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Charleston Mer. 13th inst.
The British squadron discovered him soon after were ringleaders in it, and that others of the crew had the commander-in-chief of the Mexican squadron releaving the Capes. The skill of an officer was never knowledge of its existence and participated in its guilt. fused her commander any communication with the more conspicuous than that displayed by Hull in That on the 27th of November midshipman Spen- American consul at Campeachy, and that in conseevading the superior force which then threatened, cer was arrested and confined in irons; that on the quence he had proceeded to the above place in order and for a long time chased him. Expedients altoge- subsequent day boatswain's mate Cromwell and sea- to obtain from our minister, general Thompson, at ther new to the enemy, enabled him to avoid a hope-man Small were also confined in irons: and, at the Mexico, his instructions whether at all hazards to atless contest, and cheated them of their prize. time they were so confined, it was the intention of tempt a communication with the consul or whether commander Mackenzie to bring them to the United he should return with the vessel under his command States to be tried by the laws of their country, and to Pensacola. that to effect this desired object commander Macken- Stephens' splendid yacht On-ka-hy-e, capt. Briggs, zie adopted every measure that a brave, prudent, and from N. York, arrived at Norfolk on Monday mornskilful officer could adopt. That during the confine-ing, in a very crippled condition. She encountered ment of the prisoners, sullenness, discontent, inatten- a severe gale on the 6th instant, which carried away tion to duty, disobedience to orders, often, as seamen both her masts, with all the sails and rigging attachknow, and naval records prove, the sole precursors ed. The On-ka-hy-e has been purchased by the U. by the crew, and justly excited the belief in the com- of Lieut. W. C. Whittle, as a despatch boat. She open acts of violence and blood, were manifested S. government for the navy, and is under command was towed up to the navy yard.
An opportunity to prove his bravery to be equal to his skill, soon after occurred, when he fell in with one of the ships of the squadron that had been in the chase. It was then that the first of the signal naval achievements of the late American contest with Bri tain, was won, and by Commodore Hull. Their crack frigate, and their crack commander too, Dacres, was compelled to strike the flag of the Guerriere to the frigate Constitution, and the spell of British supre
macy at sea, was gone forever.
The exultation of all Americans at the news of this made to rescue the prisoners and take the brig from mander and the officers that an attempt would be capture may be recalled by those who partook in the those to whom she had been entrusted by the govsuspense and excitements of the time. Its moral ef-ernment. fect was great in this country and in England; and we cannot forget the detail once given us by a British board the brig which would have given greater assuThe court further find that there was no place on naval officer who was present at a table with some rance of protecting the prisoners from a rescue than 70 or 80 others at Plymouth when the news was com-the quarter deck, on which they were confined. municated to them. The storm of fury, the broken glasses, curses, imprecations, and tossing chairs were situation in which he was placed, sought, as it was That commander Mackenzie, in the responsible but the evidences that British pride was indelibly his duty to do, the advice and council of his offitouched, and in the fury of rage all physical diges-cers, and that the unanimous advice and opinion of tion was at an end. The perfect tempest there, was those officers, after an examinution of some of the but a picture of what presented itself at many a ho- crew, and careful deliberation, was that the safety of tel and table, crossway and public place of the Bri-the brig Somers depended upon the immediate execu tion of midshipman Spencer, boatswain's mate Cromwell, and seaman Small.
Commodore Hull was commander of our naval forces in the Pacific in 1824, 5, and 6. He afterwards commanded the Mediterranean squadron, in the Ohio 74-since which he has been in command of the navy yards at Boston and Washington.
But the details of the services of such a man as Isaac Hull, belong to the history of his country. Our task to-day is but to record the termination of those services-terminated only with his life-and to add, the last consolation that his countrymen can have at the deprivation. He had fulfilled his duty as an American naval officer-as a man-as a Christian. His last moments evincing that confidence which can lone result from a consciousness of having acted well his part, eventful as that part was, in this state of being.
sailed from Boston on the 7th inst. for the Pacific
of the line of 90 guns, is estimated by the navy deESTIMATES. The cost of the armament of a ship mament of a frigate of the first class, $42,900; that partment at $81,500. The estimated cost of the arof a sloop of war $18,700; of a brig of war $5,200; That commander Mackenzie, in pursuance of the and of a schooner $4,500. These estimates include advice of his officers, and in obedience to the dictates nothing more than the complement of guns and carof his own judgment, did execute, by hanging, mid-riages, shot, shell and powder, with the muskets, shipman Spencer, boatswain's mate Cromwell, and line will hereafter carry 8 inch Paixhan guns of 63 pistols, pikes, cutlasses, &c. First class ships of the seaman Small. cwt; and frigates four of the same calibre.
STATES OF THE UNION.
