« VorigeDoorgaan »
from the tenor thereof, or from any public record, [tation can be exposed to little danger from obscuri- tude-greater many times than the wants or necessiact, or document, should appear or could be ascerty. The memorials which have been quoted do not ties of the trading public have been supposed to retained to have been issued for any purpose other than suggest any other agent of currency than the certifi-quire-far grater, certainly, than the calculations of compensations and expenditures for services or sup-cates of government stock. They deny the possibi- those who have suggested the supply of exchequer plies towards the prosecution of the late war, and the lity of a sufficient currency by coin; they insist that bills in any shape would justify. If in daily use, they defence of the U. States, or some part thereof, during a sound currency cannot exist without a proper basis; must, in order to be useful, carry with them the certhey believe that that basis may be found in the due tainty, if required, of daily redemption. The life of The arrangement properly considered, appears to appropriation of a small portion of the national do- treasury notes consists in their being receivable at have partaken rather of the character of a payment main; and they ask for the present anticipation of all times in payment of government dues. A close to the states of debts due to them from the union "one-tenth part of this vast property," by the crea- and constant connexion must be preserved between than an original and gratuitous assumption of the tion and immediate distribution of two hundred mil-the circulation and the treasury, or it loses its chief mere debts of the states. It recognised a virtual ob- lions of national stock. value in the reliance of those who are to receive it. ligation, as assumed by the very formation of the An observer, in looking around among the scatter-Is there not danger that this large emission might union, to discharge the claims upon indebted states, ed fragments of overthrown prosperity, would find it at a moment of emergency sink to a depreciated value, which became, while they were in that condition, difficult to persuade himself that nothing was requir- and, after being for a time practically irredeemable, component parts of the union. It was the substitu-ed to restore them to shape and place but the depo- become a standing proof of the insolvency of the tretion of one combined sovereignty for a number of site among them of a medium of circulation. Cur-asury from which it came? In this fatal result, it separate sovereignties. It adopted a well known rency, or rather the instrument which is used in cur- would share the fate of all government currency that principle, which, upon a change of government, rency when business requires, would not pay the state has yet been issued by other sovereignties. While leaves all public liabilities unaffected by the change. debts, unless, besides its creation, it were distributed an exemption might be hoped for our own, the moral It acknowledged and provided for the debts of the among them. Even when distributed and disposed liability to so great a disaster should prevent those confederation, and of the different states which had of according to its destination, it would merely shift who have the control of it from turning a deaf ear to composed the confederation, at the same time. Yet the debts from one place of liability to another, with- the voice of experience. even this arrangement was made the subject of so-out discharging them. But, relieving the states by It is not necessary to seek for examples in relemn protest by the house of delegates of Virginia, this additional measure of distribution, without which volutionary France or newborn America; yet the fate who resolved that so much of the act of congress as the creation of it is nothing, will not relieve the peo- of government issues of currency may be read in the assumes the payment of the state debts was repug-ple, in whose behalf no distribution is or can be con- volumes of it which remain outstanding to the prenant to the constitution of the U. States, although the templated It would not restore the broken fortunes sent day. The circumstances, however, were pecufund was afterwards received. which have become the victims of speculation or mis- liar, and the cases are not precisely alike. Some of Another incident in the course of legislation has placed confidence. It would not by its mere exis- the United States furnish better illustrations, in the been sometimes referred to as a precedent for the tence reconstruct the wrecks of prostrate and bank- recent date of the occurrences, and the identificaproposed arrangement. An act of congress, approv-rupt corporations, or replenish the coffers of capitalists tion of them with the circumstances under which the ed June 23, 1836, directs that the money which should who have invested in their stocks; or fill again the contemplated arrangements are to be made. In one be in the treasury of the United States on the 1st day stores of the trader, who having sold on credit, holds state the legislature caused a large amount of curof January, 1837, reserving five millions of dollars, nothing but protested bills and notes in the place of rency to be issued, and made it receivable in taxes should be deposited with the several states that his valuable commodities; or inspire anew individual and public debts. It soon fell to half of its nominal should authorise the receipt of the same. But it pro- confidence, which has been forfeited by the loss of value; and at that or a lower rate it has been the vides that the states shall give the usual and legal property and character together. Those are the de- medium, not of regular circulation, but of fruitless obligations, and pledge their faith for the safe keeping ficiences which prevail, and these the consummations payments to the treasury. In another state, paper and repayment thereof, that their faith shall moveover to be desired. It is over the sad reality of the one money was issued by authority of the legislature, which be pledged to pay the monies and every part of them, and the absence of the other that the country mourns. was limited in amount to the aggregate of taxes then from time to time, whenever they should be required, As long as such a condition of things continues, due, made receivable in payment to the treasury, subfor the purpose of defraying any wants of the public currency might be poured in streams into markets ject to be cancelled in part as it should so be paid, actreasury beyond the amount of the five millions of where it would find or create nothing else but cur- companied, as was supposed, by pledges of redempdollars. It went further still, and provided also that rency; and it would prove as unavailing as if it had tion, and bearing interest at the rate of six per cent. if any states should decline to receive its proportion been deposited in a desert, or among men unaccus With all these guards and advantages, it ceased alof the surplus moneys on the terms proposed, they tomed to the necessities and the aptitudes of business. most immediately to be used as currency, and beshould be deposited with the other states agreeing to Currency "solely"-currency, which alone is sup-came an article of traffic at greatly reduced prices. accept them on deposite. Now, the inducements and posed to be required in order that honest debts may In a third state, efforts were made to increase the curthe ingredients were not only different in that arrange- be paid, that idleness may be turned to noble industry, rency by authorizing certain banks to issue relief ment, but in some respects the reverse of those con- that broken private faith may be healed, and perish-notes, which combined the credit of the commontemplated in the plan proposed. Then the leading ing public credit redeeemed or saved-if it be provid-wealth with that of the corporations that issued them, object was to escape the evils of redundancy; now ed without the appliances with which it is accustom- and were redeemable in state stocks. As a currency, the object is to supply the wants of deficiency and ed to operate, trade and confidence, and property they are unknown. Purchased at a discount, they inanition. Nominally, at least, the former arrange- and good faith, would have little effect. It would are used in payments to the state. It is believed that ment was a mere deposite, susceptible of being at leave the country where it found it, save only that it they are sometimes paid out again to salaried officers any moment withdrawn; both in appearance and re- might be one degree further enfeebled and exhausted and others, who are willing to receive them with a ality, the present plan is a final and irrevocable gift. by the, additional and abortive struggle to which it certainty of loss rather than wait for the uncertain The one endeavored to escape from the dangers and would be exposed. Currency, thus provided and thus coming of a more propitious moment, when they inconvenience of a load of wealth; the other seeks unattended, might raise the nominal prices of articles may hope for payment in something more substantial to place upon the government a mass the most dis- of subsistence, which are now depressed below the and satisfactory than depreciated notes and certifiheartening and intolerable, consisting of long continu- standards of experience, and are almost on a level cates, which were intended to be the relieving cured poverty and doubtful escape from embarrassment with the reduced ability of the consumers of them. rency of the government. It could not, however, set itself in motion to pay It has been already contended that currency of any A large amount of surplus revenue had accumu- debts or resusciate and give activity to trade, until it description, whether consisting of the precious metals lated in the treasury which it was dangerous to hold should come fairly within the grasp of those whose or of paper possessing no intrinsic but entire repreand difficult to dispose of. The measure required no necessities have occasioned the one, and still contin- sentative value, must be of little use where there is imposition of