when we compare another's strength and 2 feet deep, which is lined with with cur own weakness, we cannot clay, that it may be impervious to avoid a sentiment of fear, and even of water. In the bottom of this pit is shame, in contrasting our own imper- placed a layer of peats, which is cofection with the qualities of a more vered over with thin turfs, and above perfect being

these the pit is filled with the collec(To be concluded in our next.)

ted sleech ; the surface of which is laid perfectly horizontal, except at

the edges, where it is somewhat eleAcesunt of the Mode of manufacturing bason is now filled with water, either

vated to form a kind of bason. This SEA practised in Annandale

, along the salt or fresh, as circumstances admit, Coast of the Solway Firth. By the which, covering the whole surface, Rev. Henry Duncan, Minister of gradually pervades the mass, and coz Ruthwell.

ing through the filter of turf, carries

with it in its passage the solution of From Singers's Survey of Dumfrics-shire.

salt. Having reached the clayed SLEECH, as it is provincially cal. bottom, it finds channels formed for

led, is a kind of alluvial soil, fre. it in every direction by the peats, and, quently found on the sea-shore, and running along the clay, it issues from in rivers washed by the tide, and a spout into a reservoir of wood*, seems to be a composition of clay and whence it is carried in pails to the sand, with marine exuviae : it is suffi- salt-pans. These pans, which are ciently loose and porous to imbibe the made of sheet iron +, are placed on sea-water without decomposition, and bricks about 20 inches from the hence, on the flowing of the tide, it ground, in such a manner as to admit becomes saturated with a solution of a fire of peats beneath them. This salt. The heat of the sun in the is usually done in a very slovenly and warm days of summer evaporating the inartificial way, so as to occasion moisture, leaves on the surface of the much waste of heat, and of course to sleech, thus impregnated, the saline make the expense of fuel greater than particles visible to the eye, like a is necessary. The pans are commonslight powdering of snow, or of hoar ly about 4 feet long, 3 feet broad, frost. When this appearance takes and 5 inches deep. After boiling six place the salt-maker begins his la- hours the water is completely evapebours. His first care is to collect the rated, and about four stones of salt sleech proper for his purpose ; this he are drawn from each pan. effects by means of an implement This mode of manufacturing salt is named hap, a kind of sledge-drag, very laborious, and there are some fornished with a sharp edge at that circumstances which preclude the pospart which touches the ground, and sibility of its ever being carried on to drawn by a single horse. By this a great extent. In the first place, operation the whole salt-bed, as it is the salt-beds are limited in point of technically called, is deprived of its

size, surface to the depth of about the eighth part of an inch ; and the im.

* The strength of the brine is tried from pregnated sleech, thus scraped togeth- time to time by floating an egg. Whcù er, is afterwards carried in carts to a three-quarters of the egg are found to be station on the beach, near the salt-cot, covered by the brime, the filtering is stopwhere it is put up in a large heap

ped. ready for use. A pit is next prepa. these pans were made of lead, but she's

+ Till within these ten or twelve years red, about 18 feet long, 4 feet broad, iron is found to answer better.

size, being confined to a narrow stripe with which he is enabled, during the of a few miles, lying between Lock summer months, to cultivate his erwood, in the parish of Ruthwell, small patch of ground, to collect the and Priestside, in the parish of Cum- impregnated sleech, and to lead home bertrees : and within these bounds, the peats necessary for the family fire, only small spots here and there are and for evaporating the brine. Beproper for the purpose of salt-making. sides this threefold employment on In the next place, the operation de the shore, in the peat-moss, and in pends so entirely on the state of the the field, which affords sufficient ocweather, that when the season proves cupation for one half of the year,

these rainy or lowering, no sleech worth file people find useful labour' for their tering can be procured. It seldom horses in winter by carrying peats for happens that the salt-beds are in a sale to the neighbouring burgh of proper state for scraping with the hap Annan, and by leading to such pieces till the middle of June, and even then of moss-land as they judge best adapthis operation can only be carried on ted for cultivation, the sleech from when the tides are low, and in the which they have previously filtered afternoons of bright sunny weather. the salt, and which they have found Hence the average of days in which by experience to produce an excellent properly impregnated slecch can be effect on that kind of soil. In this gathered is not more than twvelve of manner nearly twenty poor families fourteen, and only a few hours can are subsisted by combining occupabe occupied in this process each day. tions, any one of which would have Indeed it sometimes happens, that been inadequate to their support. In nearly a whole season passes without the parish of Ruthwell, the business is furnishing a single favourable hour, in the hands of more substantial farmFrom this statement it appears obvi- ers, and the sandbeds are of a better ous, that the manufacture of salt from quality, on which account it is consleech is too limited and precarious an ducted on a scale somewhat more exemployment to be depended on as the tensive. In the two parishes nearly means of subsistence, and it is, there- forty salt - pans are employed; but fore, considered merely as subsidiary were we, from this circumstance, to to other occupations of more certain form an estimate of the extent to profit. All the Annandale salt-ma- which the manufacture is carried, we kers possess farms, generally of small should be led to a very erroneous conextent, which they cultivate as their clusion. The circumstances already proper employment, and to these the mentioned will be sufficient to conliberty of making salt is merely an vince any person of the truth of this appendage, from which the landlord observation, whilst they shew the difreaps no benefit. In the parish of ficulty of arriving at any accurate Cumbertrees the salt-makers possess knowledge of the average quantity of pendicles, consisting only of tirenty salt annually manufactured in that disor thirty acres of arable ground. trict. These are situated on a narrow stripe The Annandale salt is of such inof land, bounded on one side by the ferior quality, that it is sold at half sea, and on the other by an extensive the price of common salt. This propeat-moss. The manner in which ceeds partly, if not wholly, from the the inhabitants of this barren spot slovenly n.anner in which the manucontrive to gain a hard-earned sub- facture is performed. The filter of sistence is peculiar to themselves, and turf and peat, universally employed, exc usively adapted to their situation, pollute and discours the brine, and Each tenant se ps a pair ofberses, communicates a blackish unge to the


