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STATE OF THE BAROMETER, &c.
From Dec. 26th 1812, to Jan. 25th 1813, in the vicinity of Edinburgh.
1812. Barom. Thermom.] Rain. Weather Dec.
M. N. I. P.
27 30.5 28 30.25 44 45 29 30,1 45 47 30 30.05 44 47 31 29.7 46 49 Jan. 1 29.85 34 42 2 30. 37 45 3 30.25 36 43 4 30.2 42 47 5 29.9 42 46 6 29.5 49 7 29.91 36 8 29.35 39 9 29.66 35 10 30. 32 11 29.71 36 12 29.85 32 40 13 29.65 33 42 14 29.91 35 38 15 29.9 84 39 16 29.9 33 40 0.04 17 30.15 36 41 18 30.05 40 45 19 30.2 38 39 20 30.4 30 40 21 30.45 32 39 22 30.6 28 35 23 $0.5 32 39 24 30.49 3340 25 30.56 24 34
Quantity of Rain.................................1.36
Clear Showers Rain
EDINBURGH LITERARY MISCELLANY,
For JANUARY 1813.
Description of FORDEL HOUSE. F 'ORDEL HOUSE is the Seat of Sir John Henderson, Bart.; a Gentleman well known by his extensive property, and political influence. It is situated in the western part of the county of Fife, a few miles to the north of Inverkeithing, and to the west of Dunfermline. A large proportion of the coal, which is so abundant in this district, is found within the limits of Sir John Henderson's property, and it makes a very important addition to the family estate.
Accounts of the Mode of transplanting Fruit Trees, and preserving Fruit. From Memoirs of the Caledanian Horticultural Society. No. II.
On transplanting large Fruit Trees, whether Wall Trees, Espaliers, or Standards.
By Mr JAMES STEWART, Gardener to Sir JOHN HOPE, Bart. Pinkie.
(Read Sept. 3. 1811.)
TH HE first thing claiming attention, is to prepare proper pits for the reception of the trees. They ought
to be of a size sufficient to admit of the roots being spread out at full length, with two feet additional, for encouraging the growth of new roots. If the trees are to be planted in borders which have been previously occupied by other trees, the soil should, if possible, be renewed; but if that cannot be accomplished, as was the case at Pinkie, a cart-load, at least, of fresh, good soil, from some old pasture, or ground that has not been in cultivation, (loam, if good, is to be preferred,) with a quantity of wellrotted dung, should be allowed to each tree, mixing the whole well with the old soil.
In transplanting large wall trees, begin with drawing a semicircle,.of extent according to the size of the tree should the branches cover from. 150 to 250 square feet of a wall, it may be eight feet in circumference, measuring from the trunk of the tree each way. Dig a trench round the semicircle three feet wide, and six inches below the roots: be careful in preserving the whole, and work out the earth from amongst them with a blunt three-pronged fork, throwing out the loose mould with the spade. Proceed thus till you have got fully under the
tree. The roots should be tied together loosely; the branches carefully loosened from the wall, and tied up in parcels, to prevent their being injured. The tree must then be conveyed to the place where it is to be planted. Place it upright in the pit, so as the surface roots may be level with the top of the border. Wellbroken earth is then to be packed in underneath, and for about a foot round the bottom of the trunk, to fill up all vacuities where roots originate. All the roots are then to be carefully spread out at full length, cutting off those that are dead, bruised, or knotty; the remainder to be cut smooth at the ends, and at different lengths; keeping some at full length, others at five, four, and three feet, and some even at one foot long; taking care to preserve as many of the small fibres attached to the leading roots as possible. Begin first at one side of the semicircle next to the wall, and lay out a set of the bottom roots in a level and fan direction, taking care to spread out the small fibres in regular order; cover this first layer with from 'two to three inches of mould, packing it well with the hand, then spread another layer above the former, pack. ing and covering as before, and so on till you finish at the top, never attempting to lay more at one time than can be readily reached with the hand; never setting a foot upon the roots that have been covered. In this way proceed with layer after layer until you reach the centre of the semicircle; then begin at the other side, and proceed as before, cover the whole with earth to the height of two inches above the level of the border; and after this, lay rotten dung three inches thick above all. A good watering should then be given, to settle the earth about the roots. A few board, may be laid at the bottom of the wall to prevent the roots being trodden upon, while nailing up the ees. The principal branches only
changed. On the wall-trees, espaliers, and standards, the crops were equally good. Many of the branches of the standards were quite pendulous with the load of fruit. Numbers of the wall and espalier trees measure from twenty to forty feet between the extremities of the branches, and are quite healthy. The principal kinds of trees transplanted, are Jargonelle, Winter Achan, Green Yair, and Carnock pears; and Hawthorndean, Nonpareil, Codling, Ribsten Pippin and Gogar Pippin apples. Mr Stewart's undertaking was perhaps the greatest of the kind ever attempted in this country: it has been most successful; and it is to be hoped that horticulturists will know how to appreciate so excellent an example. JAMES SMITH. PAT. NEILL."