debt, exposed the government to no ue to forbid their encountering the risks or becom- neither business nor the ability to carry it on. It may possibility of discredit, threatened it with no liability ing competitors for the hopes and advantages of the be added here, that the available and safe extent of to embarrassment. It held out an opportunity for other. A proper currency is of inestimable value. circulating medium will be regulated every where, the exercise of a liberal spirit without seeming to This committee will not intimate a doubt of its vital not by the will or power to place it in mere visible straiten the energies of the munificent donors, and importance to trade and commerce. But that its existence on the spot, but by the proper necessities it indulged the feeling without compromising the in- self-sustaining energy is sufficient to supply every and calls of trade. It were to invert the order of terests of the holders of a fund of which they were want, and that it will alone relieve from every diffi- things, which are governed by sufficiently well definin the opinion of many, doubtfully the proprietors. It culty, cannot be conceded. ed and ascertained laws, to anticipate the wants of assumed the shape of, and reconsiled itself to some If the existence of currency were the specific that commerce by a premature supply of that which is who were not entirely convinced of its strict regularity it is described to be, the committee will not disguise merely its instrument. Currency is the agent, not by persuading them that it was, in reality, a mere their reluctance to see it consist of mere issues from the principal. It seconds, with powerful and indisdeposite, to be withdrawn, if circumstances should the national government, resting alone upon govern-pensable force, the exertions of trade. It cannot change so as to make the restoration of it desira- ment responsibility, and borne entirely upon the credit usurp a jurisdiction or attempt the exercise of an inof the nation. In the ordinary course of the exercise fluence which do not belong to it, without injury to The memorialists impute all the prominent evils of its fiscal functions, if the the treasury emit certi- the commerce which it is intended to promote and to and sufferings of the times to a single cause. In the ficates or acknowledgments in any shape of pecuniary the country which it professes to benefit. It follows provision of a supposed remedy for that one disorder, liability, and these proofs of right in the holder pass that the extent of artificial or representative currenthey express (no doubt with entire sincerity) their from hand to hand, and thus perform to any extent cy must be carefully adapted to a given state of buconfidence in the efficiency of its sovereign power. the offices of a circulating medium, the effect is pu-siness. How can it wisely be made to disregard the They declare it to be their firm belief that honest rely adventitious and incidental. Treasury notes state of business, by being forced at hazard into stagdebts cannot be paid; noble industry is turned idle; are acknowlengments of debt and promises to dis- nant markets, which afford no standard for measur private faith is broken up; and public credit is per- charge it. Certificates of stock are evidence of a loan ing the due supply, and which seem to call for the ishing-solely for want of a proper currency." Thus from the holder, and assurances of its reimbursement. smallest practicable quantity? Expansion would nethe evil and the remedy are brought within a narrow Seldom does either of them pass from hand to hand ver be an evil, if it were restricted to the reasonable compass. The want of currency is the malady.in the ordinary course of business. Never are they wants of trade. It becomes one the moment it goes An immense issue of government stock is the infalli-issued except when necessity, founded on the absence beyond those reasonable wants and inflates them into ble instrument of cure. This position, whether ten- or failure of ordinary revenue, requires. If these or speculation. It will not now be doubted that the preable or otherwise, is unequivocally taken. It is pre- any other tokens of government liability should be vailing error of the times which preceded the present cise in language and clear in sentiment. In refe-issued for mere circulation, or if, being already al- long season of depression was redundant paper. It rence to a subject of great difficulty and some ob- lowed for lawful and limited purposes, they should was an over issue of currency. If two hundred milscurity, it neither professes nor practices the smallest be made to answer the every-day ends of currency, lions are intended, as it should seem, to be scattered degree of mystery. An appeal so direct and candid it is feared that they may expose to risk the credit of abroad at once, for a double purpose, it may relieve may at least be directly met, and its support or refu- the nation. The issue proposed is of great magni- the suffering states, but it cannot benefit a complain
ing people; for it far exceeds, in a prudent course of sents an aspect more threatening with disaster than There is a clause in the constitution which declabusiness, the exigencies of the country. that which immediately preceded it. The past was res that "congress shall have power to lay and collect Many of the difficulties which are apprehended an era of inflation, the present is one of collapse. taxes, duties, imposts and excises, and provide for from the insecurity of the loan proposed are intended Now moneyed corporations are every where crip- the common defence and general welfare of the U. by its advocates to be met and conquered by a pledge pled. In proportion to their former activity and States." (Sec. 5.) This power was not given to of the public lands and an increase of duties on for-seeming power, is their present benumbed and pay the debts of the several states of this union, but eign merchandise. Admitting, for the sake of argu- feeble state. Scarcely a capitalist has escaped with- to pay the debts of the "United States." These words ment, that the lands will produce in current years a out severe loss from mere investments, and many are define the confederacy of states as a whole, and as fund at all adequate to the object, a large portion of ruined from no other cause. Confidence is denied contradistinguished from the separate and independent the country would reluctantly behold them devoted even in ordinary transactions of business. The most states. To assume that this power was given to auto this one object beyond the reach of recall in any daring wantonness of speculation is put at rest. Do- thorize the governmet to pay the debts of the sepaemergency. Another portion would contest the ap-mestic goods have accumulated until they are a drug. rate states, contracted solely for their benefit and for propriation of them, under any circumstances, to The national exchequer is made to feel this general their local purposes, is to allow the different states to mere state purposes. It is not, perhaps, necessary stagnation. Even the last expedient of the thriftless contract debts, and through the federal government, here to settle questions which have long agitated and borrowing itself-has partially failed. Under to bind others to pay them; which would make this divided the people and their representatives. The these circumstances, if currency could be infused government subservient to local interests and to state present product of the lands is small. General pros- with the natural effect of its redundant supply, it authority, and absorb "the general welfare of the U. perity must first prevail before it can be materially might bring back for a season a swollen and exagge- States." If this should be the established poinciple augmented. The first is certain; the last is full of rated condition of business, that could not be more of the government, it would be directly stimulating contingency. Should the reliance fail, the nation lasting than it was in times past. Then corpora- each state into a wild career of reckless speculation, may lament, but it cannot correct the error. A com- tions abounded and recieved too easy confidence; ca- which would inevitably end in their separate exis munication from the secretary of the treasury, of the pitalists received rates of interest from investments tence, or in a consolidated despotism, where even 18th of the present month, shows that the sum actu-in them that they deemed as secure in the future as their boundaries would be forgotten, amid the univerally received from lands sold in the last quarter of they were brilliant in present return; 'mutual deal- sal despair that would follow the overthrow of con1842, so far as shown by returns reings were not only marked by unhesitating mutual stitutional liberty. ceived, is in gross $254,513 37 trust, but they grew into speculation which almost entirely usurped the place of sober business. The lesson of calamity is now learned by heart. It is less exciting, but perhaps not less wholesome, than the wild intoxication of half a dozen years ago. If the disposition to profit by it be as sincere as the moment is opportune, the country may find its way through the dark hour of distress, and assume a healthier tone than any it possessed amidst the dangers and the excesses of artificial health. Its condition, although critical, is not desperate, its energies are unimpaired; its resources undiminished. When all the surplus productions of a fertile soil shall find a profitable market, prosperity will gradually but surely return. A fairly reciprocal arrangement with the populous nations of Europe, which should open their ports to all the staple commodities of the U. States, would encourage industry and hasten the re
And the estimated amount from sales at those offices from which returns for December, 1842, have not been received, taking the receipts of December, 1841, as the bases of the estimate, is
110.426 35 364,935 32 1,459,741 28 The proceeds of the sales of the public lands for the last six years (not extending to that of 1836, which was of extraordinary inflation) will be seen from the following table:
turn of better times.
