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The etymological distinction embodied in the phrases is simple enough: adverse, as it means turned towards, represents necessarily the idea of opposition face to face-the position of opponents when engaging in conflict; whilst averse conveys the idea of withdrawal, from a sense of disgust. The one word signifies face to, the other face from. To reverse this, is to destroy all clearness of language. Custom, if it be in matters indifferent, the "jus et norma loquendi" must give way in cases where it stultifies the human reason to follow it. "The champions of popular rights were averse to anarchy" is nonsense, and would be so if even Milton had written it. May Fair.
C. A. W.
Richardson, referring to the word Avert, explains:
"The difference between the old verb 'to adverse,' and the still common verb 'to advert,' is in the application.
To advert,' is to turn to,' to look at, to observe, &c.
To adverse,' to turn to or against, with a design to oppose, resist, or contend against.
Averse to, or from.' Applied to the act, it is averse or aversion from: immediately, to the feeling-averse or aversion to, or towards." R. F. W. S.
VARIATION OF SURNAMES.
(4th S. ii. 91, 139, 167.)
In nearly all the instances adduced by your correspondents, the deviation in orthography or pronunciation of surnames has arisen from ignorance on the part of those named; but I would call attention to another class who, by accenting the wrong syllable, or by the addition or omission of a letter, seek to remove some (in most cases) imaginary prejudice against, or evil association that clings to, the name.
Thus, at the time the name of Palmer gained such unenviable notoriety, an old lady, a neighbour of mine, of the same name as the homicide, commenced to sign her name Parmer, and continues to do so still.
Nothing is more common than to hear the Irish name Moran pronounced with the accent on the last syllable, Moràn, which might lead to its being spelled Morann.
I can easily excuse the old lady's whim; but think that those who, ashamed of their nationality, seek to hide it by such means, deserve to be, with Poe's "Lenore"
"Nameless here for evermore."
The Anglican Monie, I strongly suspect to be the Hibernian Mooney; but before I conclude, I must express my admiration of the ingenious gentleman who, upon the appearance of Tenny
son's famous poem, altered his name from Idle to Idyll. W. J. C.
12, Augustus Street, Manchester.
The variation in surnames assumes curious shapes in Ireland. Twaddle is a common name in the county of Clare. It is a variation, or rather a corruption of, the common name of Dowdale in the county of Louth. In the county of Kildare, I recently met the name Sugar: it is nothing more or less than a corruption of the old Kerry name, Sugrue, or ô Shugherough. There are many similar instances of such variations. The rather English name Mann, sometimes written Man, appears to be no other than the old Irish name Meinshagh, as I find by an old record in the Ecclesiastical Court of Killaloe. MAURICE LENIHAN.
I have known a gentleman whose Christian name was Charles; but when Jean-Jacques Rousseau's Emile appeared, the parents of my friend gave their child that name, by which he has been known all his life, and his son after him.
The celebrated painter, Paul de la Roche, was christened Hippolyte; and, for abbreviation's sake, was called Pol, by which alone he has been known; and habitually signed Paul, excepting on legal documents. P. A. L.
One of the commonest names in this district is Hebron (sounded Héb-run). An entry of burial of Anna Abram, in 1602, collated with another, Johannes Abron, in 1718, accounts for the modern name. The name Marsey is of very frequent occurrence in my registers. On its first appearance, it is Mercer. The not uncommon modern name, spelt Rhea in the district, is Rey in 1599, Ray (of the same person) in 1600. Danvers (from the name of the first Earl of Danby) was already Davers in 1598; as the pre-name in a family which still retains it writes it Danvers, but calls it Davers. Poskett, of frequent occurrence, was Postgaite in 1624, Poscat in 1639, Posket in 1650.
Some years since, I was asked for several certificates connected with a family long known by the name of Parsyble. In 1691 the name was Persiball; in 1598, the entry was in the form Persivallus. The name Balfour, in two different instances under my own notice, is almost invariably (in one of the two cases, always) shortened into Bell. I find the forms (of a surname) Arsam, Arsome, Airsome, Aresome, between 1613 and 1688, all due to a place which is now Airsome; in 1080 to 1200, was Arhusum, Harhusum, Aresum or Arusum (Aarhuus). A district in my parish is now Ainthorpe: in 1623, the register form is Armitthwaite; in 1751, it was Armthwaite; and in Graves's Cleveland (Carlisle, 1808), it is Armanthwaite. I give these instances, a few out of many,
and it would be easy to supplement them with a series of interesting transitions from old to mediæval or modern forms of names of places. J. C. ATKINSON.