That such execution took place on the 1st of December, 1842, in latitude 17 degrees 34 minutes 28 seconds, and longitude 41 degrees 24 minutes 45 seconds; and that the brig at the time of the execution, was, by the log, distant from St. Thomas, five hundred and twenty-five and a half miles, at which place STATE PRISON. The warden of the state prison she arrived on the 5th December, 1842. of Massachusetts, in his annual report to the goverThe court further find that the conduct of comman-nor, states that the whole number of convicts in the der Mackenzie had been kind to his crew, attentive prison in October 1st, 1841, was 331, and there were to their wants and their comforts; that he was stu- 85 prisoners received during the year ending Sept. dious to promote their knowledge of their profession, and that no punishments were inflicted greater than were rendered necessary by the discordant nature of the crew and the proper discipline of a man of war. The court further find that the conduct of commander Mackenzie, lieutenant Gansevoort, and the officers of the brig, was, during the trying scenes through which they passed, collected, calm, and brave, and justified the confidence reposed in them by their country,
Every demonstration of respect to the memory of the deceased, by public authorities, by communities, and, whenever in their power, by private citizens, has been spontaneously evinced. The secretary of The navy, in general orders. directed the usual insigia of mourning from his late associates in arms; the egislatures of the states now in session join in the public expression of sympathy-the mourning minute un resounds in every direction, and thousands of ags, of that flag which Isaac Hull so signally aided n elevating to the skies, now wave half-mast over Opinion. The court are, therefore of opinionEvery fortress, spire, and keel of this vast republic, That a mntiny had been organized on board the elling that Isaac Hull the commander of "Old Iron-United States brig Somers to murder the officers and ides" is no longer amongst us. take possession of the brig.
THE SOMERS-OPINION OF THE COURT OF INQUIRY.
United States ship North Carolina, Jan. 20, 1843. Present, commodore Charles Stewart, commodore Jacob Jones, commodore Alexander J. Dallas, and Ogden Hoffman, judge advocate.
The court, after due deliberation, resolve to report The facts and circumstances of the case submitted to them, and to deliver their opinion upon the facts as follows:
That midshipman Philip Spencer, boatswain's mate
would have been made to release the prisoners, mur-
That such attempt, had it been made in the night,
That commander Mackenzie, under these circumdes, was not bound to risk the safety of his vessel, and jeopard the lives of the young officers and the loyal of his crew, in order to secure to the guilty the forms of trial, and that the immediate execution of the prisoners was demanded by duty and justified by necessity.
The court are further of opinion, that throughout all these painful occurrences, so well calculated to In the execution of the order of the honorable se- disturb the judgment and try the energy of the cretary of the navy, the court, with the exception of bravest and most experienced officer, the conduct of ten of the crew, who are in confinement, examined commander Mackenzie and his officers was prudent, every officer, seaman, and apprentice belonging to calm, and firm, and that he and they honorably perthe United States brig Somers in her late cruise, and formed their duty to the service and their country. unanimously report the following facts, as proved to CHARLES STEWART, the satisfaction of the court by the testimony, the rePresident of the court. cord of which they have the honor herewith to submit. OGDEN HOFFMAN, That on the 27th November, 1842. in latitude 13 Judge Advocate. 24 16, and longitude 41 24 45, commander Mackenzie discovered that a mutiny had been organized on board the brig Somers.
The court further finds that such mutiny did exist, and that midshipman Philip Spencer, boatswain's mate Samuel Cromwell, and seaman Elisha Small,
30th, 1842, making a total of 416. During the same period 127 prisoners were discharged, and 2 died.The whole amount of expenditure for the year, was $34,228 86, and receipts for the same period $35,160 22, which leaves an apparent balance in favor of the institution of $931 36, but by the failure of the Phoenix Bank in which the institution had on deposit $11,900 31, and also on hand its bill for $735, it is thrown into serious difficulties which will, it is probable, render it necessary to ask for legislative aid.
made to the legislature of Massachusetts, by the sePAUPERISM. A report on this subject has been cretary of the commonwealth, from which the following facts appear. The number of persons relieved throughout the state during the year ending on the 1st of November, 1842, was 13,688, making 5251 are state paupers, or persons having no legal one pauper to every 54 inhabitants. Of this number settlement in any town in the state, and 2805 of them are foreigners, of whom 2,302 are from Great Britain or Ireland. The number of paupers having legal settlements in towns of the commonwealth is 8521. The number relieved in Boston was 3351, of whom 2383 have no legal settlement in the state, and 1365 were foreigners. There are 181 alms-houses in the state, with 17,811 acres of land attached-estimated value of both $900,281. The number of persons relieved in the alms-houses in the course of the year, was 6594, and the average number supported through the year, 3968-the average weekly cost of their support being 83 cents. The average weekly cost in the Boston alins-house was 98 cts. The Boston alins-house establishment, including 42 acres of land, is valued at $100,000. The value of labor performed in the alms-houses was $26,509.
The number of insane persons received or supported at public charge is 540; and of idiots, 338. The number of persons supposed to have been reduced to pauperism by intemperence in themselves or others, 7154. The number of foreign paupers which came into the commonwealth within the year, 445.