Making, together, the sum in gross
Whatever may be the merits of the plan of the memorialists, doubts ought no longer to exist of its ultimate fate. If it be wise, salutary, and practicable; if the right be perfect and the obligation clear, let it be carried cheerfully into effect. If the reverse be true, how disastrous may be the consequences of its open and unsettled state! ExpectaAn annual average is thus furnished of $3,708,762 tions are in that view kept in restless anxiety which 16. It will be perceived that the sales of the two can never be gratified. Reliance is invited which To do so, is to do nothing more nor less than to last years have been far below the average. It will be must prove not only delusive but disastrous. What claim that congress shall set up its own discretion as perceived, also, that the sales have greatly fallen off state, in the full hope of relief from the general go-to the objects of "general welfare," instead of during the last two years It is not known whether vernment, can summon its own energies to its res- confining its action to the specific enumerated powers the same efforts have been made recently as hercto-cue? If it could, the temptation to delay and further of the constitution itself. If the "general welfare" fore to press the sales. liability are too powerful to be encouraged. The be the only limitation on the discretion of congress, Whatever may be the rates of interest proposed nation suffers while the question is undecided. If, why then any enumeration of powers at all? All pow for the new loan, the obligations to meet it cannot be indeed, the vast load of foreign debt can and ought er was at once given, and the judgment of congress supplied by the proceeds of the lands without a to be discharged, and the sacred duty is not per- was thereby declared to be the constitution of the great increase in the demand for them. At three formed, if that ability be not only obvious but of confederacy. What right have we to set aside the per cent., six millions will be required; and if the easy exercise, the absence or the delay of efficient judgment of the convention? They chose, by enufull rate of six per cent. be allowed, (which is not action is justly matter of reproach and increasing merating the powers, to show what were intended to to be expected), twelve millions must be received obloquy. Let the question be decided at once and be national objects; and the very enumeration excluannually. forever, for ourselves and for the world. des the idea of legislation upon subjects not enumeThe committee recommend the following resolu-rated. tion:
The same recent report of the secretary of the treasury shows that the cash duties accruing at the several ports from which returns have been received, amount, during the last quarter, to $3,116,370 73. The additional amount of $1,436,565 24, received on bonds formerly given, cannot properly be regarded in the estimate of actual revenue from imports, as it is only the result of previous importations. The MINORITY REPORT. estimate would not be just that, after a change from The minority of the committee of ways and means, low to high duties on many articles, should be found- assenting to most of the reasons and to the conclued merely on these returns. But, making every al- sions presented in the report of the majority against lowance for temporary causes in diminished impor- the prayer of the memorialists, asking the federal govtations, and the whole amount of public revenue ernment to issue $200,000,000 of public stock in aid from customs, even should a considerable increase of of the debts of the states, would also urge, in addiduties be provided by law, would be required for the tion, (without pretending to go into anything like a In all civilized countries, the line which limits the existing wants of the government. The annual re-full development of their reasons,) that they deem power of government as to taxation, is the line that ceipts at the custom-houses, agreeably to the above the exercise of such a power, on the part of the ge- defines enlightened liberty. There are some of the standard, would be $12,455,481 92. These mini-neral government, unauthorized by the constitution. states that owe nothing, and many but little, and to mnm receipts are not offered as a standard of future The minority have always been induced to believe compel them to become jointly liable, by the action revenue; they prove, however, that no immediate op- that the federal constitution was a compact to which of the federal government, for the debts of others the portunity is afforded for devoting even a portion of the states acceded, and became parties; and that the states, would be an act of such gross injustice to them, the customs to the exclusive payment of interest on powers of the government accrued from that compact, that it would create feelings hostile to the permanena new and voluntary public debt. There are, be- and were defined in it. Before congress is authoriz-cy of the union. The strength of our union consists sides many difficulties in the way of increasing the ed to act upon any subject-matter, it must first be such in the government acting with wise forbearance upon rates of imposts. A tariff law is always passed un-subject, over which power is specifically granted in subjects of doubtful import-in doing exact justice to der circumstances of embarrassment and difficulty: that instrument, or clearly to be inferred as absolutely to all the parties-in imposing equal burdens-and conflicting interests are to be reconciled, and oppos- necessary to carry out some granted power. They mildly shedding around, equal blessings upon all. By ing judgments are to be convinced, before it can can see no positive grant of power to congress to au- such a course, it will generate feelings of devoted atforce its passage. It encounters so much delay and thorize them to do what the memorialists desire. tachment in a loyal and free people, who will be ever doubt at all times, that assistance from such a quar- To assume such a debt, and to create such a stock, ready to defend it from aggressions from abroad, or ter can scarcely be hoped for by the friends of the binding upon posterity, is a very high exercise of from treason at home. present scheme. sovereign power, and is, in itself, independent and It is not easy to determine whether the present substantive, and cannot be inferred as incidental to a condition of the country, deplorable as it is, pre- grant over inferior, subjects.
