interment throughout Scotland, a fourth figure thus (), is sculptured on a number of tombstones. The emblem is used by the guildry of Stirling. There are many theories respecting the nature and origin of the emblem; but I am desirous of eliciting the views of your readers. The subject is curious.

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. Snowdoun Villa, Lewisham, S.E.

Queries with Answers.

SAINT ANDREW's, SCOTLAND.-Who was William Bonar, prior of St. Andrew's? when was he elected, and when and where did he die? James de Binst, Bishop of St. Andrew's, died at Bruges Sept. 22, 1332; and was buried in the church of St. Bartholomew, belonging to the Augustinian canons of the abbey of Echout, beneath an altartomb in touchstone adorned with the recumbent effigy of this prelate, beneath a canopy. Who was this bishop, and when was he elected and consecrated? W. H. JAMES WEALE. Bruges.

[1. William Bonar succeeded Haldenstone in 1443, and ruled the priory of St. Andrew's for nineteen years, a simple-minded man, who did many good deeds in his day. He furnished and adorned the library with necessary books, and expended much in aid of the poor. He supplied, at considerable expense, great and small instruments for the choir; as also, the best red cape or large hood woven with gold, which is used on the chief festivals. He died in 1462, and is buried at the aspersarium, where the holy water is sprinkled, under the brazen tablet.

2. James de Binst we take to be James de Bane, Bishop of St. Andrew's, A.D. 1328–1332, the successor of Bishop Lamberton:

"When dead was William of Lambertoune,
Next him in successioune,
Byshop was made Jamys Ben
Archdeacon of Sanct Andrewys then.
Four yearis and monethis twa
Byshop he was, nought ou'r tha
Lasting into lyfe three dayis,
As of him the Chronykle sayis."

That is, he was bishop no longer than four years, two months, and three days.

In the year 1331, David II. and his wife, Johanna, daughter of Edward II., were both crowned by Bishop Bane at Scone; on which occasion the ceremony of anointing was first used in crowning the kings of Scotland. But the prospects of David and his adherents met with a sudden and unexpected blow. For Edward Baliol, the son of the late King John, being persuaded to try his fortune in Scotland, came over from the Continent the following year; and having succeeded in gaining the battle of Dupplin, was immediately after crowned king at Scone by the Bishop of Dunkeld. In this state of things, both David and the Bishop of St. Andrew's were com

pelled to seek refuge—the former in France, the latter in
Flanders. The bishop did not long survive this calamity;
for, in September the same year, he died, and was buried
in the Augustinian monastery at Bruges, the following
words being inscribed on his monument: "Hic jacet
bonæ memoriæ Jacobus dominus de Bane episcopus Sancti
Andreæ in Scotia, nostræ religionis, qui obiit xxii. die
Sept. ann. dom. M.CCC.XXXII. Orate pro eo."
Wyntoun thus records the same event:
"That ilk year Jamys Ben,

The byshop of Sanct Andrewys then,
To Brugys past ow'r the sea;
His latter day there closed he.
In the abbey of Akount (there
Canons are foundyt regulare)
Interred well hys body lyis
His spyrit intil paradyse.

Sanct Andrewys see, yeares nyne
After that, was vacand syne."

The cause of the nine years' vacancy of the see alluded to by Wyntoun was, that Edward III. had recommended an ecclesiastic of his own to fill it, whom the pope refused to confirm. Vide Lyon's History of St. Andrew's, i. 163, 229, edit. 1843.]

CITT AND BUMPKIN.. The following curious titles of books by the above are before me. The subjects are as curious as the authors' pseudonym :

"Citt and Bumpkin, in a Dialogue over a Pot of Ale, concerning matters of Religion and Government. Small 4to, 1680."

"Citt and Bumpkin, or a Learned Discourse upon Lying and Swearing and other laudable qualities, tending to a Thorow Reformation, 4to, 1680."

title-page, which, even in those days, must have And the following, with a little change and a been considered coarse : —

"Crack upon Crack, or Crackfa*t whipt with his own own Rod, by Sitt and Bumpkin, a folio, 4 pages, printed for R. J. 1680."

At the risk of a little censure I will venture to transcribe, for the amusement of your general readers, a verse of four lines from the title-page, filling up the lacuna with an asterisk, as in the original :

"If Crackf*rt drawn unto the life you'ld see, Loe here he hangs in formal Effigie:

His Writings were so foul, as all suppose They'l Poison us! Good Reader, stop your nose." Who wrote these works? The latter appears to be a censure upon some other writer of a kindred character, but it looks very like Satan rebuking sin. GEORGE LLOYD.