The aggregate amount of expense in supporting and relieving paupers, including interest on almshouse establishments was $306,070, of which 40,997 U. S. BRIG DOLPHIN. This vessel, it will be re- was paid by the commonwealth for the support of membered sailed on the 1st ult., from Pensacola for state paupers. It appears that since 1837, there has Campeachy, for the protection of American proper-been considerable reduction in the number of paupers ty in that quarter. We have been favored with the and in the expense of supporting them. perusal of a letter dated on board, the 25th Jan., on RAILROADS. The following statement shows the her arrival off Vera Cruz, in which it is stated that extent and cost of the four railroads in Masschusetts
18, 1848-STATES OF THE UNION.
ALMS-HOUSE OF PHILADELPHIA CITY AND A correspondent of the U. S. Gazette states that t Blockley alms-house on the borders of the Schu kill, with 187 acres of land cost the city and $1,181,996 53, the interest of which is $70,919 The poor tax assessed for 1842, is $184,094 16, bei at the rate of $700 for each day in the year, $3 17 per week for each pauper. "If other cities p in proportion" says the writer "it is sufficient to hi all the beggars of Europe to come over to Ameri and partake of the hospitalities of the United States The average number of paupers is 1546, equal 193 families of 8 persons each, so that each pauper family occupies a mansion and grounds that cost an would now sell for more than $5,000. a style splendor and extravagance far beyond that indulge in by a large majority of the tax payers.
PHILADELPHIA GAS WORKS. The annual report of the trustees, states, that no material progress ha been made during the past year, the supply being now quite equal to the demand.
hene of street mains have been extended 2 mies-total length 35 miles. M
The number of burners now in use is 27,240 private, and 778 public-total 28,018
Quantity of gas consumed during the year 50,811, 000 cubic feet; this has been produced by the carbon ization of 187,147 bushels of coal, and 500 barrels of rosin. Fuel used 165,175 bushels coke; and 56,536 bushels of lime were used in purifying the gas. The amount of cash receipts during 1842 $169,643 86 " payments Cash balance on hand
0164,322 81 29,278 84
has furnished the statistics of its trade and commerce
From this statement it will be seen that for the year 1841, the amount of lead shipped was 30,000,000 pounds. What the amount of other exports were, is not given. The amount of imports during the same year is calculated at $1,300,000.
The returns for 1842, show that this section of our common country is improving. Heretofore it has been dependent for bread stuffs upon other portions of the west; now it raises more than enough to meet its own wants. In addition to the lead, the lumber trade has grown in importance. Three million feet of lumber, and near two millions of shingles, have been delivered at Galena during the past year. The arrivals of steam and keel boats for 1842, or rather up to the 6th November, are thus stated: Arrivals from St. Louis Keels towed by steamers
"The secretary of state appeared within the bar of worthy to be called "the Diamond of the Desert." It INGTON, and the gold-headed cane bequeathed to him the house, and read to that body a communication was an hour when the remembrance of better days by Dr. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. These interesting relics I wish to be presented, from the governor, urging upon the legislature the rushed with power upon the heart, and bore it away, immediate necessity of action in regard to the finan- for the time, from surrounding dearth, and transport-through you, my dear sir, to the congress of the ces of the state. He affirmed that, for the want of ed it, as in vision, to a happier clime. It was a moral United States, on behalf of the nation. Congress can dispose of them in such manner as means it was with the utmost difficulty that neces-mirage, in which, while gazing in thought upon what sary supplies could be procured for the two branches "that old man eloquent" well denominated our gold-shall seem most appropriate, and best calculated to of the legislature, and when they were, it was at most en age," one forgot that there are such things as de-keep in memory the character and services of those exorbitant prices., Wood, which he stated could be magogues, and can be such things, neither able nor two illustrious founders of our republic. I am, with purchased for one dollar and seventy-five cents cash; pure. WASHINGTON, our own WASHINGTON, might esteem, yours, SAMUEL T. WASHINGTON. To Hon. George W. Summers, house of rep's. the state now had to pay three dollars and a half for, be imagined, for a moment, to have "burst his cerecandles, which for money could be procured at thir- ments," and to be present in the legislative halls of ty-seven cents per pound, now cost the state one dol- the land he loved; and both the man who offered, and lar, and other things in the same proportion: all aris- the man who received, the cherished memorials of ing from the fact that there was nothing but auditor's the dead patriot seemed to have felt, while they warrants to pay them with. He also stated that it spoke, the inspiration of a greater presence than that was with the utmost difficulty that money enough which was visible about them. A fanciful observer could be procured to pay the postage on letters ad- might have believed that the mere touch of WASHdressed to the executive department, and entreated INGTON's sword had a sort of moral electricity about that some action might be had in regard to the finan-it. and that he who did but handle the staff on which FRANKLIN had so often leaned, caught by the contact something of his elevating wisdom.
ces of the state at once
A FUGITIVE DECISION. The Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith who had been demanded by a requisition from the governor of Missouri, upon the governor of Illinois as a fugitive from justice, on a charge of abetting the attempt to murder ex-governor Boggs, of the former state, and for whose arrest warrants were is sued sometime since by the authorities of Illinois, but who for a while evaded the process, finally surrendered himself. and was then brought before the United States district court on a writ of habeas corpus, had a hearing, and was discharged, the judge deciding that he could not be held as a fugitive from justice, in the case, as it was proved that he had not been in, and consequently could not have fled from Missouri at the time, nor since the crime in question was committed.
