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PLATE XXXII.--THE wiNgs of THE BEETLE, Awl, sting or THE BEE, PRoboscis, &c.
Fig. 1. Is an instance of the horny and gauze wings in one of the most beautiful of the beetle class of this country, the cetonia aurata, or rose chafer; showing the expanded elytra, a, a the true wings, b, b. Elytra are the wing covers of all the coleoptera order. They are frequently grooved, and curiously ornamented, in some species with scaly variegations of metallic lustre, as in the diamond beetle, and some species of Buprestis. One of the latter, of extraordinary brilliancy, forms an object in the “Cabinet of Beauty" in the Ashmolean Museum. The use of the elytra is to protect the wings and body; and they are of some assistance in flying. Fig. 2. A specimen of the elytra covering half the body in the ear-wig, (forficula auricularia:) one of the elytra is extended, and the membranous wing unfolded; showing the numerous diverging nervures, or “muscular tendons,” which run in horny tubes, to keep the wing extended. a, a, antennae usually consist of a number of tubular joints, with a free motion in each, enabling the insect to give them every necessary flexure; they vary in number and in shape in the various orders, and are covered with hair, down, or bristles, frequently elegant and diversified, as every one may observe. Entomologists conceive, that the antennae, by a peculiar structure, may collect notices from the atmosphere, receive vibrations, and communicate them to the sensorium, which, though not precisely to be called hearing, is something analogous to it, or may answer that purpose. Fig. 3. The awl of the astrum bovis, or gad-fly, highly magnified. It is formed of corneous substance, consisting of four joints, which slip into each other: the last of these terminate in five points, three of which are longer than the others, and are hooked: when united, they form an instrument like an auger or gimlet, with which the skin is pierced in a few seconds. Fig. 4. One of the hooks. Fig. 5. The sting of a bee, drawn from nature as it appears by means of a magnifier of very high powers: a, a, a, a, the apparatus for projecting the sting; b, the exterior, c, the interior sheath of, d, the true sting, which is divided into two parts barbed at the sides; e, the bag which contains the poison. Fig. 6. The proboscis of a bee extended, a, a, the case or sheath; b, the tube; c, the exterior; d, the interior fringes; e, the tongue; f, f, the exterior, g, g, the interior palpi. Fig. 7. The appearance of the proboscis when contracted, and folded up. Fig. 8. The head of a butterfly, showing the coiled proboscis. Fig. 9. Ovipositor of the buprestis. Eko 401