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"IRISH WOLFHOUNDS.-Any reliable INFORMATION regarding the existence of this rare breed, in its original form, at the present time, will greatly oblige Captain Graham, of Rednock, Dursley."

I cut the above advertisement out of The Times of June 27; and being interested in the noble race of dogs mentioned, beg to reiterate Captain Graham's request, and ask for information from any reader of "N. & Q." who can furnish the same. I may as well mention that I am not writing in the interest of Captain Graham, as I have not the pleasure of that gentleman's acquaintance. LIOM. F. [In the Journal of the Geological Society of Dublin, Dr. Scouler has brought together the facts bearing on the Irish wolfhound; and for proof that the Irish wolfdog, Irish greyhound, Highland deerhound, and Scotch greyhound are the same, consult Wm. Scrope's Art of Deerstalking, pp. 334, 341, 342. See also Bell's British Quadrupeds, p. 341; Wm. Thompson's Natural History of Ireland, iv. 33-35; Dublin Penny Journal, July 7, 1832, p. 10; and June 15, 1833, p. 408; and "N. & Q.," 2nd S. xii. 88, 198; 3rd S. i. 158. For further information relative to the former abundance of wolves in Ireland, and the means adopted to prevent the export of "wolfdogges," see O'Flaherty's West or H-Iar Connaught, published by the Irish Archæological Society, and the editor's notes.]

JOHN SNARE'S WRITINGS ON VELASQUEZ.-Sir William Stirling Maxwell, in his interesting book, Velasquez and his Works (London, 1855, p. 32, note), speaks of the portrait of Charles I. done by the celebrated Velasquez, and quotes the following writings of Mr. John Snare:

"The History and Pedigree of the Portrait of Prince Charles, afterwards Charles I., painted by Velasquez in 1623. 8vo. Reading, 1847."

"Proofs of the Authenticity of the Portrait of Charles I. by Velasquez. 8vo. Reading, 1848."

"The Velasquez Cause. 8vo. Edinburgh, 1851." Sir William adds:

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works on epitaphs, that I have since then met with two copies of the work: one dated 1726, this extends to p. 280, but is evidently not complete; the other copy has a very different titlepage, and is dated 1727; and has an additional preface of six pages, and 384 pages of epitaphs, but certainly this last page is not the end of the volume one. It then commences volume two with 100 pages of epitaphs, but not complete; and twenty-three pages of index for the first volume. I shall be glad to know if any of your numerous readers have met with copies of this work containing more pages; and if So, how many complete the work as far as it was printed for each volume ? OLD MORTALITY.

[We have now before us three copies of this work dated 1727. Two of them end at p. 384, with an index of twenty-three pages. The third copy agrees with the preceding, but contains 100 pages of the second volume, at the end of which are two pages of "Books printed for B. Creake." We doubt whether any more was ever printed of the work.]

DR. GOLDSMITH.-In the Gentleman's Magazine for July, 1818, p. 21, it is mentioned:

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[Goldsmith's Life of Lord Bolingbroke was published anonymously by T. Davies in 1770; and with his name in Bolingbroke's Political Works, ed. 1786, vol. iv. prefixed to "A Dissertation upon Parties." Some account of it, as a literary production, is given by Mr. John Forster, in The Life and Times of Oliver Goldsmith, ed. 1854, ii. 255. Consult also The Monthly Review of Feb. 1771, xliv. 108.]

POEM WANTED.-Where is a poem upon the fall of the leaf to be found, written, I believe, by an English bishop? The first line was "See the leaves around us falling,"

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"fine and scarce," fetched 11. 1s. In the second volume of Evans's Catalogue of Portraits, it is marked scarce at 5s. There is also another portrait engraved by Grignion, which appears to be more common. We would advise our correspondent to apply to Mr. John Stenson, 1, Woodbine Terrace, Bridge Road West, Battersea, or to Mr. A. Nicholls, 4, Green Street, Leicester Square.]

SHETLAND AND ORKNEY GUIDE: THULE.-Can any one recommend me a good guide-book to the Shetland and Orkney Islands? I should be greatly obliged if some correspondent who is acquainted with this remote part of the world would favour me with an early reply. Apropos of this, were the Shetlands or the Faroe Islands the Ultima Thule of the ancients? JON. BOUCHIER.