3.414,907 42 4,305,564 64
5,601,103 12 $7,007,523 04 $6,776 236 52
The terms "general welfare," in the constitution, were designed as a mere declaration of extreme caution; and the true intent and meaning of those who used them was, that they should be a limitation to the apparently absolute and uncontrolled power given in the same clause--"to lay and collect taxes," "to pay the debts," &c. It was intended that this power should not be used wantonly or unjustly; but that congress should strictly consult that "general welfare of the United States," and carry out the same only by confining its full exercise to objects specially enumerated in that instrument; and which are thereby declared to be natioual. These powers were not intended to be applied to local interests, or to state debts; but to those great national objects which were specifically declared by grants of power to be within the jurisdiction of the general government.
Resolved, That it is not expedient to grant the prayer of the memorialists, and that the committee be discharged from the further consideration of the subject.
It is not denied that this government is one ed to define these powers. By merely assuming that of limited powers, and that the constitution is intendit is national, you cannot effect objects not enumerated, or not essentially recessary to those that are.The convention has precisely defined those objects or undertake to declare what shall also be national for powers that are national, and congress cannot legally other purposes not defined in the constitution.
The minority consider the proposition to pledge the faith of this government for the redemption of $200,000,000 of public stock to relieve the states, or pay their debts, as involving the whole taxing power of this government.
It is a proposition to tax posterity, not for the existence and independence of the confederacy, but for purposes unknown to the constitution, and at war with those principles of liberty which secure to a free people the practical right to tax themselves alone, and to be protected from the lawless profligacy of those who may have assumed to bind them in all future time.
The strength of the government does not consist in arbitrary or great power, but in the attachinent of an intelligent people to those great principles which
make them free and equal. If the government assumes a doubtful power, the exercise of which creates palpable injustice to whole communities, its operation will alienate the feelings of those who suffer, and loosen the bonds that keep the confederacy together.
FEBRUARY 10. Oregon territory-Instructions of the cause of science; and were they now to turn o states. Mr. Linn presented resolutions from the this man, best qualified for this particular branch general assembly of Missouri, stating that the title science, when he was just about to perfect a syste to the land claimed by the United States is just, and that would benefit and perhaps enlighten all mankin cannot be abandoned without a disgraceful sacrifice He trusted not. of national honor. That the full, absolute, and perThe creation of such a government debt would fect title is vested in the United States, and that the only end in taxing the productive industry of the claim of any other power to it should be resisted. country for the benefit of stockholders and specula- That it is the duty of government to protect to the tors. Those who deal in government funds, and live fullest extent those citizens who had migrated to by the fluctuations of paper, might amass fortunes; Oregon. That congress be requested to use such exbut the great laboring class would be beyond the ertions as will secure speedy and uncontrollable posreach of its benefits, whilst they would be made final- session of the portion claimed by the United States. ly to feel its burdens, in the future taxation of the The resolutions were read and ordered to be printed. government to meet the vast obligations thus incurr- Mr. McRoberts presented the following preamble ed. It is wild and visionary to suppose that the cre- and resolution of the assembly of Illinois: ation of such stock would add anything to the nation- Whereas the title of the government of the United al wealth. It would only tend to make the industri-States to the territory of Oregon is indisputable, and ous and solvent liable for the debts of the abandoned the government of Great Britain is only entitled to and profligate. The first immediate effect would be the joint occupation thereof by permission of the to swell expansion and stimulate a bloated paper cur- United States until notice shall be given for its terrency, which would be felt in foreign exchanges set-mination; and whereas Great Britain has taken exting against us and a consequent demand for gold and clusive possession of the choice parts of said terrisilver to adjust balances. It would place our local tory in direct violation of treaty, and with an utter currency above the level of the currency of the world, disregard of the rights of the U. States; and whereand create a drain for our specie to equalise it. This, as the safety of the title of the United States to said of course, would inevitably end in explosion, like the territory is greatly endangered by the concessions Mississippi bubble, or the French assignats. With-made in the late treaty relative to the boundary of out intending to go into a full argument, but merely Maine, by her rights to said territory not then being to suggest the general grounds of opposition, the mi-persisted in and made a part of said treaty, and will nority look upon the whole scheme as unconstitution-be more endangered by longer delay: and whereas al, wild, and visionary, and full of fraud and the the honorable Lewis F. Linn has lately introduced grossest injustice. into the United States senate a bill providing for the settlement and protection of said territory: therefore
The undersigned, therefore, propose that the resolution of the committee be amended, by adding thereto the following words:
Resolved, &c. That our senators he instructed and
FEBRUARY 9. A resolution was adopted on motion of Mr. Woodbridge referring to the joint committee on the library, a letter from the collector of New York concerning a case of printed documents forwarded to the senate of the United States by the chamber of peers of France, and that the said committee be authorised to deposite the said books, when they shall arrive, in the library of congress.
The army appropriation bill for the fiscal half year TWENTY SEVENTH CONGRESS OF THE ending June 30, 1843, and for the fiscal year ending 30th June, 1844, on motion of Mr. Evans was taken up.
UNITED STATES-THIRD SESSION.
Jackson's fine. On motion of Mr. Linn;
Relief of the states. Mr. Buchanan of Pennsylvania, presented a memorial from citizens of Pennsylvania in favor of the issue of two hundred millions of vernment stock.
Mr. McDuffie's resolutions were on the suggestion of Mr. Evans deferred being considered until Monday
Mr. Tappan was of opinion that government shoul not encourage such speculations, and held that th theory of Professor Espy had been controverted b men of science.
Mr. McRoberts asked the yeas and nays on the adop tion of the amendment, which was ordered; and th vote stood as follows:
YEAS--Messrs. Archer. Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Bel rien, Buchanan, Choate, Clayton, Conrad, Crafts, Crit Miller, Porter, Rives, Simmons, Sprague, Sturgeon tenden, Dayton, Evans, Graham, Kerr. Linn, Mangum Tallmadge, Walker, White, Woodbridge, Woodbury28.
NAYS-Messrs. Allen, Benton, Fulton. McRoberts McDuffie, Sevier, Smith, of Connecticut, Smith, of In diana. Tappan, Wilcox, Williams, Wright, Young-1 So the amendment was adopted.
Mr. Merrick, chairman of the committee for the District of Columbia, moved to amend the bill so a to include the District of Columbia, to read thus:"And that each congressional and territorial district and the District of Columbia, shall be entitled to hav one cadet at said academy."
Mr. Berrien then moved to amend the bill by in serting the following:
Provided, That nothing in this section shall pre vent the appointment of an additional number of cadets, not exceeding ten, to be appointed at large without being confined to a selection by congression al districts.
The motion, after a brief debate, was adopted and all the amendments were concurred in, and ordered to be engrossed and the bill read a third
The senate then went into executive session; and. after some considerable time spent therein, the doors were opened.
And the amendments to the army appropriation bill having been reported correctly engrossed, the bill was read a third time and finally passed.
