head of such a force as enemies shall tremble to face, and thus subdue the meditated treason without even unsheathing a sword."

7. Wilfred bowed in submission, well knowing how vain it was to contend with the wild spirit of chivalry which so often impelled his master upon dangers which he might easily have avoided.

From the forest Richard and Ivanhoe, with their followers, soon after wended their way to the Castle of Coningsburgh. The king was welcomed

there by Cedric the Saxon.

8. We have not space to describe all that took place in the castle during the king's visit. Suffice it to say that Richard claimed fulfilment of Cedric's promise to grant him a boon. The king craved forgiveness for Cedric's son, Wilfred of Ivanhoe.

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Thou hast it, my son," said Cedric, as Ivanhoe knelt at his father's feet. "I have promised, and the son of Hereward knows how to keep his word, even when it has been passed to a Norman."

9. Soon after this scene Ivanhoe suddenly disappeared from the castle, and could not be found. It was discovered that a Jew had been to seek him, and that, after a brief conference, he had called for Gurth and his armour, and had left the castle.

King Richard too disappeared, no one knew whither. At length it was learned that he had hastened to the courtyard, and summoned to his presence the Jew who had spoken with Ivanhoe. After a moment's speech with him he had called vehemently to horse, thrown himself upon a steed, compelled the Jew to mount another, and set off

at a rate which, according to Wamba, rendered the old Jew's neck not worth a penny's purchase.

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1 Par-tial-ly, partly.

Notes and Meanings.

Glade, open space in a wood. Sil-van at-tend-ants, foresters. Ret-i-nue, train of attendants. Knight er-rant, wandering knight seeking adventures. De-mean', behave; conduct. 2 Rich-ard Plan-tag-e-net,


Richard I., the second king of the Plantagenet line. The name is derived from Planta genista, the Latin term for the shrub we call broom, which was worn by his ancestor the first Earl of Anjou when a pilgrim to the Holy Land. 3 Meed, reward; due. [boring holes 4 Bod-kin, small instrument used for

6 Hom-i-ly, sermon; advice.
Med-i-tat-ed, intended; planned.
7 Wend-ed, went.

Con-ings-burgh, now a ruin on the
bank of the river Don.

8 Boon, gift; favour.

Her-e-ward, a Saxon leader who, at
the Conquest, 1066, took refuge in
the Isle of Ely, where, surrounded
by marshes, he long defied William
the Conqueror.

9 Con-fer-ence, talk.
Ve-he-ment-ly, urgently.

Not worth a penny's purchase, so
likely to be broken that no one
would risk a penny on the chance
of the Jew's safety.

Summary:-When Wilfred of Ivanhoe appeared on the scene, and saw the marks of blood on the king, and the dead bodies of some of those who had attacked him lying around, he asked the king why he vexed the hearts of his faithful servants by exposing himself to such dangers. Richard said the time for concealment was near an end. He and Ivanhoe paid a visit to Ivanhoe's father, Cedric the Saxon. There the king persuaded Cedric to forgive his son. Soon after, Ivanhoe disappeared after an interview with Isaac the Jew. he was missed, King Richard also departed, in the company of the Jew.

Exercises: 1. Write all you know about Robin Hood.

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2. Explain-"Richard saw his embarrassment;" Treason hath met its meed;" "Richard and Ivanhoe wended their way.'

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3. The Greek prefix hyper signifies above, over, beyond-as, hypercritical, over critical; hyperbole, a figure by which anything is magnified beyond the truth. Make sentences containing hypercritical, hyperbole.



William Shakespeare, the greatest of dramatic poets, was born at Stratford-on-Avon (Warwickshire) in 1564. Having got into trouble in his native town, he went to London, and lived there as actor, playwright, and poet, from 1586 till 1613. During these years he wrote, besides non-dramatic poems, upwards of thirty dramas, which put him in the foremost rank of the poets of the world.

His chief dramas are Hamlet, Macbeth, Julius Cæsar, King Lear, A MidsummerNight's Dream, The Merchant of Venice, Romeo and Juliet, and The Tempest. He retired to Stratford in 1613, and died there in 1616.



Dictator of Rome.

OCTAVIUS CESAR, grand-nephew of Julius...) Triumvirs after the

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A Soothsayer, Senators, Citizens, Attendants, etc.


1. It was high holiday in Rome (44 B.C.), and the streets were filled with crowds eager to welcome Julius Cæsar, who was to make his triumphal entry into the city, on his return from a victorious campaign. Cæsar was the most famous soldier of his time. He had conquered Gaul (now France); and he had twice visited Britain with an army, and had made it known to the civilized world.

2. He had now returned from Spain, where he had crushed a rebellion raised by the sons of Pompey, his late rival; and the Roman senate and Roman

people vied with each other in heaping honours on him. He had been made Consul (or head of the Republic) for ten years, and then Dictator for life; and all Rome had turned out into the streets to applaud the conquering hero.

3. But there were some among the foremost men in the State who were jealous of Caesar's great power. He had all the authority of an emperor, and many suspected him of desiring the title also. Among the leading men the one most jealous of him was a general named Caius Cassius-a man of an envious and fiery spirit. He formed a conspiracy against Cæsar, and was anxious to draw the noble Brutus into it.


4. While Cæsar is passing in triumph through the crowded streets, Cassius takes the opportunity to talk with Brutus, in order to sound him.


they stand together in conversation, a noise of shouting is heard, and is several times repeated.

Bru. What means this shouting? I do fear, the


Choose Cæsar for their king.


Ay, do you fear it?

Then must I think you would not have it so.

Bru. I would not, Cassius; yet I love him well.

5. Suspecting that Cassius has some special reason for detaining him apart from the rest, Brutus begs to know what it is. Thus urged, Cassius discloses his secret jealousy of Cæsar :

Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world

Like a Colossus, and we petty men

Walk under his huge legs, and peep about

To find ourselves dishonourable graves.

Brutus, and Cæsar: what should be in that "Cæsar"? Why should that name be sounded more than yours? Write them together, yours is as fair a name; Sound them, it doth become the mouth as well; Weigh them, it is as heavy; conjure with 'em,"Brutus" will start a spirit as soon as "Cæsar."

6. Brutus owns that he, too, has sometimes had the same thoughts, and promises to weigh well what Cassius has been hinting. But their conversation is checked by the reappearance of Cæsar and his train, for the games are ended. As they pass, Brutus plucks Casca by the sleeve, and asks him why Cæsar's looks are so sad. Casca tells them that Mark Antony had offered crown three times, which he had thrice refused, though with evident reluctance; and that every time he refused

Cæsar a

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