5, Selwood Place, Onslow Gardens, S. W. [We can only refer our querist to Murray's Guide to Scotland, in which he will find information respecting Shetland and the Orkneys. The same too may be said of

Black's Guide.

For Thule see our 2nd S. vols. iv. v. and ix.]



(4th S. i. 394.)

I do not see that D. J. K. has proved his point. He has not proved that Calvin passed the sentence of death, which alone could in my idea cause him to be guilty of Servetus' death. The question is, Did he, or did he not, pass sentence? He did not. It is true he was earnest in having him punished, which is the worst that can be said against him. D. J. K. acknowledges that the court condemned him. Calvin was only acting like the counsel for the prosecution, and the responsibility of the whole matter rested with the judges. Surely D. J. K. would not say that every counsel who acts for the crown in a trial for murder is the murderer of the accused should he be condemned? The first quotation is only the expression of a man who has the idea that an infidel, such as Servetus undoubtedly was, should even be put to death if necessary. Besides, Calvin, we must remember, had been early taught that persecution should always follow those who held views contrary to the received doctrines of the Church of Rome. Is it any wonder, then, that his ideas remained the same on this point, although he had changed them in other respects?

It is well known, as D. J. K. himself hints, that_Servetus would have been put to death by the Inquisition. Calvin then, supposing he was the cause of his death, only carried out what the Inquisition intended to have done.

Knowing, as Calvin did, that the Inquisition had condemned Servetus, the third point loses its force; for when he says that he was the means of having him put in prison, we must remember

he was only causing a condemned prisoner who was on the point of escaping to be recaptured. He was not causing an innocent man to be put in prison, but one already condemned, and for whom search had been made several weeks.

Calvin is accused of extracting opinions from Servetus for which he was afterwards condemned. If Calvin translated these opinions correctly to the judges (and D. J. K. does not accuse Calvin on this ground), and if these opinions in the judges' estimation were heretical, and therefore, according to their idea, punishable, I do not see

how Calvin can be said to have condemned him. The judges, having heard the matter, condemned him.

The sixth point has no weight whatever. Was Calvin, thinking and knowing, as he did, that Servetus was an infidel, and that his arguments were false, to allow those arguments to go forth unanswered? He would have been supporting Servetus, had he not proved his arguments erroneous. Does D. J. K. mean to say that Calvin ought to have allowed Servetus' arguments to have passed unanswered, and so allowed the world to think him orthodox, because by refuting them there was the chance of the man being condemned? Surely truth is above all price, especially in religion. That the result of it all was the death of the unfortunate man, has nothing to do with it. Was Calvin justified or not in refuting him? He was.

I do not see that D. J. K.'s seventh point proves anything. He certainly cannot show that he actually did influence the judges; and when he states that he hopes Servetus will soon meet with his proper punishment, he is saying nothing more than anyone else might say concerning any person on writing to his friend.

When Servetus made the statement quoted in D. J. K.'s eighth point, he had not been finally tried. He is objecting to the civil court trying him.

And now for the other side. It appears that Calvin first took objectionable passages from Servetus' book: these were given to him to answer. Calvin again read the replies, and answered them, and Servetus again had the privilege of replying. When all this had been done, the arguments, according to Servetus' wish, were sent to the other cantons-to Berne, Basil, Zurich, and Schaffhausen-for their consideration and judgment. The answer came that Servetus was to be restrained, and prevented from spreading his opinions. It was after all this that the council of Geneva unanimously condemned Servetus, and they decreed, even contrary to Calvin's wish and the wishes of the authorities of Basil, that he should be burnt.

I can assure D. J. K. that, in sending the note on Servetus, I had no intention of doing any

injustice to the Popular Educator, which needs no
praise to recommend it. Yet it seems hard that
Calvin should be accused of causing the death of
Servetus, when all that can be said against him
is that he was too zealous.
E. L.


(4th S. i. 580.)

The following details, derived from a collection of Welsh MS. pedigrees in my possession, refer to a William Wynne, serjeant-at-law, temp. George II., and may perhaps elucidate, if not solve, MR. SERJEANT WOOLRYCH's query. They do not, however, supply the specified desideratum as to birth-place.