On motion, the senate adjourned till 13th. FEBRUARY 13. Steamboat laws. Mr. Barrow presented a memorial from Cincinnati, signed by 2000 citizens, asking congress to amend the steamboat law requiring iron steering rods to be used.
The amendments proposed by the committee on finance were then read; they consisted, in effect-1st. For arrearage for completing the barracks and quarters at fort Severn, $9.029 58. 2d. To make the appropriation for the medical and hospital department $39,000, and include the survey from Albemarle Sound to the Atlantic. 3d. Appropriating $2,000 for continuing the meteorological observations at the military posts, under the direction of the surgeon general. 4th. For the continuation of the improvements on the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers, for the half calendar year $50,000, and for the fiscal year $100,000.
North Carolina Resolutions. Mr. Graham presented several resolutions adopted by the legislature of North Carolina upon the subject of the compromise act, the bankrupt law, the veto power, and the relationship existing between the senator and the legislature. the joint resolutions of the legislature of PennsylPennsylvania Resolutions. Mr. Sturgeon presented vania, instructing their senators to vote for the payment of the fine imposed on general Jackson.
German coin. Mr. Buchanan presented a memorial The question was then taken on all the amend- from Philadelphia asking congress to pass a law esments, save that which relates to the appropria-tablishing the value of the German coin in like mantion for the meteorological observations, and they ner as the value of the coin of France and England were adopted.
have been valued.
Profr. Espy. Mr. Benton preferred that the amendGovernment stock. Mr. Buchanan presented, 'from The resolution calling for the correspondence of Gene- ment for meteorological expenses should be passed western Pennsylvania, a memorial signed by 600 or ral Cass, submitted by Mr. Benton, on the suggestion over until the report of the surgeon general of the 700 citizens, who state that Pennsylvania has been embarrassed by her internal improvements, and askof Mr. Archer chairman of the committee on foreign army in relation to the subject should have been exrelations that the call was already embraced in a pre-amined. Mr. Evans remarked that the head of the ing for the issue of government stock for the relief of vious resolution introduced on a prior occasion, was war department had recommended the appropriation withdrawn by Mr. Benton. notwithstanding the report of the surgeon general.duced by the committee on roads and canals, for the Mr. Merrick moved to take up the resolution introMr. Linn defended the appropriation, and alluded to the research and capacities of Professor Espy and to surrender of the stock of the government in the cathe importance of the subject and fatality at fortal to the cities of Alexandria, Georgetown and Gibson as evidences of the importance of meteoroAgents in Kentucky and Missouri for the purchase of logical observations. Mr. Walker thought that the Objections were made,but the senate agreed to conwater rotted hemp. The joint resolution in relation knowledge of Professor Espy on this particular de- sider it by a vote of 23 to 22. Mr. Merrick moved a to said agents was on motion of Mr. Crittenden taken partment could not be surpassed by that of the sur-large number of amendments to the resolutions, which up. geon general, and alluded to the extensive corres- he said would place the subject upon the precise footMr. McDuffie opposed the resolution. Mr. More- pondence he had opened in respect to it with the ing desired by all parties. The amendments proposhead advocated it. Mr. King opposed it. The de- scientific in all parts of the country and the import- ed were all concurred in, and the bill was then rebate was continued by Mr. Crittenden, Bayard, Wood-ance of the subject. Mr. Benton insisted on first ported to the senate with an order for engrossment. bury, Bagby, Buchanan, Benton, &c. when Mr. Bagby having the report of the surgeon general. Mr. CalMr. Benton offered a resolution, which lies over for moved an amendment restricting the price so as not houn thought Mr. Espy will in after times be looked one day, requesting the president of the United States to be greater than it would command in the northern upon as one of the greatest of scientific men of this to communicate to the senate a copy of his instrucmarkets, which was adopted, and the resolution was age, yet its looking like the establishment of a new tions to Daniel Webster, esq. upon the occasion of the then ordered to a third reading by the following bureau formed an insurmountable objection to it in negotiations with Lord Ashburton in regard to the his mind. Mr. C. said he would like the amend- late treaty. YEAS-Messrs. Archer, Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Ben- ment to pass, though he could not vote for it himself, ton, Berrien, Buchanan, Clayton, Crafts, Crittenden, and alluded to the great fund of meteorologic facts Dayton. Evans, Huntington, Linn, McRoberts, Man-evolved during his administration of the war departgum, Miller, Morehead. Phelps, Porter, Simmons. Smith, ment by the observations of the officers of the army. importance of the principles involved in the resolu Mr. McDuffie rose and addressed the senate on the of Indiana. Sprague, Tallmadge, White, Woodbridge, Mr. Buchanan expressed his high opinion of Mr. tions until after 4 o'clook, p. m. Young-27. He said he had inNAYS-Messrs. Allen. Bagby, Calhoun, Fulton, Espy and made allusion to the proceedings of the troduced them for the consideration of the senate, Henderson, King. McDuffie, Rives, Sevier, Smith, of national institute of France in respect to his disco- from a profound sense of his duty as a senator, and Conn. Sturgeon, Tappan, Walker, Wilcox, Williams, veries and observations. In August, 1842, an appro- without consultation with any human being. SenaWoodbury, Wright-17. priation had been made to continue the meteorologi tors need not fear there was any oblique purpose in The resolution was then read a third time and cal observations, under the direction of the surgeon them; they had no other view than such as was clearpassed. general, and Professor Espy was employed as a sub-ly indicated on their face. He intimated that it might ordinate under him, and rendered eminent services to be the policy of some parties to let evils remain with
The resolutions submitted by Mr. McDuffie on the 19th were then taken up, when
The senate adjourned to the 10th.
Mr. Merrick of Md. believing the subject would lead to an endless debate and unwise and unprofitable discussion to the prejudice of all the important matter that must be considered between this time and the 4th March next, gave notice that he would tomorrow, move to lay the whole subject on the table. 1 Mr. Allen hoped the subject would not be laid on the table, but that the senate would come to a direct vote, setting at rest forever their views on the doctrine of assumption of state debts.