Danby in Cleveland.
I have several times met with persons amongst the poorer classes in the West of England whose names were generally mispronounced, and frequently mis-spelt. Here is an instance: a family named Crook, nine times out of ten, was called Crute; and as often as not, the name was written the same way. A number of Wingats, also, got transformed into Windeatts-the name of an old and respectable family in Devon: probably the latter name was substituted for their own through the carelessness in writing of members of the board of guardians, or relieving officers, when they had to apply to the parish. H. BOWER.
(4th S. ii. 56, 113, 138, 164.)
Your correspondent F. C. H. says his account of St. Herefrid in connection with St. Cuthbert is "contained in the fourth book of St. Bede's Church History," and expresses himself as fairly puzzled that I have failed to discover it. If I could discover it there (my edition is that of Prof. Hussey, 1846), I should require a stronger pair of spectacles than I usually wear, as I think any of your readers will readily admit who will take the trouble to examine for themselves.
Turning to the index, they will find, "Cudberct Præf. iv. 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32; v. i." On the perusal of which eight chapters, if they discover the name of St. Herefrid at all, or the peculiar circumstances attending St. Cuthbert's death, as given by F. C. H., why then there is an end of
the matter between us.
Of that event I can only find this very brief notice (b. iv. ch. 29): —
"Obiit autem pater reverentissimus in insula Farne, multum deprecatus fratres ut ibi quoque sepeliretur, ubi non parvo tempore pro Domino militarat. Attamen tandem eorum precibus victus assensum dedit, ut ad insulam Lindisfarnensium relatus, in ecclesia deponeretur. Quod dum factum esset, episcopatum ecclesiæ illius anno uno servabat venerabilis antistes Vilifrid, donec eligeretur qui pro Cudbereto antistes ordinari deberet."
The remaining three chapters of this book are mainly taken up with a narration of certain miracles wrought by Cuthbert's relics.
One word as to the chronology. F. C. H. asserts that "Herebert's visit to St. Cuthbert occurred in 686, and that he died the year following, on the same day as St. Cuthbert." Bede's account, according to Professor Hussey, is, that Cuthbert was consecrated Bishop of Lindisfarne on the 26th of March, 685; that after two years' occupancy of
the see he retired ("duobus autem annis in episcopatu peractis repetiit insulam ac monasterium suum") to a city which he calls Lugubalia, where he received this visit from Herebert, which must have been A.D. 687, the very same year of his death. If, then, Bede's statement be right, that of F. C. H. must be wrong, and one or the other be justly chargeable with a glaring and hopeless anachronism.
Unfortunately, I do not possess the work which Bede refers to (Hist. b. iv. c. xxviii.) as “de vita illius et virtutibus ante annos plures sufficienter, et versibus heroicis et simplici oratione, conscripsimus"; but as F. C. H. bases his authority on the History alone, this affects not the question in the least. In the History, as far as I can find, the name of Herefrid occurs but once, and that in the "Cont. Chron." p. 314.
As one not too old to learn, or too proud to be taught, I am quite open, if in error, to be corrected; if ignorant, to be instructed by F. C. H., or by any one better informed or wiser than myself; but I must have the litera scripta, not the ipse dixit. On terms less reasonable than these, "Nullius addictus jurare in verba magistri." EDMUND TEW, M.A.
DANIEL DEFOE AND JOHN DOVE, D.D. (4th S. ii. 177.)-No charge of plagiarism can be established on the ground of the parallel passages pointed out by the Rev. MR. GROSART. The phrase is common property, and is current as a proverb in Italy, Spain, and Germany, and is probably used as such by Dr. Dove. The first edition of the True-born Englishman appeared, not in 1701, but the year preceding. The lines occur at p. 4, with this footnote appended: "An English proverb, Where God has a church, the Devil has a chappell." This note is omitted in all the subsequent editions which I have seen. WILLIAM E. A. AXON.
subject at much greater length than those named by MR. MACRAY in p. 141. The paper had been read at the Peterborough Meeting of the Archæological Institute in the preceding year. P.
