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for brewing Beer and Ale from Malt and Hops. This invention may be thus described there is an iron frame supported by iron legs, containing in the centre a fire-place, a door in front for supplying the fire, and, opposite, a neck projecting, on which is placed a funnel to convey the smoke where convenient. Above the fire-place is an iron rim with two handles for removing the whole machine. This rim - has a horizontal ledge fixed close to the circumference, a little below the top, on the inside, for the boiler to rest on. The iron cylindri cal boiler is tinned within; its bottom is a little convex within and concave without, with a discharging cock near the bottom, and two handles for taking it off the frame. The contents of the boiler, when filled within two inches of the top, are about eighteen gallons to every bushel of malt contained in the cylinder. There is also an iron cylinder to be placed within the boiler, and ranging with the top of it, and to stand about three inches from the bottom of the boiler, having a horizontal projecting rim fixed to its bottom, and reaching to the circumference of the boiler, but so as to admit of the cylinder passing easily in and out; and to the extremity of this rim, or a little within, underneath, is fixed a vertical rim, which when the cylinder is placed within, rests upon the bottom of the boiler: there are two handles at the top for lifting it out of the boiler. In the centre of this cylinder is a smaller cylinder without a bottom, fixed to the bottom of the large one; the whole tinned throughout, and the inner and outer cylinder and horizontal and vertical rims perforated with holes ths of an inch in diameter, and the bottom with holes th of an inch, or any less or greater magnitude, so that the malt does not fall through, nor the extraction be impeded; and from 4ths to an inch apart, or any less or greater distance, so that the ex
traction is not impeded. The relative dimensions of the cylinder to the boiler may be varied according to the proportion of malt and hops to the water. When it is intended to make about eighteen gallons of beer in two worts from one bushel of malt, and one pound of hops, the cylinder should be about ths of the diameter of the boiler, and the inner cylinder about
ths of the diameter of the larger one, There is of course a cover for the cylinder; there are also iron coolers, tinned within, with a plug-hole to let out the wort or liquor; one cooler made to rest within the other, for convenience of packing or putting away. They have each two iron shifting legs, which pass inside iron collars, fixed on the outside of the cooler, and have eyes at the top, for the convenience of lifting the cooler, which is made of sufficient length to admit the legs to lie within it when not in use.
The method of brewing beer or ale with the apparatus is this; the ground malt is put into a cylinder, not the centre one, the hops in the space between the cylinder and the boiler, and cold water poured through the centre cy. linder till it just covers the surface of the malt. The fire being lighted, an increasing heat is applied, that it may boil in about four hours, and kept boiling an hour longer, and then drawn off into a cooler. If more worts are required, cold water is supplied as before, and brought up to the boiling heat, &c. When the extraction is completed, the grains, hops, and cylinder, are taken out of the boiler, and the fire withdrawn; and, as soon as the worts are sufficiently cooled, they may be returned into the boiler with yeast to ferment, in the usual manner of working a tun. -Mr Needham observes, That his apparatus is also applicable to the purpose of extracting the virtue of grain for wash, and vinegar; the process of which is the same as brewing beer, omitting only the hops.
Monthly Memoranda in Natural History. EBRUARY.-The whole month has been open and mild, though remarkable for strong gales of wind, chiefly from the W. and S. W., and for sudden and extreme variations in the density of the atmosphere.
About the 10th of the month, snowdrops came in flower in gardens: these were followed by winter aconite and hepaticas on the 16th; and by the dog's-tooth violet on the 22d.
Sweet-scented Coltsfoot. In the Botanic Garden this fine new plant has been in flower, since the end of December, in the open border, where it braved the severe frosts of January. It will doubtless prove a great acquisition to our gardens. It is not indeed a shewy plant, the flower being not more ornamental than that of our native great coltsfoot or butterbur (Tussilago petasites,) and being, like it, a filius-ante-patrem, or plant that produces its flower before the leaf; but it appears at the most dead season of the year, when scarce another blossom enlivens the border, and in rich fragrance it is second to none. Its odour strongly reminds one of bitter almonds, or it resembles that of the well-known Peruvian turnsole (Heliotropium Peruvianum,) which often perfumes hot-houses; and, like the turnsole, a single flower-stalk of the tussilago scents a room. It is indigenous to the country around Naples, and was, it is believed, introduced into France, and first described, by Villars. It was cultivated in the Parisian gardens for some years before it reached London, which was in 1810. Hitherto it has been chiefly treated as a green-house plant; and in the green-house it begins to flower in the end of November. It is figured in the 34th vol. of Dr Sims's Botanic al Magazine, t. 1388; and it is described by Willdenow, in his edition of the Species Plantarum, under the title of Tussilago fragrans. N.