There was a great jubilee at Nauvoo on the return of their prophet in triumph from the trial. A solemn fast and thanksgiving day was by proclamation ad dressed "to the saints in Nauvoo," to be held the 17th January, then ensuing.
Mr. Summers, as we well know, is esteemed at
The response of Mr. Adams was every way such as might have been expected from him; but those who only read it, must lose more than half the impression The senate of Illinois, with which it was received. The associations of the PUBLIC LANDS PROCEEDS. by a vote of 19 to 18, have resolved not to receive occasion were such as could not fail to reach a mind the state's share of the proceeds of the public lands. like his, and awaken within it those deep and powerful feelings which, when unaroused, slumber beneath THE STATE BANK OF ILLINOIS, the affairs of which an aspect and a manner which give no token of their are now being wound up, would, it was thought, be presence. His intonations were deep and impassionable to divide 29 cents on the dollar in specie, but this ed; his voice faltered-the eloquent blood rushed in has since proved to be incorrect, the assets not yield-torrents to his countenance-and his whole figure, ating a sufficient sum to yield that dividend. On the titude, and gesture, were those of one of nature's ora25th, the sheriff of Sangamon county, made a levy tors strongly moved. upon $10,000 in specie in the bank, and took the whole sum away. The judge of that circuit was applied to for an injunction against the sheriff, but at the last advices the judge had not granted it. On the 27th ult. a bill passed both houses of the legislature prohibiting hereafter, any levy to be made by virtue of an execution against the state bank, upon the specie she may have; a proceeding which virtually admits that the levy made the preceding day is legal and will hold.
Copy of a letter from Col. George C. Washington. Georgetown, January 3, 1843. DEAR SIR: I have before me your letter of the 30th inst. requesting me to give you any information in my possession in relation to the sword placed in your hands by Mr. Samuel T. Washington, (alleged to have been the service sword of General WASHINGTON during the revolutionary war,) and which he has instructed you, in his name, to present to the congress of the United States.
General WASHINGTON, in his will, made dispositions of his swords in the following words: "To each of my nephews, William Augustine Washington, George Lewis, George Steptoe Washington, Bushrod Washington, and Samuel Washington, I give one of the swords, or couteaux, of which I may die possessed; and they are to choose in the order they are named. These swords are accompanied with an injunction not to unsheath them for the purpose of shedding blood, except it be for self-defence, or in defence of their country and its rights; and in the latter case, to keep them unsheathed, and prefer falling with them in their hands to the relinquishment thereof."
Two of these swords are in my possession, being devised to me, the one by my father Wm. Augustine Washington, and the other by my uncle, the late Judge Bushrod Washington. The descendants of George Lewis and George Steptoe Washington have two other of these swords, and that in your charge is without doubt the one which was selected by Col. Samuel Washington.
My father was entitled to the first choice under the will, but was prevented by indisposition from attending at Mount Vernon when the distribution took place. and Judge Washington selected for him the most finished and costly sword, with which, associations were connected highly complimentary to Gen. WASHINGTON; but I often heard my father say that he would have preferred the sword selected by Col. Samuel Washington from the fact that it was used The whole transaction was in a high degree credit- by the general during the revolutionary war. I have able to our country, and its record on our archives at different times heard similar statements as to this will mark at least one bright day in the contempora- fact made by Col. Samuel Washington, Judge Washneous history of congress. ington, and Major Lawrence Lewis, and am not As soon as the speeches were ended, and the reso-aware that it has been questioned by any member of Jution of Mr. Adams had been adopted, Mr. Taliaferro, the family. The sword was represented to me as himself a Virginian, (and we may add with truth a being a couteau, with a plain green ivory handle. fine specimen of the Virginia gentleman,) acting as the "Father of the House," which the date of his commission entitles him to do, moved that both the address of Mr. Summers and the response of Mr. Adams be inserted at length on the journal; which having been ordered, Mr. McKennan, a Pennsylvanian, closed the scene in a dignified and appropriate manner by moving, in honor of the occasion, that the
The spirit of Indian hostility, it appears, is not yet subdued. Further difficulties are apprehended with the Indians in the vicinity of Indian Key. Lt. Harrold, of the U. S. navy, now in command of In-house adjourn. dian Key, has written to captair. H. B. Nones of the U. S brig Jefferson, calling for his immediate assist
A fire occurred at Key West on the 2d inst. which consumed six buildings. Estimated loss $5,000.