ROUGH PIETY (4th S. ii. 200.)—
"I will only add, by way of conclusion, the homely yet animated description of that blissful period The Judgment Day, as given by Mr. Ryland of Northampton: 'What singing! what shouting! what heavenly greeting!
Shall be at that general triumphant church meeting.
Each shall tell his sweet story and need not be silent, It will never be night, there'll be time enough for't.
So pray for your brother, my dear friend, fail not, For, alas! you can't think what a heart I have got! So stubborn, so stupid, so callous, so cold: One half of its wickedness cannot be told. But, Lord! thou dost know it: thou only canst bend it. Oh, search it! and break it, and wash it, and mend it.' Russell's Letters." "A Second Letter to the Rev. W. Marsh of Colchester, by the Rev. E. J. Burrow, M.A.," p. 55. London, 1819, 8vo, pp. 132.
Had the "dear friend" replied-"I have told my friends that your heart is so stubborn,' &c., and we have joined in prayer for its amendment as to the wickedness which you state, and also for the other half which from quantity or quality cannot be told," it is probable that the request would not have been repeated.
POCKET SHERIFF (4th S. ii. 179.) - Anciently, when the shrievalty was not of inheritance, the sheriffs were chosen by the inhabitants of the several counties. These popular elections, however, grew tumultuous; and by statutes of Edward III., Henry VI., Richard II., and Henry VIII., the judges and the other great officers and privy councillors are directed to meet in the Exchequer on the morrow of All Souls yearly, which day is now altered to the morrow of St. Martin, and then and there the judges propose three persons for each county to be reported to the king, who afterwards, about the end of Hilary Term, appoints one of them to be sheriff.
The king may, however, by his prerogative, make and appoint what are called pocket sheriffs without the usual ceremony.
J. FORTH MUNBY. CATTERN'S DAY (4th S. ii. 201.)-There can surely be no authority for saying that the lacemakers of Bedfordshire were accustomed to keep "Cattern's Day" as a holiday of their craft, in memory of the good Queen Catherine. St. Catherine of Alexandria is the patroness of spinsters; and the craft of lacemaking being so nearly allied to that of spinning and working in thread, I have no doubt that the holiday was kept in honour of St. Catherine. Her feast is November 25; and
if that was the day kept by the lacemakers, there can, I think, remain no doubt of the object of the holiday. F. C. H.
DOUBLE TOWER (4th S. ii. 179.)-There is an interesting architectural history of Cartmell Priory church written by Mr. Paley, and inserted in the Guide to the neighbouring watering-place of Grange, and printed in Cartmell. He states the lower tower was the original lantern of the church, and probably carried a wooden spire. The upper tower is set diagonally on the lower, and supported by throwing out immensely strong pointed arches across the angles of the original lantern. The effect I think far from pleasing, but probably unique. Its large coarse belfry windows have an unpleasant effect: otherwise the church, especially the interior, is of magnificent proportion, rare beauty, and exceeded by none in this part of the kingdom. THOMAS E. WINNINGTON.
"Quhen his men lang had mad murnyn, Thai debowalyt him, and sine
Gert sher him swa, that mycht be tane
A. O. V. P.
SIR AMBROSE CROWLEY (4th S. ii. 159.)—Alex. Chalmers appears to have fallen into an error in stating that Sir Ambrose Crowley changed his name to Crawley. In his will of June 10, 1713, proved Oct. 19 following at London (Leeds, 222), he calls himself Crowley, so does his monument; and his descendants so continued to spell their name till the family became, I believe, extinct by the death of John Crowley his grandson. This John's sister married the second Earl of Ashburnham, whose grandson, the present and fourth earl,
* Abbotsford edition, vol. xii. p. 273.
is now the representative of Sir A. Crowley. (Vide East Anglian, iii. pp. 97, 121.) G. W. M. LONG FAMILY CONNECTION WITH CHURCH LIVINGS (4th S. ii. 54, 111, 179.)-The rectory of Shere, near Guildford, was held uninterruptedly by members of the Surrey branch of the Duncombe family from 1658, when the Rev. Dr. Duncombe was instituted rector, until 1843, when his great-great-grandson, the Rev. Thomas Duncombe, died; a period of one hundred and eightyfive years. G. F. D.