those who were responsible for them, by way of ren- FEBRUARY 14. The president presented a com- fail to call forth their utmost resources for the final dering them more odious to the country; but that was munication from the treasury department, in compli- redemption of their engagements, preferring every not his policy; and he considered it the duty of every ance with a resolution of 28th December last, call- sacrifice to dishonor, and proud to illustrate that jeaindividual, however powerless he might deem him- ing for the amount of accruing duties during the lous spirit of independence which belongs to free self, to use every fair and honorable effort to redeem third and fourth quarters of the past year, and the republican states, by a stern and strenuous reliance 1 the country from its present embarrassment. What value of imports and exports of the last quarter. on their own faculties for deliverance from their prea spectacle did this country present! In a time of The following resolution submitted yesterday by sent temporary embarrassments. profound peace, and endowed with every blessing Mr. Benton (Mr. Archer simply protesting against its that God could give us, we find the whole land in utility) was adopted: Resolved, that the president be one universal wide-spread distress. Were they, then, requested to communicate to the senate, a copy of to stand still while the country was thus bleeding at the commission, or letter of instructions, which may every pore, indulging in mutual criminations and re- have been given to Daniel Webster, esq. secretary of criminations, exclaiming, like the bloody Macbeth, state, to treat with Lord Ashburton, late special "Thou can'st not say I did it?' No; it was rather the minister from Great Britain to the United States. 1 duty of every man earnestly to put his shoulder to The resolution relating to the conditional transfer the wheel, and do all that in him lay to apply the of the stock of the United States in the Chesapeake remedy. He observed, en passant, that he considered and Ohio Canal to the state of Maryland and the disboth the great leading parties of the country some-trict cities, was read a third time, and passed. what responsible for the evils that now exist. PreThe resolutions of Mr. McDuffie were then taken up. sident Jackson had certainly committed a very great Mr. Evans then addressed the senate for some error in removing the deposites of the public mo- hours in support of his substitute-when, ney, with injunctions almost amounting to a law, to furnish those accommodations which the United States bank had been in the habit of doing. Under that system every one was aware of what took place. All that had been predicted by the most sagacious actually occurred, and the currency of the country was expanded to a degree that had no parallel in the tide of time. Such was the wild delirium in every possible species of speculation, that penniless adventurers entered into it to the tune of hundreds of thousands on the paper furnished them by the banks; and, as was the inevitable consequence, a general suspension followed. The administration then in power showed the rare but consummate wisdom of retracing their steps and acknowledging their error. It was determined then to disconnect the government entirely from the banks, and a sub-treasury was established. Thus far for their responsibility. What course had been adopted by the other party? Some of the leading statesmen, who, like himself, had condemned the policy of general Jackson in regard to the United States bank, had clamored for the reestablishment of a National bank, while others again were fixing on the state bank system as a kind of half-way house. Thus both had been responsible, and it was alike the duty of both and of every man to apply the remedy.
Mr. Buchanan saw much force in the remarks of the senator from Maryland, and referred to Mr. Calhoun's resolutions relating to the Creole and Mr. Clay's abstract resolutions previous to his late resignation, as consuming weeks of debate and leading to no useful result. He feared such would be the case here, unless the matter be disposed of by being laid upon the table. He should insist that the committee of finance should report on the subject of assumption. The various memorials referred to that com mittee opened the subject to their consideration.
Mr. Walker asked that the vote should be taken on each of the several resolutions by yeas and nays, without further debate.
Resolved, That the distrust and obloquy cast upon Mr. Calhoun would suggest that it be postponed till the federal government, by reason of the failure of to-morrow, as the senate was now thin. He concur certain states to make prompt payment of their debts, red in the views taken by the senators from Ohio, is an unjust and unfounded imputation upon its cred- (Mr. Allen,) and Virginia, (Mr. Rives,) that the senit and good faith: that, while this government de-ate was bound to give its opinion on the subject. It plores the misguided policy of those states which was due to the states and to themselves, that all amhave embarrassed themselves, it disclaims all liabili-biguity on the the right of the general government to ty, legally or morally, for such delinquency, while assume the states' debts should be removed, and he in vindication of its own unblemished faith and hon- hoped there would be a full attendance of the senate. or it appeals with confidence to its past history.
Mr. Rives said he intended to have offered an amendment himself, which was to strike out the three last resolutions, and insert in their stead what he would read in his place, as follows:
Mr. Evans [in reply to a query from Mr. Simmons] stated that he offered his resolutions merely as appendages to those of the gentleman from S. Carolina, not as substitutes.
Mr. McDuffie would like to have addressed a few remarks in reply to the senator from Maine, but in the spirit of business, would waive further discussion, and on motion, the senate adjourned.
FEBRUARY 15. The president presented a joint resolution from the territorial assembly of Iowa, asking that the government will purchase all the lands of the Indians lying within the territory.
Mr. Linn, presented a memorial from citizens of Missouri, in relation to a settlement of the Oregon. They propose that congress should make a road from a point on the Platte river through the pass of the Rocky mountains. Also, resolutions of the legislature of Missouri, in relation to the improvement of the great swamps in the southeastern portion of Missouri.
Resolved, That another of the prominent causes which tend to prolong and increase the financial embarrassments of the country, and to retard the ultiMr. McD. glanced at the resolutions which Mr. mate restoration of public and private credit, is the EVANS had proposed to introdnce as a substitute for uncertainty and suspense thrown over the policy of those he had the honor to submit; but he regarded this government in regard to the debts of the states, them as a mere surface measure, and not at all cal- by the agitation of projects for the virtual assump culated to reach the seat of the disease, the remote tion of those debts by the authorities of the union.— Also, the credentials of the hon. W. H. Hayward, cause of which had been an alarming and most un- That while this uncertainty is permitted to exist, its senator elect from the state of North Carolina for natural expansion of the paper currency. This cur- mischievous effect is to foster delusive hopes of re-six years from and after the 4th March next; and Mr. rency had been greatly reduced, but had not yet lief from a quarter whence it can never legitimately Tallmadge the credentials of the hon. Silas Wright, reached its extreme point. After we had gone proceed, and to divert the attention of the indebted senator elect from the state of New York for six through all the evils brought upon us by a vitious states from that timely and energetic application of years from and after the 4th March next. system of banking, what did gentlemen propose to their own resources to the fulfilment of their engagedo? To adopt a system by way of cure, when time ments, which they would otherwise make, and which and forbearance could alone effect it. Neither a is the sole, natural, and proper reliance for the libank of the United States nor exchequer board could quidation of their respective liabilities. And it is reach the disease. Like a sick patient, they were therefore urgently demanded by the interests of the continually calling for remedies, and, as was usual parties immediately concerned, as well as by those in such cases, mistaking both the complaint and re- of the country at large, that congress should now exmedy. The only remedy was a sound and uniform plicitly and unequivocally declare the views it encurrency-the currency of the constitution. It had tertains of the appropriate and constitutional sphere been said by the friends of the banking system that of its powers and duties in relation to this subject. they did not desire expansion so much as to restore Resolved, That, in the fundamental division and alconfidence. That was the catchword. Confidence in lotment of political power established by the constiwhat? In banks that make promises only to violate tution between the government of the union and them? Confidence in a system that must always those of the several states, there is no power or aueventuate in like results? God forbid that such con- thority given to the former to provide for the payfidence should ever be restored! It would be like ment of the debts incurred by the latter in virtue of the confidence that Eve had in the serpent-mis- their undoubted competence, and within their sepaplaced confidence, that led to ruin. Would the parate and exclusive jurisdiction; that any attempt by per issues of banks add any thing to the wealth of the general government thus to assume and impose the country? Suppose seventy millions were added upon the people of the union the debts of individual to-morrow to the currency, you would only add so states, would be not merely a gross perversion of the much paper but no wealth. The true remedy was trusts confided to it, but an utter annihilation of that to undo the mischief already done. wholesome and necessary relation between power and responsibility which is the vital principle of all representative government. That such an arbitrary and unauthorized transfer of burdens, from those who created, and should alone be responsible for them, to others who are alien alike to their origin and their benefits, involves so flagrant a violation of the principles of justice, that it could not but most seriously impair the harmony, and ultimately jeopard the union of the states, and that any expectation, therefore, that this government will at any time, now or hereafter, assume or provide for the payment of the debts of the individual states, directly or indirectly, is wholly unwarranted and illusory. Resolved, That a just sentiment of respect for the character of sovereign states, incurring pecuniary obligations by a deliberate act of the public will and a solemn pledge of the public faith through their constitutional and appropriate organs, forbids the apprehension that any of the states of this union will
Mr. McD. went on to give his reasons at length for the adoption of the whole series of the resolutions, dwelling with peculiar earnestness on that relating to the tariff'; contending that a mortal blow had been inflicted on the commerce of the country, a branch that had always sustained the government, kept afloat the navy, and maintained the army; that the only way to restore that expiring branch would be by knocking off the shackles that had been put Do this, (said Mr. McD.) and I pledge my reputation that we shall have an abundant revenue for all the economical wants of the government. A tariff of 20 per cent. in the general, and not exceeding 25 in any case, would give us ample resources. He dwelt with peculiar emphasis on the injuries which the cotton planter was subjected to by the present tariff, which he pronounced so monstrous nd so unjust, that the only wonder was how the igh-spirited sons of the south could bear it.
