has oftener performed the painful duty of Mr. Arnold moved to amend the said instructions announcing the death of its members than any which by striking there from the words following: has preceded it under the government. In the first week of our session we were called upon to pay the last tribute of respect to the memory of one who died on his way to the seat of government to resume his duties as a member of this body; and to-day the duty has devolved upon me to communicate to the house the mournful intelligence which has reached us of the death of another member of this branch of the national legislature. For some time we en- The house resumed the consideration of the bill tertained hopes that the rumor of his death was un- for the repeal of the bankrupt law, and the question no need of reference, and its only effect would be to founded, or, at most, premature; but it is at length was, will the house second the demand for the pre-involve the house in the same confusion which was reduced to a painful certainty that Richard W. Ha-vious question? (called by Mr. Pickens.) now experienced. After Mr. W. had continued his bersham is no more. He has finished his course on On an appeal from Mr. Cushing, Mr. P. withdrew address for sometime, and concluded, earth; his seat in this hall is vacant; and he now the demand on condition that Mr. C. would renew it. sleeps in his silent tomb. His constitution being na- Mr. Cushing wished Mr. Bernard to withdraw his turally feeble, and his health somewhat impaired motion to commit, in order that he might offer the when he first tock his seat as a member of this body, following amendment: which, added to the severity of the climate and his laborious and close attention to his duties, was more than he was able to endure, brought on a disease;

Mr. C. Brown, of Pennsylvania, made a speech; followed by

Mr. Arnold, who addressed the house for one hour, and regretted that this, the very best of all the laws passed at the extra session, was doomed to destruction.

"In the proviso of the original bill strike out the 5th day of December, 1842, &c. and insert so that the proviso shall read as follows: 'Provided, That' On motion of Mr. Sallonstall the house adjourned.

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