General Description and History of likewise secures the pass. Tsiompa the Empire of TUNKIN.
is a district engrafted in Cochin-China,
From Expose Statistique du Tunkin, de la Cochinchine, &c. par M. de la Rissachere. THIS empire is situated be
tween 9o and 23° north lat. and 115° 30′ and 127° 30′ lon. from Ferro Island. It borders on China to the north; on China also, and the Sea of China, a part of which is the Gulph of Tung-quin, on the east. To the south, it has the same Sea of China, and to the west, the kingdom of Siam. Tung-quin, the northern-most of its six subdivisions, lies between 17° to 23° of lat. and the degrees of longitude abovementioned: having Cochin-China and Laos to the south, the province of Canton to the north, the same province of the Chinese Sea, bere called the Bay of Tung-quin, to the east, and Laos and Lac-tho, and the Chinese provinces of Yun-an and Kuan-si to the west. Its capital, which was formerly called Keeho, is now better known by the name of Bac-Kinh*. Towards China, a large tract of desert intervenes, together with a chain of mountains, through which there is only one passage, secured by a wall. Cochin-China, to gether with Tsiompa and a part of Cambodia, presents an extensive range of coast, the land being no where more than 70, and in some places only 3 miles in breadth, and stretching from the 17th to the 9th degrees of N. lat. along the Sea of China. It is subdivided into the higher, middle, and lower districts.-Of the first, Phu Suan is the capital. Quin-hon, Qui-phu, and Say-gon are considerable towns in the other parts. A chain of mountains separates this country from Tung-quin, which, like that towards China, is pervious only in one place, where a strong wall
Cacho, and Ke-Cio are the names we find in Tavernier, Dampier, and the accounts of the missionaries.
Both these districts, especially Lactho, though of no great dimensions, were heretofore dignified by the appellation of Kingdoms.
Various chains of lofty mountains intersect this country. The most considerable extends north and south, and divides Tung-quin and CochinChina from Lac-tho, Laos, and Cambodia. Few countries, if any, have the advantage of so many, and some of them so considerable rivers; of which, above fifty in Tung-quin reach the Bay. One of the largest runs through Bac Kinh, to which place it is navigated by the Chinese Junks. The Cambodia iver is larger and more navigable than the last mentioned. Lac-tho and Laos have no rivers to boast of; and hence no commerce does, nor probably ever will extend to these regions. The Bay of Han or Thuron, well known by the description of Sir Geo. Staunton, is allowed to be one of the best stations for large ships in any part of the world. The road of St James, in lower Cochin-China, is inferior to that
Defective as the maps now extant of these countries undoubtedly are, we cannot help wishing that the author had indulged us with a slight sketch, with such corrections as his information would enable him to adopt.
that of Thuron, but is at this time mostly frequented by foreign vessels.
The island of Bien-Son has a safe road open to the west-ward. Mée is a woody island, which affords good shelter. Among a number of islands off the south of Cochin-China, Pulo Condor is the only one that is inhabited.
Meteorology. The greatest commendation is here bestowed on the climate of these and the adjacent countries: Qui n'a pas habité ces charmantes contrées, qui ne s'y est pas trouvé au milieu des jardins couverts d'orangers et d'arequiers, qui n'y a pas respiré au lever de l'aurore les premieres emanations de la nature renaissante, ne peut avoir qu'une idée imparfaite des sensations delicieuses dont nos organes sont susceptibles.'The extremes of heat and cold are seldom felt by the inhabitants of these happy regions. Periodical rains and the vicinity of the Sea, the number of rivers and canals, the wide spreading irrigations indispensably necessary for the cultivation of rice, all contribute to maintain a moderate temperature, which, while it is grateful to the human species, is singularly favourable to vegetation. An uncommon susceptibility has been observed in the atmosphere of these countries. The miasmata emitted by certain discases, the effluvia of corpses, and various deletory exhalations, often contaminate the air to a degree which proves detrimental both to animal and vegetable life, tarnishes metals, and even blunts the edge of sharp tools. The seasons, which with us are held to have quarterly periods, are here of unequal duration. December and January are the only winter months. Spring is confined to the month of February. The summer lasts through the seven months from March to September, and October and November are the regular autumnal months.— The summer heat is tempered by the rainy season from May to August.