LITTLE FORSTERS, EGHAM, SURREY (4th S. i. 580.) I cannot tell MR. VERNON Whether his family sold this estate to the next owner to theirs, whose name I have heard of, Mrs. Blathwaite, but I believe that they did. From Mrs. Blathwaite or her descendants, Little Forsters was bought by a Jamaica merchant, Richard Logan; and after his death it passed to his daughter, Mrs. Dobinson, the wife of Joseph Dobinson, a tea-merchant (I believe) and a magistrate, who, or whose family, sold it a few years ago to Mr. Henry Worms, a Jewish merchant, who now inhabits the place. It has been called Egham Lodge ever since I can remember it; and in my time also Mr. Dobinson severed the property still more from Great Forsters, by turning the road to Strood, which formerly ran all round the north boundary of Little Forsters, making a great curve into a nearly straight road between Little and Great Forsters. This was a decided convenience to the inhabitants of Egham and Strood, but threw both the houses abovenamed more open to the public view. The road would have been made quite straight had it not been for the objections of my father's partners to bringing the road so close to their asylum. Mr. Dobinson's offer of a corner of the Little Forsters' property on the south of the road, for leave to bring the road close to Great Forsters, was refused; and this corner, being of no possible use to the owner of Little Forsters, was planted with trees. It ought to form part of the Great Forsters' property; and general regret was expressed in the neighbourhood lately when it became known that the liberal offer of the owner of Great Forsters for this little corner was not met in the neighbourly spirit that it ought to have been.
F. J. FURNIVALL.
FAITH, HOPE, AND CHARITY (4th S. ii. 190.)— The tract was sent to me by post. When I noticed it I supposed it to be on sale in the ordinary way. I believe it was circulated sufficiently in Birmingham to check the brutalities of those zealots who delighted in interrupting the services at Mr. Pollock's church. The title-page is
Stamford. OPOPANAX (4th S. ii. 54.) — In Simmond's Dictionary of Trade Products, 1858, this gum is said to be from the Levant; Webster's Dictionary states that it is brought from Turkey, and the East Indies. WILLIAM BLOOD.
"A Plea for Liberty of Conscience, with the History of
Mrs. Fardingale and her Red Cloak. Birmingham: Printed by Richard L. Grew, 27, Temple Row." FITZHOPKINS.
PARISH REGISTERS (4th S. ii. 114, 165.)—That some effort should be made for the better preservation of parish registers, all parties must admit. A few years ago I had occasion to refer to two registers, and went to their proper location, said the registers were at the incumbent's. I the two parish churches. At each place the clerk went thither, and in each case was most courteously permitted a free and unrestricted search, my object being historical and not personal. The registers were each lying in the incumbent's study, among Cambridge Calendars, old periodicals, and stray memoranda, and I considered the documents gentlemen appeared in no way disconcerted at my fortunate in being uninjured. The two reverend seeing the registers out of their place, and evidently regarded their custody as involving no more responsibility than the taking care of a volume of the Record or the Guardian. I fear the same feeling is too general. D.
MATTHEW BACON (4th S. i. 43.) - Bacon's Abridgment is supposed to have been chiefly compiled from materials collected by Chief Baron Pleas" C. pt. 3, this work is quoted by the title of Gilbert. In Viner's Abridgment, "Conusance of Gilbert's New Abridgment, and in Blackstone's Commentaries, vol. ii. p. 323, it is ascribed to Sir Geoffry Gilbert.
The library of Mr. Hargrave was bought by Parliament for the British Museum. Mr. Basil Montagu (the baby whom Miss Ray was suckling at the time of her murder by Hackman) died some years since,* in extreme old age, at Boulogne, I think. J. WILKINS, B.C.L.
EASTER, ESTHER (4th S. i. 481, 568.)-My own impression is, that the names have been synonymous. My wife's name is "Esther," yet some Her country cousins" call her "Easter."