[ocr errors]

salt itself. This, I should think, ence with the Annan. From thence might be easily and cheaply reme- it gradually advanced by the farm of died, by substituting in their stead Dyke, and ascended the ridge of Lochstraw or moss (fog) laid on bricks or house, and thence to the pass at the brushwood. It would at least be top of Arickstanebrae, advancing to worth while to make the experiment, Newton in Lanarkshire. The other In the present state of the manufac- line of road passed westward, after ture, however, the salt has been found crossing the Annan above the conto be extremely well suited to the cu fiuence of the Dryfe, and proceeded ring of bacon and hams, and it is sup- by Annisfield house, Duncow, and posed to communicate a peculiar Dalswinton, advanced up the river sweetness and juicyness to the meat it Nith, on the east side by Thornhill, is employed to cure.

crossed the water of Carron, and then turned away to the north, entering the marrow pass or defile in the moun

tains above Durresdeer, called the Roman Roads passing through Dum- Wellpath, and going down Powtrail FRIES-SHIRE.

water on the left side, to its confluence (From the Same.)

with the Daer. On the west of the

Daer-water it then proceeded on to TWO lines of road appear to have Elvanfoot, where the Daer falls into

opened North Britain to the Ro- the Clyde; and thence by Crawford mans from South Britain. The wes- village, across the Clyde to Castle of tern road passed through Carlisle, and Crawford, where it met the branch intersected the county of Dumfries. that had proceeded up Annandale. At Longtown, in Cumberland, it sent Several remarkable stations occur off a branch by Netherby to Liddel in these lines of the great western Moat; and this branch, after crossing road, and some inferior side branches the Liddel, proceeded along the river are connected with them. One of Esk, on the eastern side, to Castle these diverges from the road leading D'er and Raeburn-foot, in Eskdale- to the Nith, and passes to the right Muir. The principal road crossed from it through Kirkmichael, where the river Esk at Longtown church, the minister's garden seems to have and the Sark at Borrowslacks, ad been a small station : another turns yancing by the west of Burranswork off to the west from the Nithsdale hill, and passing the river Milk at road, crossing the Nith, and passing the drove ford, between Scroggs and through Tynron by Scar-water. The the bridge, and proceeded by Lock most remarkable stations are those of erbie and Torwood-Muir, across the Burranswork, of Castle O'er and Dryle, a little way above its confluence Raeburnfoot, together with Agricola's with the Annan : here this road ap camp on the Torwood Muir, by Lockpears to have divided, sending up one erbie. The late Sir John Clerk was arm through Annandale northward, at great pains in tracing these lines, and another westward into Nithsdale. and to him the public are indebted Advancing upward along the east side for the discovery and description of of the river Annan, the main line some Roman stations and antiquities passed by Dinwoodic Green and Girth found by them. For the descriptions Head; crossed Wamphray water, and of them, one may consult his papers, proceeded northwards to Burnfoot, the Statistical volumes, and the Miliacross the Annan to the Roman en- tary Antiquities of the Romans in this trenchments at Tassiesholm, and Country, by the late Major-General tbence across Evan, above its conflu. Roy.



The construction of the Roman whenever we ventured to express any roads in Scotland (according to this doubts, we were invariably referred last quoted and celebrated work) was to the watching, to which Ann nearly as follows: In general, they Moore had been subjected, as a full were from 18 to 24 feet wide, and, and satisfactory refutation of our inwhere durable stones could be obtain- credulity, ed in plenty, the roads were formed On our arrival at Tutbury, we lost into a rough cause way or pavement, no time in proceeding to the dwelling not much elevated in the middle. of Ann Moore, whom we found sitWhen the materials consisted of coarse ting up in a bed so constructed as gravel or fragments of softer stone, scarcely to admit of her using the resuch as free-stone, they were laid on cumbent posture. She did not seem thicker, and in different strata. When in the least discomposed by our abthe materials were soft, and the stone rupt entrance; though, on reaching or gravel remote, they seem to have the house, some bustle was heard in made the roads wider, and to have the upper story, as if preparations raised them higher in the middle, put- had been making for our reception. ting on a thin coat of the best mate From the appearance of her countevials they could obtain on the top. nance, which was natural, and even

healthy, and from that of her upper Particulars of the Case of Ann Moore, examined very carefully, she might

limbs, abdomen, and back, which we called the Fasting-Woman of Tut be called rather thin; but many perbury. By A. Henderson, M. D. Physician to the Westminster Gen- much thinner. The abdomen was not

sons of her age, in perfect health, are eral Dispensary.

contracted, nor did it present any HAVING read the account of Ann peculiar appearance ; nor was the pul.