The legislature of this territory convened at lowa city on the 5th inst. James M. Morgan was chosen speaker of the house, and John D. Elbert president of the council.
I entertain no doubt whatever as to the identity of this sword, and hope that the information I have given G. C. WASHINGTON. may prove satisfactory. I am, very respectfully, Hon. George W. Summers, house of rep's.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, FEBRUARY 7, 1842. of Virginia, rose and addressed the house as follows: Mementoes of Washington and Franklin, Mr. Summers,
Mr. SPEAKER: I rise for the purpose of discharging an office not connected with the ordinary business of legislative assembly. Yet, in asking permission to interrupt, for a moment, the regular order of parliamentary proceedings, I cannot doubt that the proposition which I have to submit will prove as gratifying as it may be unusual.
And now occurred a spectacle true to nature. The decorum of the house had kept every man in his seat while the addresses were in delivery and the votes being taken: but, no sooner had the adjournment been announced, and the speaker left the chair, than there was a simultaneous rush from all quarters to obtain a nearer view of the interesting memorials of our Mr. Samuel T. Washington, a citizen of Kenawha great lost patriots. Nor was the eye satisfied with seeing. Every hand was outstretched to touch them. county, in the commonwealth of Virginia, and one of It was like Homer's scene of the bending of Ulysses' my constituents, has honored me with the commisbow; and many a puny hand now grasped the sword sion of presenting in his name and on his behalf to of WASHINGTON that would have trembled in the the congress of the United States, and through that scenes where it once gleamed in the eyes of the foes body to the people of the United States, two most inJ. Q. ADAMS, from the committee on foreign rela- to American Independence. Demand after demand teresting and valuable relics connected with the past tions to whom was referred the bill from the senate, was made for a pleasure so grateful and so rare; and history of our country, and with men whose achieveand the bill proposed in the house authorising the it was long before the sergeant-at-arms could rescue ments, both in the field and in the cabinet, best illusOne is the sword worn by GEORGE WASHINGTON, adoption of measures for occupying this territory, staff and falchion from the still eager hands that re-trate and adorn our annals. &c., reported the same on the 16th inst., and recom-luctantly gave them up to his custody. They were ordered to be deposited in the department of state; first as a colonel in the colonial service of Virginia, mended that said bills do not pass. but we presume they will eventually accompany the in Forbes' campaign against the French and Indians, military commission, his uniform, and other precious and afterwards during the whole period of the war memorials of WASHINGTON, which have been trans- of Independence as commander-in-chief of the Ameferred from that department to the halls of the na-rican army. It is a plain couteau, or hanger, with a green hilt The annexed letters properly belong to the inte- and silver guard. On the upper ward of the scabbard is engraved, "J. Bailey, Fish Kill." It is accomparesting scene: Copy of a letter from Samuel T. Washington, accompany-nied by a buckskin belt, which is secured by a silver buckle and clasp, whereon are engraved the letters ing the sword and cane presented to congress. "G. W." and the figures "1757" These are all of Coal's Mouth, Kanawha county, (Va.) January 9, 1843. the plainest workmanship, but substantial, and in keeping with the man and with the times to which
WASHINGTON AND FRANKLIN.
THE PRESENTATION OF THE SWORD OF tional institute.
From the National Intelligencer of Feb. 8.
MY DEAR SIR: With this, you will receive the
ons of parade and review, service sword of the great chief; that een General WASHINGTON Wear this he presumed, for the last time, when. iewed the Virginia and Maryland centrated at Cumberland under the eral LEE, and destined to co-operate vania and New Jersey troops, then ford, in suppressing what has been key Insurrection."
INGTON was then president of the das such was commander-in-chief
and of Gideon."