Hugh Gwynn, living 1649, in common with the Owens of Orieltown baronets, derived from Hwfa ap Cynddelew, Lord of Llyslyffon, who joined his father to sell Gwaenfynydd to Sir John Bodvel, Knt., was by Ellen, his wife, daughter of Robert ap John ap William of Tredolphin, father, with an elder son John Wynne, who o. s. p., and a daughter Dorothy married to Bennett of St. Albans, of a second son, "Owen Wynne, LL.D., of London," probably the individual mentioned in the following extract from Sketches of the Lives of Eminent English Civilians, 12mo, London, 1804, p. 105:

"Owen Wynne, January 22, 1694. By the will of Sir Leoline Jenkins all the papers of the deceased were left to Owen Wynne, LL.D., who it appears had been his secretary at Cologne and Nimeguen, and one of the under secretaries of state. This is perhaps the person in our register who, when he ceased to be employed by the government, might be inclined to undertake the profession of an advocate."

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"William Wynne, Nov. 3, 1757. On the promotion of Sir James Marriott to the chief seat in the Court of Admiralty, Dr. Wynne, who was at that time Chancellor of Durham, became the King's advocate. He also held the office of Vicar-General to the Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chancellor of London. When the decease of Dr. Calvert occasioned more important vacancies, no person was better qualified to supply his place than Dr. Wynne; who was thereby immediately elevated to the two dignities, honoured with knighthood, and enrolled among the Privy Counsellors of his sovereign. In addition to these appointments, he possesses the Mastership of Trinity Hall, which was lately vacated by the death employments is the wish of all who have a due regard of Sir James [sic]. That he may long enjoy his high for professional ability and private worth.”


Among others of whom he has " a very scanty formation concerning "William Salkeld, temp. account," MR. SERJEANT WOOLRYCH asks for inQueen Anne." In Hutchins's History of Dorset, i. 91 (ed. 1774), he will find Fife-Hide Neville was purchased by "William Salkeld, Esq., Serjeantat-Law; descended from a very ancient family in Cumberland, a very eminent lawyer, author of two volumes of reports (1717), reprinted 1735; and William Salkeld, Esq., now possesses this property."

Having known the family of Salkeld as a neighbour and friend for three or four generations, I shall have pleasure in giving SERJEANT WOOLRYCH all the information which is to be gathered from the family records and old parchments con

The Owen Wynne, LL.D., of the Gwaenfynydd line, was father by Dorothy, who died in 1724, daughter of Luttrell, of four daughters, Kathe-cerning this “eminent lawyer." As my commurine, Mary, Elizabeth, and Sarah- not indicated as married at the date of the pedigree-and of one son:-" William Wynne, Esq., barrister-atlaw in 1723; serjeant-at-law in 1736; died in 1765." The life of Sir Leoline Jenkins was written by "William Wynne, Esq.," probably this individual; the papers of Sir Leoline having been, as above stated, bequeathed to his father, Owen Wynne. Serjeant William Wynne, of the Gwaenfynydd family, married Grace, daughter of Bridges, serjeant-at-law, and had three children, viz.: 1. Edward Wynne, Esq., barrister-at-law, 1765; 2. Luttrell Wynne, Fellow of All Souls' College, Oxford, 1765; 3. A daughter, unnamed. Can any of the correspondents of "N. & Q." render less incomplete the above details, and continue the descent?

It may be observed that the arms attributed to Hwfa ap Cynddelen, borne by the Owens of Orielton, as also probably by the Wynnes of

nication would be too voluminous for a note in your publication, the SERJEANT had better communicate with me personally, 9, Queen's Gardens. However, I will mention a few facts that will be perhaps interesting to your readers. His eminence in an age proverbially eminent for learned and literary men would have been better known had his great-grandson William sent the lawyer's portrait (an oil painting) or a sketch in crayons, the most expressive likeness as he supposes, to the Kensington Portrait Gallery (now on view), as his friends wished him to do, and recorded in the catalogue by the secretary that a memorial tablet, at his decease, was set up in the Temple church to his memory. He died at the early age of thirty-six years. The name Salkeld is evidently derived from the parish of Great Salkeld, Cumberland, where there still remains a curious fortified border church, with chambers and a keep in the tower, well worth the notice of architectural

antiquaries; and to modern historical students it may be interesting to be informed that the Chief Justice, the late Lord Ellenborough, was born at Great Salkeld. QUEEN'S GARDENS.