Method of preserving Apples and
By Mr JAMES STEWART, at Pinkie. Mr Stewart having, at the quarterly meeting of the Society on 5th June 1810, produced specimens of various kinds of apples in the most perfect state of preservation, was requested to communicate his method of keeping fruit; and afterwards transmitted the following
The best time for gathering fruit is when it begins to drop off spontaneously. This is from the middle of September to the end of October. Ladders which will reach to the top of the trees must be provided; likewise baskets for the reception of the fruit. In plucking fruit, the best rule is to take what appears ripest in your hand, and raise it level with the foot-stalk; if it parts from the tree, lay it carefully into the basket, other wise let it hang. The trees should therefore be examined every three or four days.
In the fruitery, the fruit is to be
laid in heaps, and covered with clean cloths and mats above, or with good natural hay, in order to its sweating. This is generally effected in three or four days; and the fruit may be allowed to lie in the sweat for three or four days more. They are then to be wiped, one by one, with clean cloths.
Some glazed earthen jars must then be provided, with tops or covers; and also a quantity of pure pit sand, free of any mixture; this is to be thoroughly dried on a flue. Then put a layer of sand an inch thick on the bottom of the jar; above this a layer of fruit, a quarter of an inch free of each other. Cover the whole with sand to the depth of an inch; then lay a second stratum of fruit, covering again with an inch of sand, and proceed in this way till the whole be finished. An inch and a half of sand may be placed over the uppermost row of fruit. The jar is now to be closed and placed in a dry, airy situation, as cool as possible, but entirely free from frost.
The usual time at which each kind
of fruit ought to be fit for the table being known, the jars containing such fruit are to be examined, turning out the sand and fruit cautiously into a sieve. The ripe fruit may be laid in the shelves of the fruit-room for use, and the unripe is carefully to be replaced in the jars as before, but with fresh dried sand.
Some kinds of apples, managed in this way, will keep till July. Pears will keep till April; the Terling till June.
Proceedings of the EDINBURGH IN
A General meeting of the members
of this Institution was held in Mary's Chapel, on the 22d of December last, for the purpose of receiving communications on subjects connected with science, literature, and the arts: Dr James Millar in the Chair.
Among other communications the following were received:
1st, Account of a fact in Meteorology lately discovered by Mr John Hutton. In certain states of the atmosphere, a succession of small clouds appears over the summit of Arthur's Seat. Each of these clouds forms on the windward side of the hill, apparently about one hundred feet above the level of the summit, a line drawn perpendicularly from the centre of the summit, forming an angle of about 80°, with a line drawn from the same point to the place where the cloud begins to form on the windward side, and an angle of about 60°, with a line drawn from that point to the place where the cloud disappears on the leeward side. The cloud passes right over the summit. After an interval of two or three minutes, another is formed and disappears in the same way, and this continues. Mr Hutton first observed this phenomenon in the end of July last, about ten o'clock in the evening, the wind blowing moderately from W. by S. barometer 30. 11. He has observed it since, in August and September at different times of the day, and from different positions.
2d, Account of a portable printing press, invented by Mr John Ruthven, Edinburgh. In this contrivance, the pressure is produced by a wheel and pinion acting on the end of a small lever. It has apartments for holding ink, balls, and every other article necessary, and prints off a form not exceeding the size of a duodecimo page, with the greatest correctness and celerity. The press exhibited was about 21 inches long, 6 broad, and 10 high, weighed about 22 pounds, including the page of types, chase, balls, ink, &c. and was worked with great case. An extract from the minute of the night's proceedings was printed off by it in presence of the meeting, and distributed among the members. A press of
this kind might be employed with advantage by printers to execute small work, for which it appears to be much better adapted than the large press, and it would be found of much use in small towns, at a distance from any place where a press is established.
Sd, Account of an improved syphon, by Mr Archibald Kerr, mathematical instrument maker. This instrument consists of a syphon with a stopcock, and pump barrel, with a piston, valve, &c. The bottom of the barrel communicates with the inside, immediately above the stopcock, at the end of the long leg, for the purpose of extracting the air and filling the syphion. The syphon is filled in an instant, by one or two strokes of the pump with the hand, and the communication between the pump and the syphon can be cut off at pleasure by a stopcock. The principle is applicable to all sizes of syphons, and almost every kind of liquor may be drawn off with the utmost facility. Mr Kerr has already made many syphons on this plan, and they are found to save considerably both liquor and time. When constructed in this way, the difficulties attending the use of the common syphon are completely removed, and the instrument is rendered so perfect, that it will probably be found incapable of any farther improveinent. A small one was exhibited and worked in presence of the meeting.
4th, Account of another improved syphon, by Mr John Hutton. This syphon is extremely simple, and has been used by Mr Hutton with much advantage in his chemical manufactory. It has a stopper at the extre mity of the longer leg, and a valve opening inwards at the extremity of the other. It is filled in the usual way, by inverting it, and pouring in the liquor at one end. After this, the stopcock being shut, the syphon is placed in its proper position, with the end of the short leg immersed in