Mr. Dayton said that he desired to move an amendment to the amendment offered by Mr. Evans, which was to strike out the third resolution and submit the following in its place. He would merely observe that he had no disposition to embark in the general discussion, and would feel gratified if the senate would indulge him for a few moments to-morrow, as the hour was now late and the body already somewhat exhausted. The following amendment was then read:
Canal around the falls of the Ohio. Mr. Benton presented a memorial signed by forty-eight masters of steamboats on the western waters, praying the construction of a canal round the falls of the Ohio on the Indiana side. The memorialists state that their business will not allow them to pay the enor mous toll exacted by the canal on the other side, and affirm that there are obstructions which unfitted it for general use.
Mr. Walker, thought the canal on the Kentucky side was not adapted to the commerce of the west, nor suited for the admission of modern boats. There were projecting rocks which sometimes materially injured some of the boats of the largest size. He thought, however, that nothing could be done to improve the canal until it was seen that government was determined to do something. He would go for granting land to the state of Indiana to make the canal on her side, provided she undertook to make it free or of moderate toll.
Mr. Smith, of Indiana, did not feel satisfied to let the memorial be referred without a single word. He concurred fully with the petitioners in the necessity of the contemplated improvement of the navigation of the Ohio river at the falls; and he felt assured that the opinion he had long entertained, and which he had repeatedly urged upon the senate, would be ultimately found to be correct, that a canal on the Indiana side of the falls must be constructed of sufficient capacity to pass boats of the largest class with the ascending and descending commerce of that great western thoroughfare. He said the tolls on the Louis ville and Fortland canal had run up to their maximuin of eighteen per cent. on the stock, which was most onerous on the commerce of the river-while
Mr. Tappan expressed the opinion that the body of the river might be improved so as to supercede the necessity of a canal, by cutting away a particular limestone formation.
a few years more would show, if it was not actually Mr. Smith, of Va., moved that the committee rise.
Mr. Pickens inquired whether the secretary asked
The committee thereupon rose and reported pro
[Mr. McDuffie's resolutions.] The senate then pro ceeded to the discussion of the special order, being the resolutions of Mr. McDuffie; when
Mr. Dayton rose and addressed the senate for near n hour in support of the amendment he had offered o the third resolution of the amendment of Mr. tvans. He had offered it because that resolution eemed to concede the loss of national credit, which e was by no means prepared to admit.
Mr. D. then went on to defend the honor of the general government, maintaining that it would conrast-ay, proudly contrast-with any of the kingloms of the old world. He spoke of the scrupulous egard manifested by the general government to meet all its engagements, as was apparent in all its past istory; and said, when he considered the resources of this great country, its youth, energy, and compaative freedom from debt, and heard its credit decried abroad by those who had not the tithe of its resources, he felt indignant that the slander had not every where been rebuked. When Mr. Dayton clos-gress. ed his remarks, which were listened to with respectful attention on all sides
HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. THURSDAY, FEB. 9. Mr. Barnard, from the committee on the judiciary, to which was referred the bill from the senate entitled "an act for the relief of Richard Henry Wilde," reported the same without amendment.
Coast survey. Mr. Fillmore begged to ask when the select committee on the coast survey would report?
Mr. Mallory said next week. Mr. Fillmore thought it would be too late for action of the committee on ways and means.
Mr. Aycrigg asked leave to report his views on the investigation.
The Speaker was about to entertain the report,
Mr. Wise objected and raised the point of order, that the gentleinan from N. Jersey, being only one of a committee of five, had no right to make a report before the majority had reported.
A rambling discussion took place upon this point of order, in which another subject, not relevant to this at all, was brought up by Mr. W. C. Johnson, viz: the report of the committee on ways and means against his 200,000,000 scheme. Mr. J. contended that this, too, was a minority report, but Mr. J. R. Ingersoll disputed the assertion, and called upon the committee present to sustain him, which they did.
The previous question was moved upon the question to print the report, and the printing was ordered.
Mr. Merrick, in pursuance of the notice he gave yesterday, after some prefatory remarks, moved to lay the whole subject on the table.