LOUTH (4th S. ii. 179.)-The Rev. R. S. Bayley," pastor of the Independent chapel, Louth, from 1830 mother's name is "Esther," yet in her native to 1836, was the author of Notitia Luda. Cheshire she is styled "Easter" among her rural friends. Her grandmother's name was "Esther," but I have some ancient china ware with her name inscribed thereon, and there the Christian D. name is spelt "Easter."
NOBLE OF EDWARD III. (4th S. ii. 105.)-In answer to P. A. L.'s question, I may state that the
[* On November 27, 1851.]
legend on the obverse of the noble I mentioned is, แ EDWARD DEI. GRA. REX. ANGL. z. FRANC. D. HYB." There is a small quatrefoil between each word. The ship has six ropes (as Rud. i. 2), and the cross-yard separates the в from the HY at the end of the legend.
The Mint-mark, if the Christian symbol can be considered as such, is the usual cross patée on both sides. On the reverse there is that minute fleurde-lys which appears on a few of Edward III.'s nobles, the bottom of which touches the head of one of the lions leopardes in the angles of the cross fleury. This coin weighs 119 grains, and would therefore appear to be of the fourth coinage, in Edward's twenty-seventh year, A. D. 1353. The gold seems to be of the standard purity, viz. 23 car. 3 gr. fine,gr. alloy.
The following rhyme, by some unknown versifier of Henry VI.'s time, supports the theory that the ship is commemorative of Edward's naval successes. (Rud. i. p. 219, 3rd ed.) The lines are
"Four things our noble sheweth unto me -
writ here nor elsewhere what is not contained within the bounds of nature," and, speaking of the incredulous, or "the superstitious," as he styles them, he says: "While they strive by arguments and vain disputes to overthrow the truth, they betray their own ignorance."
Before taking leave of the philosopher, allow me to present the following extract to our country friends, as an easy manner of stocking their beehives:
"Choose a house ten cubits high, and square every way, but let there be but one entrance to it, and four windows,
one on each side. Put into this room an ox about two
about eleven daies after open it again, and you shall find
TOADS AND LIZARDS BORN OF WOMEN (4th S. ii. 153.)—That arch humbug, Jean Baptiste Porta, in his Natural Magic, 1658, says: "Neither is it hard to generate toades of women, for women do breed this kind of cattell, together with their children"; and also mentions the case of a man "that brought forth scorpions after a strange manner, and those did beget other scorpions." He left to seven women; and the daughters shall come home, and to their mothers: Lawk, mother! I have seen then goes on to speak of the women of Salernum say a man. The women shall have to finish the harvest." and Lombardy bringing forth toads and lizards in almost the same words as Topsell, from whom he may have quoted.
"The men are to be killed, so that one man shall be
Porta must be accepted as an undoubted authority on this, as on every other subject he treats of, for he says in his bombastic preface: "I never
W. J. C.
MOTHER SHIPTON (4th S. ii. 83, 117.)-I learn from a book entitled Rambles in an Old City (Norwich), that there lived in the parish of Irstead, some twenty years ago, an old washerwoman named Lubbock, who told so many wise saws and good tales to the rector of that parish that he published them in the Journal of the Norfolk Archeological Society. Mrs. Lubbock is stated to have remembered several of the historical prophecies of Mother Shipton and her sister Mother Bunch. Amongst others is the following, which I think quite explains the meaning of the picture in the old Crown and Woolpack Inn, near to Stilton:
I regret that I cannot refer to the Journal my-
SIR WALTER RALEIGH'S DESCENDANTS (4th S. ii. 164.)-I can throw no light on the search of your correspondent MR. ELWES, but think that it may interest him and others to know that at The Priory, Bodmin, Cornwall, is what is said to be, and has all the appearance of being, an original portrait of Sir Walter Raleigh, hanging near another of his noble-hearted half-brother, Sir Humphry Gilbert. The present owner of The Priory, Colonel Walter Raleigh Gilbert, is a lineal descendant of the latter. A pedigree (of the truth Gilbert (temp. Edw. II.), the common ancestor of of which I have no means of judging), from Thomas Raleigh and Gilbert, is given in the Complete Parochial History of Cornwall, now in course of