lic liberty; it was never sheathed until a glorious and
which were crowded, sent forth emphatic manifes-
the house as follows:
s known that it was his intention to perhaps be expected that I should accompany it with In presenting this resolution to the house, person upon that occasion had he some suitable remarks; and yet, sir, I never rose to and he went to Bedford and Cum-address this house under a deeper conviction of the for that event. The condition of want of words to express the emotion that I feel. It uire it and he returned to his civil is precisely because occasions like this are adapted to shington held the commission of a any one, but what, in the language of the heart, in produce universal sympathy, that little can be said by himself, and served in that cam-tones not loud but deep, every one present has silent= incidents of which he has relat-ly said to himself. My respected friend from Virginto obtain this particular sword, been presented to the representative assembly of the ia, by whom this offering of patriotic sentiment has all others, among which was the nation, has, it seems to me, already said all that can ly present from the great FREDE-be said suitable to this occasion. In parting from him, e division among the nephews, my part, be sorrowing that in all probability I shall as, after a few short days. we must all do, it will on what his preference was, he jo-see his face and hear his voice no more. at inasmuch as he was the only words of this day are planted in my memory, and will d participated in military ser- there remain till the last pulsation of my heart. ermit him to take choice." This in the same spirit in which it election being awarded him, he est, and, intrinsically, the least ly because it was the "battle
arest male relative now liv
T. Washington the thanks of t present of thes GEORGE WASH early youth, in MIN FRANKLIN, queathed by the the war of natio ton. That thes freedom in the r United States, a in the name of o ed by the presid the house of rep for safe-keeping said Samuel T. on the journal, a Summers and M Mr. Samuel T. V On motion of
"Resolved by the United State
witnessed, it see which has been Mr. McKennan prepared immedia business of the s adjourned. the house adjourn ceived from the h SENATE, FEBRU FRANKLIN; which Sword of gen. W joint resolution in
LIN! Oh! sir, what associations are linked in adamant The sword of WASHINGTON! The staff of FRANKwith those names! WASHINGTON, the warrior of human freedom-WASHINGTON, whose sword, as my a proceeding sent friend has said, was never drawn but in the cause of gress to this for co Mr. Archer rose ession of the most satisfactory country's cause! FRANKLIN, the philosopher of the senate imparted a o his country, and never sheathed when wielded in his to be known necess y col. George C. Washington, What names are these in the scanty catalogue of the yielded to the adm thunderbolt, the printing-press, and the ploughshare! tive of his own sta TON, as to the identity of this benefactors of human kind! WASHINGTON and FRANK- of the senators of ion, as to its history, was de- LIN! What other two men, whose lives belong to the inappropriate, and William Augustine Washing-eighteenth century of christendom, have left a deeper tion of the resolution med in the clause of the will impression of themselves upon the age in which they of the senate that g m his uncle, the late Judge lived, and upon all after time! WASHINGTON, the war- bequeathed swords of the supreme court; and mae acting executor of General of battle for the independence of his country, and for ordinary estimates o rior and legislator! In war, contending by the wager these swords, plain a of whom concurred in the the freedom of the human race; ever manifesting. the first choice had service sword was that select-amidst its horrers, by precept and example, his re- taste to prefer, as tha Washington. verence for the laws of peace, and for the tenderest invariably worn, in r mntleman's possession until his sympathies of humanity: in peace, soothing the feroci-ly life, when he had the most precious memento ous spirit of discord, among his own country men, into in a colonial conditio n. It then became the pro- presented to his country a charm more potent than conflict which had re harmony and union, and giving to that very sword now honor, and through t nimated by that patriotism that attributed in ancient times to the lyre of Orpheus. our liberties and of The 'Father of his country," relic ought not to be appro- in early youth, under the shackles of indigence, the had just been laid on FRANKLIN! the mechanic of his own fortune, teaching was not room for a qu citizen, and has instructed offer it to the nation, to be way to wealth, and in the shade of obscurity the path the identical one to w epositories as the common the thunder of its terrors, the lightning of its fatal to have stated the evid to greatness; in the maturity of manhood, disarming tions attached. office has been to achieve blast and wresting from the tyrant's hand the still had already been dis berty of all. , requested me to presenting into the vale of years, traversing the Atlantic filling the office of pre more afflictive sceptre of oppression: while descend- friend in the other hou of the United States, deem-ocean, braving in the dead of winter the battle and tion, added another wr blic acceptance. dence, which he had contributed to form, and tender- and beautiful address the breeze, bearing in his hand the charter of Indepen- lected for the function ing from the self-created nation to the mightiest
erty of the philosopher and
ill and testament, we find
archs of Es
There might be persons, Mr. Archer said, disposed to regard the reception of memorials so slight as a sword and a cane as not in keeping with the dignity of a senatorial body. If such there were, he (Mr. A.) was not to be included in the number of them. The disposition he indulged was widely different.— the love and maintenance of liberty in the ancient Nor was such the thought of our great precursors in republics. They had the practice and regarded it as inestimable, of erecting statues to great departed worth. And why? Could the reason be any other but the effort to keep alive the principle of generous virtue, by presenting and keeping perpetually before the eyes the symbols of its authors?
Mr. Archer said that, for his own part, he thought
$200,000,000 GOVERNMENT STOCK.