Mr. Walker asked for the yeas and nays. The question was then taken on Mr. Merrick's motion to lay the whole subject on the table, and decided in the affirmative, as follows:
California. The Speaker, on the suggestion of Mr. Fillmore, laid before the house the following message from the president of the U. States: Washington, Feb. 8, 1843. To the house of representatives of the United States: I herewith transmit to the house of representatives, in answer to their resolution of the 28th ultimo, a report from the secretary of state. JOHN TYLER. YEAS-Mes-rs. Barrow, Bates, Bayard, Berrien, Department of state, Washington, Feb. 2, 1843. Choate, Conrad, Cratts, Crittenden, Dayton, Evans, The secretary of state, to whom has been referred Graham, Henderson, Huntington, Merrick, Miller, More the resolution of the house of representatives of the Resolved, That the secretary of the treasury be dihead, Phelps, Porter. Simmons, Smith, of Indiana, 28th ultimo, requesting the president to make known rected to inform this house whether any charges have Sprague, Tallmadge, White, Woodbridge-24. NAYS-Messrs. Allen. Archer, Bagby, Benton, Buch. to that body, if not incompatible with the public at any time been preferred to the department against anan, Calhoun, Fulton, King, Linn, McDuffie, McRob- interest whether any information is in possession of Jonathan Roberts, late collector of the port of Philerts, Mangum, Rives, Sevier, Smith, of Connecticut, the government of the United States as to the nego-adelphia, relative to his discharge of the duties of Sturgeon. Tappan, Walker. Wilcox, Williams, Wood. tiation of a treaty, or of overtures to treat, for the said office; and if any have been, that he be directed bury, Wright, Young-23. cession of California by Mexico to England," has to furnish copies of the same. Also, that he transthe honor to report that no information is in posses- mit to this house copies of any order, instruction, or sion of the government of the United States of any request addressed to the said Jonathan Roberts to renegotiation of a treaty, or of any overtures to treat, move or appoint any subordinate officers of the cusfor the cession of California by Mexico to England. toms at the port of Philadelphia. Also, a copy of DANIEL WEBSTER. the order or letter dismissing him from the office of To the President of the U. States. the collector of said port. And copies of all letters Laid on the table and ordered to be printed. and papers in possession of the department relating And the house adjourned. to the subjects embraced in this resolution. FRIDAY, FEB. 10. Oregon. On motion of Mr. The pending question was on the demand for the Everett the vote referring the report from the select previous question. Mr. Weller moved that the resocommittee to the committee of the whole, was recon-lution he laid on the table. By yeas 77, noes 102, sidered, and the report was referred, as had been Mr. Weller's motion was negatived, and the resoluthe senate bill, to the committee of foreign affairs. tion was then adopted. Treasury notes. Mr. Fillmore, from the committee of ways and means, reported a bill to authorise the reissue of five millions of treasury notes, should the wants of the government require it; which was read
Mr. Rives then immediately submitted the resolutions, inserted above, and they were laid on the table. The senate proceeded to the consideration of executive business; and, after some considerable time spent therein, adjourned.
twice and referred.
Oregon. A bill was reported by Mr. Reynolds chairman of the select committee on this subject and
ferred to the committee of the whole house.
MONDAY, FEB. 12. Domestic hemp. The joint resolution upon the appointment of agents in Kentucky and Missouri, for the purchase of water rotted hemp, was taken up as amended by the senate. (The re-amendment provides that the hemp shall not cost the government any more than the same quality may be bought for in the seaport towns.)
Report of commissioners of patents. On motion of Mr. Briggs 5,000 copies amended on motion of Mr. McClellan, to 10,000, were ordered to be printed.
The Oregon bill from the senate, was received and referred to the committee on foreign affairs.
District of Columbia. The house resolved itself into committee of the whole on business connected with the district and after proceedings thereon.
Comet and Emporium. The bill giving indemnity, received from the English government, for losses of slaves in these two vessels, was next taken up. senate had amended the phraseology of the bill, and the question was upon its passage. The previous question was moved, and the bill passed.
Mr. Giddings, of Ohio, on a motion to reconsider, spoke at length against the bill, contending that having sailed beyond state jurisdiction, these were not slaves, and that our diplomatic agents had no right to spend their time and the money of the whole nation in pursuing claims for what the majority of the people of this country did not therefore recognize as property. Mr. G. alluded to the vote of censure upon himself at the last session, and accused one of the members from the old Bay state, which state he passed high praise upon, of servility to the south in voting for the resolution of censure.
A motion was made to lay this resolution on the table; the ayes and nays were asked and ordered, and were ayes 52, nays 107; the motion was negatived, and the question being upon concurring with the amendment of the senate, Mr. L. W. Andrews moved the previous question, which was sustained, and the amendmeut was agreed to.
Mr. Cushing was the gentleman referred to, and he rose to reply, and defended himself from Mr. G.'s personal attack, and then examined Mr. G.'s argument. Mr. C. asked if the states of the south were to be deprived of the benefit and protection of the general government because they had rights and interests which were not common to all other states?Just as well said Mr. C. might there be a refusal on the part of Kentucky to co-operate in defending the property in a whale ship of Massachusetts because there were no whale ships in Kentucky. Mr. C. protested against the theory and proposed action of the gentleman from Ohio, as tending to the destruction of the union.
Mr. Arnold moved to lay the motion to reconsider on the table. The yeas and nays were asked and ordered, and the motion was carried by yeas 140 to nays 38.
The army appropriation bill, as amended by the senate was then taken up. The appropriation of $2,000 for the meteorological observations being considered, Mr. Cave Johnson opposed it. Mr. Fillmore remarked that it was strongly recommended by the seA debate now commenced in relation to state cretary of war. Messrs. Read, Tillinghast, Mc Kendebts generally, and the repudiation attributed to nan, and Ch. Brown advocated the appropriation. Mississippi particularly, which for want of room Mr. Smith, of Va. was opposed to having a "bureau in this number, we defer to our next, with a view of of storms" as well as to having a home department inserting it then more at large. District of Columbia. The house went into com-sidered the enlarging of the powers of this governmetamorphosed from the patent office. Mr. S. conmittee of the whole, and resumed the consideration ment as dangerous and for one he would lift his warof a bill providing a lunatic asylum for insane of the ning voice here against it. Mr. Pickens thought a District, and after progress again rose. lecturer on the winds was quite unnecessary, since we had already, within this cave of Eolus, two hundred and forty two gentlemen, all fully capable of lecturing on that subject. (A laugh.) He hoped that the item would be rejected; that they would all act as able professors of this noble science.
On motion of Mr. Fillmore, the army appropriation bill, which had been returned from the senate with certain amendments, (requiring commitment), was taken up and referred to the committee of the whole on the state of the union, and the amendments were ordered to be printed. And then the house adjourned.
Mr. Holmes was for retaining the item for the very reason his colleague had argued for striking out; there were so many storms on that floor that he hoped for God's sake that gentlemen would appoint a competent officer to regulate them. (Laughter.)
The question being about to be taken, tellers were demanded; when the vote was reported to stand, ayes 76, nays 77. So the amendment of the senate was rejected.
The next amendment was "for the continuation of the improvements on the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers, for the half calendar year $50,000, and for the fiscal year $100,000."
Mr. Fillmore said that there was no gentleman on that floor that more desired the appropriation pro posed by this amendment than he did; and as an evi
[Mr. Giddings here reported to the speaker an infringement upon the proprieties of congressional decorum on the part of Mr. Dawson of Louisiana. After a few explanations the matter was dropped.]
Arbitrary removals from office. The unfinished business being the following resolution, (originally offered by Mr. Toland, but not received, and subsequently presented on the call of the states for resolutions by Mr. Fessenden:)