Moore, known by the appellation sation of the aorta more distinctly of the Fasting. Woman of Tutbury, I perceptible than it is in the generali. am induced to transmit to you the ty of persons. The lower extremities, particulars of a visit, which I had the however, seemed, to a certain extent, curiosity to pay her, with my friend wasted and paralytic; the puise was Mr Lawrence, and another gentleman, 94, firm and regular : both the hands when passing through Staffordshire, and feet were moist; her mouth, as far last summer; and to add a few re as we were permitted to examine it, marks on her proceedings, with a view shewed no deficiency of saliva ; and, to undeceive the Public in regard to on holding a mirror before her face, ber, and to expose the true character it wes immediately covered with coof her pretensions.

pious moisture. She spoke to us in a Previously to our visit, we had en. distinct and tolerably strong voice, deavoured to collect the opinions of and moved her arms and fingers with the neighbourhaod, concerning this considerable force. There was an case of alledged extraordinary absti- offensive urinous smell about the bed. nence. Of the medical gentlemen to In answer to the questions we put whom we addressed ourselves, the to her, she told us, that, on the 31st majority seemed sceptical on the sub- of October, she would be just 51 ject ; though it did not appear that years old ; that she had tasted no any very decisive means had been solid food for upwards of five years, used by them to prove the fact of im. and no drink for nearly four years, posture : but, among the common and had no desire for either ; that she people, there was the most implicit never even wetted her lips, except belief in the truth of the story ; and, when she washed her face, which


happened about once a week: that she hand, she affirmed, was hotter than had voided no urine since the week the other. before Easter three years, and no Among the circumstances that tend feces since that day (August 3.) five to invalidate many of the above asseryears : that she had not slept or lain tions, and, in particular, the statement down in bed for more than three respecting her prolonged abstinence, years: that she sometimes dozed, with the following may be mentioned : her head reclining on the pillow, but 1. The natural and healthy appearnever so as to forget lierself: that she ance of her face. had frequently blisters applied to the 2. The strength of her pulse, muscles, back of her neck, on account of a and voice. giddir.ess in her head, and that they 3. The moisture of her mouth, nostrils, rose and discharged plentifully; but eyes, and whole surface of the skin.-that, in general, she did not experience if the functions of the stomach were much uneasiness, nor feel pain, except entirely suspended, or even materially on pressure of the left hypochon- deranged, it is not likely that the drium : that when she took snuff, saliva would continue to be regularly which she did habitually, it produced supplied, since the flow of it depends a flow of mucus from the nostrils : so much on the healthy state of that that her hands were generally moist; organ; and, without taking into acand that she perspired freely over count the occasional discharges from the whole surface of the body, when blisters and other causes, it is obvious, she had fits. The nature of these fits that the exhalation from the lungs she did not explain. Her mouth, and surface of the body, which we according to her own declaration, she ascertained beyond the possiblity of was unable to open, because it occa- doubt, must occasion a correspondent sioned severe pain behind the jaws; drain from the internal parts. But but the lower jaw acted freely enough these excretions have been fouud to within the sphere in which she chose amount, in a healthy person, to more to move it in our presence, to shew than 65 ounces in the day. Allowa' that there was nothing defective in ing them to be reduced, by disease, to the articulations : the masseter and one half that quantity, it is evident temporal muscles were soft, and could that they would still be sufficient to not, therefore, resist its descent : be. consume the whole substance of Ann sides, it was evident, when she spoke, Moore in a very few weeks. that she could separate her teeth to 4. The entireness of her intellectual some extent, and that without giving faculties. - Long continued fasting any indications of uncasiness. Of has always been reckoned among all the fingers of the left hand, except the pre-disposing causes of insanity. the index, she said that she had lost In a case recorded by Tulpius, dethe use ; the middle finger, indeed, lirium supervened on the 12th day. she admitted, could be moved by ex The same occurrence took place in ternal force, not by volition. But that related by Dr Currie, though a while Mr Lawrence was examining considerable portion of nourishment the spot where she complained of had been conveyed into the system pain on opening her mouth, she by means of injections. And, in the was observed to use the finger in “ Remarkable Case” described by question without any difficulty. On Dr Willan, in the second volume of attempting to raise the two remaining the Medical Communications, much fingers, which were in a bent posture, confusion of mind was observable in she made some resistance, and com the latter periods of the disorder. plained of my hurting her. The left 5. Hegos notorious immoral characJan. 1813.


« VorigeDoorgaan »