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, JANUARY 30, 1843.
relief. Hence suggestions are made which resting on no responsibility, are not always considered in their various bearings, and, having a captivating exterior, meet with a favor which might be less freely bestowed if they should be traced to their ultimate results. The national legislature rests under both a grave responsibility and a sacred duty. It must take care, in providing immediate means of partial or apThe committee of ways and means, to whom were parent good, not to bring along with it collateral referred certain memorials, asking for the creation mischiefs. It must look to final or less immediate of two hundred millions of national stock, at such consequences before it adopts plans or propositions, however tempting may be the appearance of them, interest as shall at once command capital at par, and and however well calculated they may be in reality the immediate distribution of this stock among the states and territories, and the district of Columbia, by to afford temporary freedom from positive suffering. an equitable allotment, respectfully report: It may be admitted that the prominent misfortune that slighter memorials than statues and mausoleums of the country is the indebtedness of the states. This were far more conducive to this effect, where they During the last few years, calls from different quar-heavy load of increasing liability is attended with had appertained to the common use-been connected ters have been made upon congress for the adoption disgrace as well as distress, It cripples the energies with the offices of service-shed a light on the pe- of measures in a greater or less degree resembling of the commonwealths that have incurred it; it imculiarities of temper or habitude or achievement of those suggested by the memorialists. A plan sub-poverishes the individuals who chance to have investthe persons to which they related. If this remark mitted as long ago as in the month of October, 1837, ed their means, in undoubting confidence, in stocks were just, how applicable, above all others, to WASH now, with few and immaterial alterations, present- which were regarded as profitable depositories rather INGTON, and this symbol, his sword, the type in its ed anew; and other schemes have from time to time than dangerous loans; and it hangs in gloomy prossymplicity of his character in its office of his achieve- either made their appeals directly to the national pect over the hopes of communities and private perments! WASHINGTON! the only name requiring no legislature, or have become familiar to the public sons. Its still greater evils consist in the blighting Although the de- discredit which it spreads around it. eulogy, for the name itself comprehended all eulogy. through the medium of the press. It has been said by one of the most eminent public tails thus severally suggested vary in some particu- credit is not confined to the states which have incurrmen of the age, himself the subject of a monarchy, lars, the outline of the different plans, the motives ed the debts. Their ability for active exertion is (Lord Brougham.) that "of uninspired men WASHING that have induced them, and the objects which they destroyed by the necessary devotion of all present TON was to be esteemed incomparably the greatest." propose to accomplish, are essentially the same. resources to partial redemption; and that redemption Nor was this to be regarded an exaggerated praise, They look directly to a partial or entire relief of the itself is rendered remote if not absolutely desperate. when it was recollected that greatness was to be states which are now burdened with debt, and to the Not only is the particular state prostrate in characmeasured, not by virtue only, but a combined consid- establishment of a proper currency. As consequen- ter as well as exertion, but the whole family of sovation of its effects; and this same consideration proved ces of these primary objects, they hope for a resto-ereignties, in their aggregate capacity, are affected that no man great as WASHINGTON could perhaps now ration of national credit and individual prosperity. with the same distrust in kind if not in degree. Selflive. Men, not the inferiors of WASHINGTON in vir- All of these proposed ends are greatly to be desired. confidence and self-esteem depend, to a certain extue and in wisdom. might come into existence, but to They are in themselves of vast importance, and they tent, upon the confidence and respect of others. The the fullest development of grandeur of character, are at this moment of deep and peculiar interest. It loss of them is apt to follow the forfeiture of the recircumstances must conspire and form no unimpor needs neither quickness of perception to understand, spect of the world at large, and, on their departure, tant part; and no man could again be placed in cir- nor especial candor to admit, a present deficiency in some of the safest guaranties for good conduct go cumstances such as marked the situation of WASH- each of them. Many of the states are indebted both with them. INGTON. Many men, it was to be hoped, were des- abroad and at home. Several of them are heavily To avoid danger and escape suffering, to remove tined in that progress of free institutions which mark-so; and some of them to a degree that is not only in- discredit at once from the nation and its component ed the character of the age, to be the founders of convenient, but burdensome and distressing. A uni- parts, the plan is proposed of incurring, on the part liberty for their own countries and times; but what form currency, of easy transportation and full value of the general government, a debt sufficiently large was the peculiarity of the position and office of one that should be an equivalent and a substitute to embrace and absorb the debts of the states. WASHINGTON? He was, probably, appointed by the for gold and silver, every where diffused and every An argument will not here be pressed which might ordination of Providence, to prove the founder of where acceptable-has no present existence. Gov- seem to be ungracious. But it will naturally occur, liberty for the human race in all times. From the ernment credit. if it may be judged by the tardiness that the nation did not contract or contemplate the germ which he had planted promised to spread the with which subscriptions are made to its proffered debts in question; that they were incurred every influence which was destined, it might be hoped, to loans, is impaired among our own citizens; and, ac where for the especial benefit of those who owe gather nation after nation under its shadow, and to cording to the evidence furnished by the failure of a them; that they are results of liberal expenditure, yield the life-sustaining fruit to all periods in succes- recent trial of its strength, it is forfeited elsewhere. and often of bold and speculative enterprise; that Business is inactive and languishing, and business they have been influenced, sometimes, not merely by men, who And FRANKLIN, whose name was associated with the country partaking of its depressed and feeble con- large where improvements have been made, but by compose the great mass of the people of the general policy and actual wants of the state at WASHINGTON's in the presentation of these relics?