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wherever we go. The elements act upon , one another, electricity operates, the tides rise and fall, the magnetic needle elects its position, in one region of the earth and sea, as well as in another. One atmosphere invests all parts of the globe, and connects all: one fun illuminates; one moon exerts its specific attraction upon all parts. If there be a variety in natural effects, as, e. g. in the tides of different seas, that very variety is the result of the fame cause, acting under different circumstances. In many cases this is proved; in all is probable.
The inspection and comparison of living forms, add to this argument examples without number. Of all large terrestrial animals the structure is very much alike. Their senses nearly the fame. Their natural functions and passions nearly the fame. Their viscera nearly the fame, both in substance, shape, and office. Digestion, nutrition, circulation, secretion, go on, in a similar manner, in all. The great circulating fluid is the fame: for, I think, no difference has been discovered in the properties of blood, from whatever animal it be drawn. The experiment of transfusion proves, that the blood of one animal will serve for another.
other. The Jkeletons also of the larger terrestrial animals, shew particular varieties, but still under a great general affinity. The resemblance is somewhat less, yet sufficiently evident, between quadrupeds and birds. They are alike in five respects, for one in which they differ.
In jijh, which belong to another department, as it were, of nature, the points of comparison become fewer. But we never lose fight of our analogy, e. g. we still meet with a stomach, a liver, a spine; with bile and blood; with teeth; with eyes, which eyes are only slightly varied from our own, and which variation, in truth, demonstrates, not an interruption, but a continuance, of the fame exquisite plan; for it is the adaptation of the organ to the element, viz. to the different refraction of light passing into the eye out of a denser medium. The provinces, also, themselves of water and earth, are connected by the species of animals which inhabit both; and also by a large tribe of aquatic animals, which closely resemble the terrestrial in their internal structure: I mean the cetaceous tribe, which have hot blood, respiring lungs, bowels, and other essential parts, like those of land 213 animals. animals. This similitude, surely, bespeaks the fame creation and the fame Creator.
Insects and Jloell fijh appear to me to differ from other classes of animals the most widely of any. Yet even here, beside many points of particular resemblance, there exists a general relation of a peculiar kind. It is the relation of inversion: the law of contrariety: namely, that, whereas, in other animals, the bones, to which the muscles are attached, lie within the body, in insects and shell fish they lie on the outside of it. The shell of a lobster performs to the animal the office of a bone, by furnishing to the tendons that fixed basis or immoveable fulcrum, without which mechanically they could not act. The crust of an insect is its shell, and answers the like purpose.# The shell also of an oyster stands in the place of a bone; the bases of the muscles being fixed to it, in the fame manner, as, in other animals, they are fixed to the bones. All which (under wonderful varieties, indeed, and adaptations of form) consesses an imitation, a remembrance, a carrying on, of the fame plan.
The observations, here made, are equally, applicable to plants; but I think unnecessary to be pursued. It is a very striking circumstance,
stance, and alone sufficient to prove all which we contend for, that, in this part likewise of organized nature, we perceive a continuation of the sexual system.
Certain however it is, that the whole argument for the divine unity, goes no further than to an unity of counsel.
It may likewise be acknowledged, that no arguments which we are in possession of, exclude the ministry of subordinate agents. If such there be, they act under a presiding, a controlling, will; because they act according to certain general restrictions, by certain common rules, and, as it should seem, upon a general plan: but still such agents, and different ranks, and classes, and degrees of them, may be employed.
2 I 4 CHAP
THE GOODNESS OF THE DEITY.
The proof of the divine goodness rests upon two propositions, each, as we contend, capable of being made out by observations drawn from the appearances of nature.
The first is, "that, in a vast plurality of instances in which contrivance is perceived, the design of the contrivance is beneficial.
The second, "that the Deity has superadded pleasure to animal sensations, beyond what was necessary for any other purpose, or when the purpose, so far as it was necessary, might have been effected by the operation of pain.
First, "in a vast plurality of instances in which contrivance is perceived, the design of the contrivance is beneficial?
No productions of nature display contrivance io manisestly as the parts of animals; and the parts of animals have all. of them, I believe, a real, and, with very few excep