MR. WOOLRYCH is welcome to the subjoined note; and if he could add to the information about Sir John Darnell, Sen., I should be glad to hear from him, as he claims a place among the "Worthies of Herefordshire":

Tristram Conyers, born 1619, eldest son of Serjeant William Conyers of Copthall, co. Essex; educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, which he left in 1635. He does not seem to have graduated at any university. He was father of Šir Gerard Conyers, Lord Mayor of London.

Sir John Darnall was son of Sir John Darnall of the Inner Temple, King's Serjeant (who died Dec. 1706), and grandson of Ralph Darnall of Loughton's Hope, near Pembridge, co. Hereford. He was made a serjeant in 1714, knighted 1724, and died Sept. 5, 1731; buried at Petersham. His elder daughter (by his wife, the daughter of Sir Thomas Jenner, Knt.) married Lord Chief Baron Orde, whose present representative is the Rev. Daniel Capper of Lyston Court in Hereford


C. J. R.

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πῶς κεδνὰ τοῖς κακοῖσι συμμίξω, λέγων
χειμῶν ̓Αχαιῶν οὐκ ἀμήνιτον θεοῖς ;
[ξυνώμοσαν γὰρ, ὄντες ἔχθιστοι τὸ πρὶν,
πῦρ καὶ θάλασσα,] καὶ τὰ πίστ ̓ ἐδειξάτην,
φθείροντε τὸν δύστηνον 'Αργείων στρατόν.

I have been told by a friend that this motto was the impromptu suggestion of one of the Fellows of Trinity, Oxford. The same gentleman must have had a vein this way, for in describing a contention which he had witnessed between the then master of Baliol (Dr. Jenkyns) and his little restive cob, he described the issue in the words of Virgil, "Pronusque magister volvitur in caput."


E. H. A. spoils the metre here by omitting two words. The passage is,—

ξυνώμοσαν γὰρ, ὄντες ἔχθιστοι τὸ πρὶν,
πῦρ καὶ θάλασσα.

Eschyl. Agam. 650.

The bishop's application of it to the steam-boat is admirably ingenious; and this passage is remarkable for its strong prosopopæia; one of the subjects being neuter and the other feminine, the participle is masculine. LYTTELTON.

[We have to thank several other correspondents for similar replies.-ED.]

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SACKBUT (3rd S. xii. 331, 530.)-I marvel that your two correspondents have not seen the punning allusion. The man was not brazenly impudent, but a drunkard, Bacchi plenus, one who had his skin full of wine, a hogshead, nay, a whole butt of sack. The name would be the more happily applied if he were as senseless as a butt, and snored withal. In a somewhat similar strain Prince Hal calls his fat friend "a tun of a mana huge bombard of sack." Another jocular phrase was drawn from the resemblance between Ebrius and Ebræus. In French slang a drunken man was one "qui savait l'Hebreu," or, as we say," says Cotgrave, "learned," a phrase drawn from the same source, or from the deep dipping into Bellarmine. More probably, however, from the same source; for, first, the word Ebrew seems to be played upon in this sense by Dekker in the Gull's Hornbook; and, secondly, because there is an evident intent to amuse the audience by a stage-unintentional equivoque, when Falstaff, already "on," or drunkenly merry, asseverates, after the manner of many a hiccupper, "I am a rogue if I have drunk to-day," and immediately after contradicts Peto with, "You rogue, they were bound, every man of them, or I am a Jew else, an Ebrew Jew." It is not unlikely too that in the Two Gentlemen of Verona the laughter was intended to be increased by a similar allusion, and by a doubleshotted joke, when Launce says, "If thou wilt go with me to the alehouse, so; if not, thou art an Hebrew [Ebrew], a Jew, and not worth the name of a Christian. B. NICHOLSON.

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GIST (4th S. i. 579.) The sound of g before e and does not follow any very exact rule. It is, however, certain that g in Anglo-Saxon was never soft, though under certain circumstances it had a y sound. On the other hand, g in French, when followed by e or i, is never hard. Hence the strict rule would be this: that the sound of g should be hard in all cases and before all vowels in words of Anglo-Saxon origin, the letter y being used in its place in certain words that require the alteration, such as year from Anglo-Saxon gear; but g should be soft before e and in words of French or Latin origin. The following are examples of the first kind-viz. get, gear, geck, geld, geese, giddy, gift, giggle, gild, gill (of a fish), gird, give; and the following are examples of the second and more numerous kind—viz. gem, gender, general, gentle, genus, germ, gesture, giant, gill (a measure), ginger, gipsy. The derivation of gist is very

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