-dition, have lost the inducements and the means of mutual encouragement of local interests of narrow How curious the coincidence that they should have exertion, and are thus deprived of the ingredients of extent and doubtful utility; and that, where they been associated by such symbols! FRANKLIN, second prosperity. A state of things so deeply to be regrett- have failed to accomplish any great purposes of doonly to WASHINGTON as one of the founders of our ed has proved itself, by the long succession of nearly mestic revenue, they have given employment to numrepublic; in science, a founder greater still! Recent six disastrous years, to be not merely a crisis of the bers of individuals, who have scattered money where developments made it not improbable that the power moment, which, having performed its work of mis- it could not fail to be welcome, and have laid the basis which FRANKLIN had been the first to bring us acquaint- chief, might be expected to pass away, but it has of future works, when in the greater fulness of time ed with its laws, was the one the most efficient and dif- baffled every sanguine hope by the length of its con- they shall become desirable. fused through the entire processes of physical nature; tinuance and the increase of its calamities. Measuthe thorough knowledge of which was to produce re- res that would afford relief in one or all of the parti- the United States to the utmost reach of their abiliA national debt has at all times been avoided by sults the most imposing and most important which had culars that have been adverted to, which at the same ty. It has been the reluctant policy of other counever been unlocked to human vision! These were time could not be avoided upon principle or objected tries to incur and continue heavy liabilities, and to the men associated with these relics now presented to to as unreasonable, would be hailed by the statesman permit them to be interwoven with their national us, and which, as emblems, these relics were appropri- as well as the philanthropist. ate to re-call to memory whenever they were viewed; to inspire admiration of the wisdom they had display- which has been made to them, to inquire whether The committe will proceed, under the reference ed, gratitude for the benefits they had rendered, veneration for the virtue which had adorned them! We such will probably be the character and the effects of had been accustomed to call these illustrious men the plans of the memorialists. But the time would come when they would equally be exalted as benefactors of human kind, as they had been ours, and their fame the property of their whole race.
It may be observed in the outset that the great want of the country is practical relief. Scarcely a theory could be applied to it that would not prove in the abstract that it is prosperous. It were a sin to doubt Doctor FRANKLIN, in the bequest of the cane to times exceeding that which can be reached for cenits capacity to sustain and nourish a population many General WASHINGTON which was now exhibited to us, had said that "he gave it to his friend, and the friend turies. It possesses a fertile soil that cannot be exof mankind, who, had it been a sceptre, would have hausted; every variety of the richest mineral prodeserved it." And the sceptre that friend has attain- of life not only abundant to repletion, but cheap beductions; commodities for the support and comfort ed, which he deserved. It had been an expression, yond example. Industry and dexterity are the disof WASHINGTON, that he was throned in the hearts of tinguishing traits of the people. Mildness pervades his countrymen. The expression fell far short of the the administration and freedom the spirit of the laws. full extent of his destiny. It was to be throned in These are the unquestioned possessions of a suffering the homage in the admiration-no! these did not convey the just phrase-in the boundless veneration
in the ceremonial offices which occurred on the death
Mr. A. said he would no longer be the impediment to the expression of the acclaiming sentiment which he knew beat in the bosom of every senator, to respond, even by the tribute of this humble resolution, to the great titles of WASHINGTON and FRANKLIN to our affection, gratitude, and reverence.
The resolution was unanimously adopted, and the senate then adjourned.
existence. England owes her eight hundred mildred millions. Austria, Holland, Spain, and Rus lions pounds sterling; France more than two hunsia, owe sums which, though far short of those first named, are of great amount, and necessarily productive of inconveniences and evils. But all of them have, besides the purposes which are common to them and to this republic, great military forces, which are kept in perpetual vigor and activity. Engven hundred vessels of war; France has her army land has her hundred thousand soldiers, and her seof three hundred and fifty thousand men, and her fleets of nearly four hundred vessels; Russia has and between three and four hundred national ships; scarcely less than seven hundred thousand soldiers, Austria has three hundred thousand soldiers; and Holland and Spain have their large standing armies. Neither vast debts nor vast warlike equipments would be congenial to these United States, that have country that calls aloud for something more, which, no excuse for incurring the one in the necessity or even in their rich abundance, those possessions do not propriety of maintaining the other. The policy of bestow. It were both fruitless and pernicious to their government, the habits of their people, the build up plausible theories if they have not for their character of their institutions, all require an adminaim substantial and permanent benefit. In conditions istration of affairs that is both frugal and pacific. of embarrassment and distress, communities as well The pride of their rulers has consisted in being free as individuals are apt to believe that any change from debt, and they have heretofore struggled sucwould be a cure. They trust to the application of cessfully, and will, whenever it shall become neceswhat appears to be remedial, although really expe- sary, repeat the effort to liberate themselves from rimental only: and they run the risk of prolonging the seeming slavery and the real burden. They deevils by recurring to palliatives, instead of submitt-sire to be untrammelled on the approach of an ing to the more tedious and painful process of final emergency, whether of war or commercial embar