The monsoons alternate in the north-
Geological view.-The eastern part of this country has an alluvial appearance, and on many parts of the coast of Tung-quin there are manifest proofs of a retrocession of the Sea. The nature of the soil, as in all large countries, varies considerably, according to the high, low, or sloping nature of the situation. Curious caverns, some of them of great magnificence, are found in several of the mountains.— The earth yields various metals, some gold and silver are found in the rivers and on the surface of the earth. Salt and saltpetre abound, the former being of a very good quality. The waters in the mountainous parts are hard, unpalatable, and generally unwholesome. A peculiar kind of worm rises in great multitudes out of the ground, after the periodical rains, and the retreat of the waters subsequent to the spring tides.
Anthropology. Although it be generally allowed that mankind proceeds from one original stock, yet accurate physiologists have thought themselves authorized to distinguish the human race into five distinct species, viz. 1. the Caucasian; 2. the Mogul Tartar; 3. the Ethiopian ; 4. the Malay; and 5. the American. The Tung-quinese are of the second species. They have high check-bones, a small noise, and little eyes sunk deep in the head. Their hair is long, lank, and black. Their skin of a tawny olive colour; but those who are not habitually exposed to the sun and open air, are nearly of the complexion of
of the southern Europeans. They stain their teeth black, and their lips of a bright red, which, to those unaccustomed to such disguises, presents a ludicrous appearance. The women are better featured than the men, and among those of Cochin-China, are many who may be considered as beauties. Red hair is singularly disliked by them: strangers of that complexiun, who happen to be chiefly English, are by them, in derision, called Red heads. They are healthy, but less robust than Europeans. They are not tall, but well proportioned. They love good eating, but they do not consume so much as we do. On a journey, they will often fast 24 hours, and sometimes even two days, without feeling any ill effects from such long abstinence. They allow themselves about 8 hours sleep-The women are thought to exceed the males in number. They are marriageable at the age of 12 or 13. Marriages are prolific, twins are frequent, and barrenness and miscarriages very rare. Among the few diseases they are liable to, ophthalmia is most frequent; fevers, dysenteries, and cutaneous eruptions also occur; but pleurisy, gout, gravel, or plague, are little known. The small-pox sometimes proves very destructive; the modes of mitigating its severity by inoculation or vaccine being unknown to them. Leprosy is often fatal; venereal complaints are known, but are not severe. They have among them some of those anomalies which have lately appeared among us under the name of Albinos. They are long lived, there being, perhaps, no country where so many persons may be found who have reached their hundredth year.
Population. The modes of estiating the number of inhabitants, which, among the most civilized nations, are in general sufficiently inaccurate, are in this country particularly erroneous.-The empire is said to Stain 23 millions of inhabitants,
whereof 18 millions are given to Tung.quin, 1 millions to CochinChina, 6 or 700,000 to Tsiompa, a million to Cambodia, and 6 or 700,000 to Lac-tho. The population of Laos is not mentioned. The province of Xunam, in the centre of Tong-quin, is the most populous. Bac-Kinh is thought to contain about 40,000, and Phu-Xuan'in Cochin-China, the residence of the present emperor, between 20 and 30,000 inhabitants. This being an agricultural country, the villages are more populous than the towns. Some of the former are said to contain upwards of 3000 inhabitants. It is well ascertained, that if destructive events did not intervene, the population would increase rapidly, and such events have of late been frequent and fatal :-few live single, and illicit connections are not frequent. Men are very desirous of having large families, children being considered as profitable accessions. Many are willing to marry young women pregnant by other men. Eunuchs having lately been banished from court, their number is considerably diminished. Polygamy is indulged chiefly among the higher ranks.
Arts and Manufactures. As the Tung quinese are unacquainted with most of the ingenious contrivan ces which facilitate and accelerate mechanical operations in other countries, we may well conclude, that the arts among these people and their neighbours, are comparatively in an imperfect state. They are not yet acquainted with the structure of wind-mills, nor do they know how to apply the effects of condensed vapour and the elasticity of air towards the contrivance of fire and steam engines. They are unacquainted with the use of ovens. The construction of their dams and bridges is very defective. In general, from a consequence of their inherent character, these people display far less imagination than sagacity: they have more aptitude for imitation